240 relations: A Nation of Immigrants, American Apparel, American Bar Association, American Civil Liberties Union, American Economic Journal, Amnesty, Anchor baby, Angel Families, Anti-Defamation League, Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Arizona, Arizona SB 1070, Asia, Aurora, Colorado, Austin, Texas, B visa, Baltimore, Barack Obama, Birthright citizenship in the United States, Border Crossing Card, Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013, Bracero program, Brewster, Washington, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Business Insider, California State Legislature, Canada, Caribbean, Center for American Progress, Central America, Children's Health Insurance Program, China, Chinese Exclusion Act, Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, Congressional Budget Office, Congressional Research Service, Consular identification card, Controlling for a variable, Coyotaje, CTNow, Dallas, Dallas Observer, Death of Anastasio Hernández-Rojas, Deferred action, Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Deferred Action for Parents of Americans, Denver, Deportation and removal from the United States, Detroit, Dominican Republic, ..., Donald Trump, DREAM Act, Driver's licenses for illegal immigrants in the United States, Driving under the influence, Drug-related crime, Economic growth, Economy of the United States, El Salvador, Emigration from Mexico, Environment & Energy Publishing, Esequiel Hernández Jr., Europe, Evangelicalism, Federal government of the United States, Federal law enforcement in the United States, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Federation of American Scientists, Felony, Flores-Figueroa v. United States, Foreign worker, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Franklin Graham, George W. Bush, Gordon Hanson, Great Recession, Guatemala, Guatemalan immigration to the United States, Health insurance marketplace, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Homicide, Honduras, Honolulu, Houston, How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories, Human Rights Watch, Human trafficking, Identity theft, Illegal immigrant population of the United States, Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Illegal immigration to New York City, Immigration, Immigration Act of 1924, Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Immigration detention, Immigration policy of Donald Trump, Immigration reduction in the United States, Immigration reform, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Immigration to the United States, India, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Inequality within immigrant families in the United States, James Alan Fox, Janet Napolitano, JBS USA, Jeff Sessions, Jersey City, New Jersey, Jose Antonio Vargas, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Journal of Public Economics, Justice Quarterly, Korea, List of detention sites in the United States, List of U.S. states and territories by unemployment rate, List of United States immigration laws, List of United States state and local law enforcement agencies, Local ordinance, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Mexican miracle, Mexican Repatriation, Mexico, Mexico–United States border, Mexico–United States relations, Mexifornia, Miami, Michael Camerini, Migrant deaths along the Mexico–United States border, Miguel A. De La Torre, Minneapolis, Misdemeanor, MS-13, National Academy of Sciences, National Guard of the United States, Nativism (politics), Natural environment, Network effect, No More Deaths, Office of Biometric Identity Management, Offshoring, Oklahoma City bombing, Open border, Operation Gatekeeper, Operation Wetback, Opposition to immigration, Page Act of 1875, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Patriot Act, PBS, PDF, People smuggling, Pew Research Center, Philippines, PolitiFact, Portland, Maine, Portland, Oregon, Posse Comitatus Act, Presidency of Barack Obama, Presidency of George W. Bush, Professional licensure in the United States, Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, Rasmussen Reports, Real ID Act, Redford, Texas, Salt Lake City, Samuel P. Huntington, San Diego, San Diego State University, San Francisco, Sanctuary city, Sasabe, Arizona, Science (journal), Seattle, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act, Secure Communities, Selective enforcement, Senath, Missouri, September 11 attacks, Sergio C. Garcia, Sex and the law, Sexual assault of migrants from Latin America to the United States, Shari Robertson, Social Security number, Social Security Trust Fund, South America, State Bar of California, State of the Union, Swift raids, The Lancet, The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration, The New York Times, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Washington Post, The Washington Times, Think tank, Title 8 of the United States Code, Train surfing, Travel visa, Tucson, Arizona, Tyson Foods, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Unemployment, United States, United States Air Force, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Border Patrol, United States Census Bureau, United States Congress, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of the Navy, United States district court, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, University of Arizona, University of California, San Diego, University of New Hampshire, University of Texas at San Antonio, Urban Affairs Review, Urban Institute, USA Today, Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Vietnam, Visa policy of the United States, Walmart, Washington Office on Latin America, Washington, D.C., Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity, Wildfire, Willamette Week, Yucatán, .22 Long Rifle, 18th Street gang, 1993 World Trade Center bombing, 2006 United States immigration reform protests. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
A Nation of Immigrants is a 1958 book on American immigration by then U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts.
