160 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, Absattar Derbisali, Abu Dawood, Abu Hanifa, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Akhbari, Al-Ash`ari, Al-Askari Shrine, Al-Baqi', Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mansur, Al-Mu'tamid, Al-Mu'tasim, Al-Mu'tazz, Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, Al-Shafi‘i, Al-Walid I, Alawites, Alchemy, Alevism, Ali, Ali al-Hadi, Ali al-Ridha, Ali bey Huseynzade, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Amir al-Mu'minin, Aqidah, Arabic, Ashʿari, Ashura, İmam Hatip school, Baghdad, Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni, Battle of Karbala, Bosniaks, Caliphate, Carlo Bossoli, Common Era, Constantinople, Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ebrahim Desai, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Iranica, Faqīh, Fard, Fatimah, ..., Fiqh, Fula people, Greater Khorasan, Hadith, Hamza Yusuf, Hanafi, Harun al-Rashid, Hasan al-Askari, Hasan ibn Ali, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Hisham ibn Hakam, History of Yemen, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibadi, Imam Ali Mosque, Imam Husayn Shrine, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Imam Khomeini International University, Imam Reza shrine, Imamah (Ismaili doctrine), Imamah (Shia), Imamate (Twelver doctrine), Imamate of Futa Jallon, Imams of Yemen, Iman, Indonesia, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Isha prayer, Islam, Islamic calendar, Isma'ilism, Ismah, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Ja'fari jurisprudence, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Jakub Szynkiewicz, Jesus, Kadhimiya, Kalam, Karbala, Kazakhstan, Khawarij, Khums, Kufa, Kunya (Arabic), Kurds, List of Ismaili imams, Lunar calendar, Madhhab, Mahdi, Malik ibn Anas, Mashhad, Maturidi, Mecca, Medina, Middle East, Mosque, Mourning of Muharram, Muawiyah I, Muʿtazila, Mufti, Mughal Empire, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad al-Jawad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Muhammad in Islam, Musa al-Kadhim, Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Najaf, Oman, Ottoman Empire, Quran, Rashidun, Ruhollah Khomeini, Sacred language, Samarra, Saudi Arabia, Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan, Shaykhism, Shi'ite Islam (book), Shia Islam, Solar calendar, Southeast Asia, Succession to Muhammad, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Talgat Tadzhuddin, Tariqa, Tbilisi, Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport, The Fourteen Infallibles, Theology of Twelvers, Traditionalist theology (Islam), Turkish language, Twelver, Usuli, Vakil, Wasil ibn Ata, Women as imams, Worship, Yaruba dynasty, Yazid I, Yemen, Zaidiyyah. Expand index (110 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Muljam al-Murādī (عبدالرحمن بن ملجم المرادي) was the Khariji assassin of Ali.
Absattar Baghysbaiuly Derbisali (Әбсаттар Бағысбайұлы Дербісәлі) is the Supreme Mufti of Kazakhstan.
Abu Dawud Sulaymān ibn al-Ash‘ath al-Azdi as-Sijistani أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث الأزدي السجستاني), commonly known simply as Abu Dawud, was a Persian scholar of prophetic hadith who compiled the third of the six "canonical" hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, the Sunan Abu Dāwūd.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
The Akhbaris (اخباري) are Twelver Shia Muslims who reject the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts, and believe Quran and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad and Twelve Shia Imams) as the only source of law.
Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري.; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".
Al ‘Askarī Shrine or the ‘Askariyya Shrine (aas) is a Shī‘ah Muslim holy site in the Iraqi city of Sāmarrā from Baghdad.
Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hadi ila’l-Haqq Yahya (859 – August 19, 911) was a religious and political leader on the Arabian Peninsula.
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Jaʿfar (ca. 842 – died 15 October 892), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtamid ʿAlā ’llāh ("Dependent on God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 870 to 892.
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar (أبو عبد الله محمد بن جعفر; 847 – 16 July 869), better known by his regnal title al-Muʿtazz bi-ʾllāh (المعتز بالله, "He who is strengthened by God") was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 866 to 869, during the "Anarchy at Samarra".
Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya (الصحیفه السجادیه,; "Scripture of Sajjad") (صحیفۀ امام سجاد,; "Scripture of Imam Sajjad") is a book of supplications attributed to Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the great-grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (علي بن محمد بن علي; 828-868 C.E.) commonly called Ali al-Hadi and Alī an-Naqī was known as al-Hadi. He was the tenth of the Twelve Imams after his father Muhammad al-Jawad and before his son Hasan al-Askari. He remained in Medina teaching until the age of 30 when he was summoned to Samarra by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. There he was treated roughly by the caliph and his successors until, according to Shiite accounts, he was poisoned through intrigue of Al-Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph, in 254/868, and was buried in Samarra.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Ali bey Huseyn oğlu Huseynzade (Əli bəy Hüseyn oğlu Hüseyzadə; Hüseyinzade Ali Turan; Salyan, February 24, 1864 – Istanbul, March 17, 1940) was an Azerbaijani and Turkish writer, thinker, philosopher, artist, doctor, and the creator of the modern Flag of Azerbaijan.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
Aqidah (ʿaqīdah, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda etc.) is an Islamic term meaning "creed" p. 470.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
In Turkey, an İmam Hatip school (imam hatip lisesi, 'hatip' coming from Arabic khatib) is a secondary education institution.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni (بندرامام خمینی, also Romanized as Bandare Emm Xomeyni; formerly, Bandar Šâhpur) is a city and capital of Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni District of Mahshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Carlo Bossoli (6 December 1815, in Lugano – 1 August 1884, in Turin) was a Swiss-born Italian painter and lithographer, who spent his early career in Ukraine.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.