American Apparel Inc. is a North American clothing manufacturer, designer, distributor, marketer and former retailer based in Los Angeles, California.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Officially nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike.
The American Economic Journal is a group of four peer-reviewed academic journals published by the American Economic Association.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
"Anchor baby" is a term (regarded by many as a pejorative) for a child born in the United States to a foreign national mother that unlawfully resided in the United States at the time of the child's birth.
Angel Families is a term used by President Trump to describe relatives of victims killed by illegal immigrants.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Pub.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
The Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (introduced as Arizona Senate Bill 1070 and thus often referred to simply as Arizona SB 1070) is a 2010 legislative Act in the U.S. state of Arizona that at the time of passage in 2010 was the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure passed in Arizona.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aurora is a Home Rule Municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado, spanning Arapahoe and Adams counties, with the extreme southeastern portion of the city extending into Douglas County.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
A B visa is one of a category of non-immigrant visas issued by the United States government to foreign citizens seeking entry for a temporary period.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Birthright citizenship in the United States is acquired by virtue of the circumstances of birth.
A Border Crossing Card (BCC) is an identity document as well as a B1/B2 visa that allows entry into the United States by Mexican citizens.
The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 was a proposed immigration reform bill introduced by Sen.
The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning "manual laborer" or "one who works using his arms") was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico.
Brewster is a city in Okanogan County, Washington, United States.
The United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is a federal government agency belonging to the U.S. Department of Justice and a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a progressive public policy research and advocacy organization.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) – formerly known as the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) – is a program administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides matching funds to states for health insurance to families with children.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (full name: Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to citizenship for the approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants residing in the United States.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
Consular identification (CID) cards are issued by some governments to their citizens who are living in foreign countries.
In statistics, controlling for a variable is the attempt to reduce the effect of confounding variables in an observational study or experiment.
Coyote is a colloquial Mexican–Spanish term referring to the practice of people smuggling across the U.S.–Mexico border.
CTNow is a free weekly newspaper in central and southwestern Connecticut, published by New Mass.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Dallas Observer is a free alternative weekly newspaper distributed in the Dallas-Fort Worth area and headquartered in Dallas.
The death of Mexican citizen Anastasio Hernández Rojas was allegedly caused by a heart attack due to physical exertion during a fight with Border Patrol Agents and methamphetamine poisoning and occurred in May 2010.
In United States administrative law, deferred action is an immigration status which the executive branch can grant to illegal immigrants.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is an American immigration policy that allows some individuals who were brought to the United States illegally as children to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and become eligible for a work permit in the U.S. Unlike the proposed DREAM Act, DACA does not provide a path to citizenship for recipients.
Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA), sometimes called Deferred Action for Parental Accountability, was a planned American immigration policy to grant deferred action status to certain illegal immigrants who have lived in the United States since 2010 and have children who are either American citizens or lawful permanent residents.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Deportation and removal from the United States occurs when the U.S. government orders a person to leave the country.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The DREAM Act (acronym for Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act) is an American legislative proposal for a multi-phase process for qualifying alien minors in the United States that would first grant conditional residency and, upon meeting further qualifications, permanent residency.
As of May 2017, twelve states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Vermont, and Washington), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have laws in their books that allow Illegal immigrants to obtain a driver's license or some type of driving permit.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
In the United States, illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Emigration from Mexico is a migratory phenomenon that has been taking place in Mexico since the early 20th century.
Environment & Energy Publishing (dba E&E News) is an online news organization that covers energy and environmental policy, markets and science.