Mufti Ebrahim Desai is a prominent South African Mufti of Indian origin- and a teacher of Islamic law.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shaykh Hamza Yusuf (born January 1, 1960) is an American Islamic scholar, and is co-founder of Zaytuna College.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
Hasan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad (846 – 874) was the 11th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam, after his father Ali al-Hadi.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
Hisham ibn Hakam (Arabic:هشام بن حکم) or Abul Hakam Hisham ibn Hakam Kendi was a Shiite scholar of the second century of Hejri and a companion of Jafar al-Sadiq and Musa al-Kadhim.
Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
The Imam 'Ali Holy Shrine (Ḥaram al-Imām ‘Alī), also known as the Mosque of 'Ali (Masjid ‘Alī), located in Najaf, Iraq, is the Holy site for Shia Muslims.
The Shrine of Imam Husayn (Maqām al-Imām al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī) is the mosque and burial site of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam of Islam, in the city of Karbala’, Iraq.
Imam Khomeini Hospital or also Imam Khomeini Hospital Center is a teaching hospital complex and biomedical research facility of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, located in Tehran, Iran.
Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) is a university in Iran that was founded after the Islamic Revolution.
The Imam Reza shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.
The doctrine of the Imamate in Isma'ilism differs from that of the Twelvers because the Isma'ilis had living Imams for centuries after the last Twelver Imam went into concealment.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Imāmah (اٍمامة) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver theology.
The Imamate of Futa Jallon or Jalon (Fouta Djallon; Fuuta Jaloo or Fuuta Jalon) was a West African theocratic state based in the Fouta Djallon highlands of modern Guinea.
The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam.
Iman, Imaan, Eman, or Imman may refer to.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Isha prayer (صلاة العشاء, "night prayer") is the night-time daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
‘Iṣmah or ‘Isma (عِصْمَة; literally, "protection") is the concept of incorruptible innocence, immunity from sin, or moral infallibility in Islamic theology, and which is especially prominent in Shia Islam.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Jakub Szynkiewicz (April 16, 1884 Lyakhavichy, Russia (now Belarus) – November 1, 1966, Waterbury, Connecticut) was a Doctor of Philosophy as well as Oriental Studies, chosen as the first mufti of the newly independent Poland in 1925.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Al-Kāẓimiyyah (الكاظمية) or al-Kāẓimayn (الكاظمين) is a northern neighbourhood of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
In Islamic tradition, khums (خمس, literally 'one fifth') refers to the historically required religious obligation of any Muslim army to pay one-fifth of the spoils of war, the money collected from non-believers after a military campaign; this tax was paid to the caliph or sultan, representing the state of Islam.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
A kunya (كنية, kunyah) is a teknonym in Arabic names, the name of an adult derived from his or her eldest child.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shia and their sub-branches.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
In Islam, a Maturidi (ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is a school of theology within Sunni Islam.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Mourning of Muharram (or Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni Islam.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
Muʿtazila (المعتزلة) is a rationalist school of Islamic theology"", Encyclopaedia Britannica.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري‎; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), or Bukhārī (بخاری), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a Persian Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan).
Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā (Arabic: محمد ابن علی ابن موسی) (circa April 12, 811 - c. November 29, 835) was the ninth of the Twelve Imams and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی, 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (موسى بن جعفر الكاظم), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Abū al-Ḥusayn ‘Asākir ad-Dīn Muslim ibn al-Ḥajjāj ibn Muslim ibn Ward ibn Kawshādh al-Qushayrī an-Naysābūrī (أبو الحسين عساكر الدين مسلم بن الحجاج بن مسلم بن وَرْد بن كوشاذ القشيري النيسابوري; after 815 – May 875) or Muslim Nīshāpūrī (مسلم نیشاپوری), commonly known as Imam Muslim, was a Persian Islamic scholar, particularly known as a muhaddith (scholar of hadith).
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).
Shaykhism (الشيخية) is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in early 19th century Qajar Iran.
Shi'ite Islam is an important text on the history and thought of Shi'a Islam.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Talgat Tadzhuddin (born Talgat Safich Tadzetdinov, Талгат Сафич Тадзетдинов; Тәлгать Сафа улы Таҗетдин Tälğät Safa ulı Tacetdin), born 12 October 1948 in Kazan) is a Russian Shaykh al-Islām. He was Chief Mufti of Russia and head of the Central Muslim Spiritual Directorate of Russia, from 1992 until the end of 2015.
A tariqa (or tariqah; طريقة) is a school or order of Sufism, or specifically a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth".
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport (فرودگاه بینالمللی امام خمینی), is the primary international airport of Tehran, the capital city of Iran, located 30 kilometers southwest of Tehran, near the localities of Robat Karim and Eslamshahr and spread over an area of 13,500 hectares of land.
The Fourteen Infallibles (معصومون Ma‘sūmūn) (چهارده معصوم Chahar'dah Ma‘sūm) in Twelver Shia Islam are the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra; and the Twelve Imams.
Theology of Twelver Shias contains five principles of the Shia religion known as Uṣūl ad-Dīn (أصول الدين عند الشيعة).
Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran and hadith.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Usulis (الاصولية) are the majority Twelver Shi'a Muslim group.
Vakil (وكيل, also Romanized as Vakīl) is a village in Chaldoran-e Shomali Rural District, in the Central District of Chaldoran County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Wāṣil ibn ʿAtāʾ (700–748) (واصل بن عطاء) was an important Muslim theologian and jurist of his time, and by many accounts is considered to be the founder of the Muʿtazilite school of Kalam.
There is a current controversy among Muslims regarding the circumstances in which women may act as imams, i.e. to lead a congregation in salah (prayer).
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
The Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya'Aruba or Ya'arubi) were rulers of Oman between 1624 and 1742, holding the title of Imam.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.