Esequiel Hernández Jr. (May 14, 1979May 20, 1997) was an 18-year-old American high school student killed on May 20, 1997 by United States Marines in Redford, Texas, located approximately one mile from the United States–Mexico border.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal government of the United States empowers a wide range of law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to matters affecting the country as a whole.
The Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas covers the Eleventh Federal Reserve District, which includes Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico, a district sometimes referred to as the Oil Patch.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
Flores-Figueroa v. United States, 556 U.S. 646 (2009), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, holding that the law enhancing the sentence for identity theft requires proof that an individual knew that the identity card or number he had used belonged to another, actual person.
A foreign worker or guest worker is a human who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
William Franklin Graham III (born July 14, 1952) is a Christian evangelist and missionary.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Gordon Howard Hanson (born August 5, 1964) is a professor of economics at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
According to the 2010 US Census, the Guatemalan-born population totaled 1,044,209 people, comprising 2.1% of the overall immigrant population of the US, and making Guatemala the 10th highest sender of immigrants in the US.
In the United States, health insurance marketplaces, also called health exchanges, are organizations in each state through which people can purchase health insurance.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories is a 12-part documentary film series that examines the American political system through the lens of immigration reform during 2001–2007.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Identity theft is the deliberate use of someone else's identity, usually as a method to gain a financial advantage or obtain credit and other benefits in the other person's name, and perhaps to the other person's disadvantage or loss.
The actual size and the origin of the illegal immigrant population in the United States is uncertain and is difficult to ascertain because of difficulty in accurately counting individuals in this population.
The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Division C of (often referred to as "i-RAI-ruh," and sometimes abbreviated as "IIRAIRA" or "IIRIRA") vastly changed the immigration laws of the United States.
There are thought to be over half a million undocumented immigrants in New York City.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act, was a United States federal law that set quotas on the number of immigrants from certain countries while providing funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding (but hitherto unenforced) ban on other non-white immigrants.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, also known as the McCarran–Walter Act, codified under Title 8 of the United States Code, governs immigration to and citizenship in the United States.
The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor from 1933 to 1940 and the U.S. Department of Justice from 1940 to 2003. Referred to by some as former INS and by others as legacy INS, the agency ceased to exist under that name on March 1, 2003, when most of its functions were transferred to three new entities – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) – within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government reorganization following the September 11 attacks of 2001. Prior to 1933, there were separate offices administering immigration and naturalization matters, known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization, respectively. The INS was established on June 10, 1933, merging these previously separate areas of administration. In 1890, the federal government, rather than the individual states, regulated immigration into the United States, and the Immigration Act of 1891 established a Commissioner of Immigration in the Treasury Department. Reflecting changing governmental concerns, immigration was transferred to the purview of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor after 1903 and the Department of Labor after 1913. In 1940, with increasing concern about national security, immigration and naturalization was organized under the authority of the Department of Justice. In 2003 the administration of immigration services, including permanent residence, naturalization, asylum, and other functions, became the responsibility of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS), which existed under that name only for a short time before changing to its current name, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The investigative and enforcement functions of the INS (including investigations, deportation, and intelligence) were combined with the U.S. Customs investigators to create U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The border functions of the INS, which included the Border Patrol and INS Inspectors, were combined with U.S. Customs Inspectors to create U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).
Immigration detention is the policy of holding individuals suspected of visa violations, illegal entry or unauthorised arrival, and those subject to deportation and removal in detention until a decision is made by immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, or to repatriate them to their country of departure.
Immigration policy and, specifically, illegal immigration to the United States, was a signature issue of U.S. President Donald Trump's presidential campaign, and his proposed reforms and remarks about this issue generated much publicity.
Immigration reduction refers to a movement in the United States that advocates a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the country.
Immigration reform is change to the current immigration policy of a country.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA),, also known as the Simpson–Mazzoli Act or the Reagan Amnesty, signed into law by Ronald Reagan on November 6, 1986, is an Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Industrial and Labor Relations Review (ILR Review) is a publication of the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations.
Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources.
James Alan Fox is a professor of criminology at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States.
Janet Ann Napolitano (born November 29, 1957) is an American politician, lawyer, and university administrator who served as the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009 and United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009 to 2013, under President Barack Obama.
JBS USA Holdings, Inc. is an American food processing company and a wholly owned subsidiary of JBS S.A. (B3:JBSS3), a Brazilian company that is the world's largest processor of fresh beef and pork, with more than US$49 billion in annual sales as of 2017.
Jefferson Beauregard Sessions III (born December 24, 1946) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 84th and current Attorney General of the United States since 2017.
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark.
Jose Antonio Vargas (born February 3, 1981) is a journalist, filmmaker, and immigration rights activist.
The Journal of Economic Perspectives (JEP) is an economic journal published by the American Economic Association.
The Journal of Public Economics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering public economics, with particular emphasis on the application of modern economic theory and methods of quantitative analysis.
Justice Quarterly is a quarterly academic journal covering criminology and criminal justice.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
This is a list of detention camps holding immigrants in the United States.
The list of U.S. states and territories by unemployment rate compares the seasonally adjusted unemployment rates by state and territory, sortable by name, rate, and change.
A number of major laws and court decisions relating to immigration procedures and enforcement have been enacted for the United States.
This is a list of U.S. state and local law enforcement agencies — local, regional, special and statewide government agencies (state police) of the U.S. states that provide law enforcement duties, including investigations, prevention and patrol functions.
A local ordinance is a law usually found in a code of laws for a political division smaller than a state or nation, i.e., a local government such as a municipality, county, parish, prefecture, etc.
The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (renamed in 1981 from the International Center for Economic Policy Studies) is a conservative 501(c)(3) non-profit American think tank focused on domestic policy and urban affairs, established in New York City in 1977 by Antony Fisher and William J. Casey.
The term Mexican miracle is used in common speech, but not by economists, to refer to the country's inward-looking development strategy that produced sustained economic growth of 3 to 4 percent and modest 3 percent inflation annually from the 1940s until the 1970s.
The Mexican Repatriation was a mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans from the United States between 1929 and 1936.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.
Mexico–United States relations refers to the foreign relations between the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) and the United States of America.
Mexifornia (also Calexico or Califaztlán) is a portmanteau of Mexico and California.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michael Camerini is a British-born American film director, producer and cinematographer.
Migrant deaths along the Mexico–U.S. border occur hundreds of times a year because of those attempting to cross into the United States from Mexico illegally.
Miguel A. De La Torre (born 6 October 1958) is a professor of Social Ethics and Latinx Studies at Iliff School of Theology, a scholar-activist, author, and an ordained Southern Baptist minister.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Mara Salvatrucha (MS), also known as MS-13 (the 13 representing their Sureño affiliation), is an international criminal gang that originated in Los Angeles, California, in the 1980s.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.
No More Deaths is an advocacy group based in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, United States that seeks to end the deaths of undocumented immigrants crossing the desert regions near the United States-Mexico border.
United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (commonly referred to as US-VISIT) is a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) management system.
Offshoring is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting.
The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist truck bombing on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States on April 19, 1995.
An open border is a border that enables free movement of people between different jurisdictions with few or no restrictions on movement, that is to say lacking substantive border control.
Operation Gatekeeper was a measure implemented during the Presidency of Bill Clinton by the United States Border Patrol (then a part of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)), aimed at halting illegal immigration to the United States at the United States–Mexico border near San Diego, California.
Operation Wetback was an immigration law enforcement initiative created by Joseph Swing, the Director of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), in cooperation with the Mexican government.
Opposition to immigration exists in most states with immigration, and has become a significant political issue in many countries.
The Page Act of 1875 (Sect. 141, 18 Stat. 477, 3 March 1875) was the first restrictive federal immigration law and prohibited the entry of immigrants considered "undesirable." The law classified as "undesirable" any individual from Asia who was coming to America to be a forced laborer, any Asian woman who would engage in prostitution, and all people considered to be convicts in their own country.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under US law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents".
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
PolitiFact.com is a blog operated by the editorial board of theTampa Bay Times, in which reporters and editors from the Times and affiliated media seek to fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House, lobbyists, and interest groups.
Portland is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maine, with a population of 67,067 as of 2017.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (original at) signed on June 18, 1878 by President Rutherford B. Hayes.
The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as 44th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
In the United States, the state governments have jurisdiction for issuing most professional licenses to individuals and corporations.
The Quinnipiac University Poll is a public opinion polling center based at Quinnipiac University in Connecticut.
Rasmussen Reports is an American polling company, founded in 2003.
The Real ID Act of 2005,, is an Act of Congress that modifies U.S. federal law pertaining to security, authentication, and issuance procedures standards for state driver's licenses and identity documents, as well as various immigration issues pertaining to terrorism.
Redford is a census-designated place (CDP) in Presidio County, Texas, United States.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
San Diego State University (SDSU) is a public research university in San Diego, California, and is the largest and oldest higher education institution in San Diego County.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sanctuary city refers to municipal jurisdictions, typically in North America and Western Europe, that limit their cooperation with the national government's effort to enforce immigration law.
Sasabe (Ṣaṣawk) is a small populated place in the Altar Valley of southern Pima County, Arizona, United States, near the international border with Mexico.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act ("McCain-Kennedy Bill,") was an immigration reform bill introduced in the United States Senate on May 12, 2005 by Senators John McCain and Ted Kennedy.
Secure Communities is an American deportation program that relies on partnership among federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
In law, selective enforcement occurs when government officials such as police officers, prosecutors, or regulators exercise enforcement discretion, which is the power to choose whether or how to punish a person who has violated the law.
Senath is a city in Dunklin County, Missouri, United States.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sergio Covarrubias Garcia (born March 1, 1977) is a California attorney specializing in personal injury.
Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity.
Many women and girls migrating from Latin America to the United States are victims of sexual assault.
Shari Robertson is an American Film Director and producer.
In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a nine-digit number issued to U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as.
The Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund (collectively, the Social Security Trust Fund or Trust Funds) are trust funds that provide for payment of Social Security (Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance; OASDI) benefits administered by the United States Social Security Administration.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The State Bar of California is California's official.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
The 2006 Swift raids were a coordinated effort by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to detain and deport illegal workers.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration is a 1997 study on the demographic, economic, and fiscal consequences of immigration to the United States by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code.
Train surfing (also known as train hopping or train hitching) is the act of riding on the outside of a moving train, tram or another rail transport.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Tyson Foods, Inc., also known by the public as Tyson Corporation, is an American multinational corporation based in Springdale, Arkansas, that operates in the food industry.
United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the largest federal law enforcement agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a law enforcement agency of the Federal government of the United States under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Border Patrol (USBP) is an American federal law enforcement agency.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798 (initiated by the recommendation of James McHenry),Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907).
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 21 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is a public research university in the University System of New Hampshire, in the United States.
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) is a state research university in San Antonio, Texas, United States.
Urban Affairs Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of urban studies, including urban policy, urban economic development and residential and community development.
The Urban Institute is a Washington D.C.-based think tank that carries out economic and social policy research to "open minds, shape decisions, and offer solutions".
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement (VOICE) Office is a U.S. government agency established within the Department of Homeland Security under the Trump administration in February 2017.
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The visa policy of the United States deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the United States must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter, and remain in the United States.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
The Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) is an American non-governmental organization (NGO) whose stated goal is to promote human rights, democracy and social and economic justice in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity (2004) is a treatise by political scientist and historian Samuel P. Huntington (1927–2008).
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Willamette Week (WW) is an alternative weekly newspaper and a website published in Portland, Oregon, United States, since 1974.
Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The.22 Long Rifle (metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) cartridge is a long-established variety of.22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today.
18th Street, also known as Calle 18, Barrio 18, Mara 18, or simply La 18 in Central America, is a multi-ethnic (largely Central American and Mexican) transnational criminal organization that started as a street gang in Los Angeles.
The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City.
In 2006-2007, millions of people participated in protests over a proposed change to U.S. immigration policy.
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