327 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Abstract and concrete, Abstract art, Adam Smith, Aenesidemus (book), Aesthetics, Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Albert Einstein, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Allen W. Wood, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Andrew Brook, Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?, Apologetics, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Arthur Schopenhauer's criticism of Immanuel Kant's schemata, Atheism, Authority, Bachelor of Arts, Baron Redesdale, Béatrice Longuenesse, Bertrand Russell, Bible, BiblioBazaar, Bloomsbury Publishing, C. D. Broad, Cambridge University Press, Camera obscura, Categorical imperative, Category (Kant), Cato Institute, Censorship, Charles Sanders Peirce, Christian, Christian Garve, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Christianity, Christine Korsgaard, Classical liberalism, Classical republicanism, Clement Greenberg, Code of conduct, Cognitive science, Collegium Fridericianum, Concept, Constitutional republic, Contingency (philosophy), Cosmogony, ..., Critical philosophy, Critical theory, Critical thinking, Critique of Judgment, Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of the Kantian philosophy, Curonians, David Hilbert, David Hume, Deconstruction, Democracy, Democratic peace theory, Deontological ethics, Derek Parfit, Dieter Henrich, Direct democracy, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctorate, Duty, Edmund Husserl, Emanuel Swedenborg, Empirical evidence, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, Epistemology, Ernst Cassirer, Ethics, Euclid, Existentialism, Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus, Formalism (philosophy of mathematics), Frederick C. Beiser, Frederick Copleston, French Revolution, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Friedrich Lahrs, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Functionalism (philosophy of mind), G. K. Chesterton, Geocentric model, Georg Friedrich Meier, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gerhard Schröder, German idealism, Germans, Gilles Deleuze, God, Gothic Revival architecture, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Gottlob Frege, Greenwood Publishing Group, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Habilitation, Harry Hinsley, Harvard University Press, Hebrew language, Heinrich Heine, Hermann Cohen, Hilaire Belloc, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Human, Hypatia (journal), Hypothetical imperative, Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose, Idealism, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Introduction to Kant's Anthropology, Intuitionism, Isaac Newton, Jakob Sigismund Beck, Jarnołtowo, Jürgen Habermas, Jean Piaget, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jesus, Johann Friedrich Schultz, Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Georg Heinrich Feder, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottfried Teske, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Nikolaus Tetens, John Locke, John McDowell, John Meiklejohn, John Rawls, Jonathan Bennett (philosopher), Joseph Green (merchant), Judgement, Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kant's antinomies, Kantian ethics, Kantianism, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Königsberg, Königsberg Cathedral, Königsberg City Museum, Kingdom of Ends, Kingdom of Prussia, Klaipėda, Knowledge, Latin, Legislature, Leonardo da Vinci, Letter (message), Lewis White Beck, Linguistic philosophy, List of German-language philosophers, List of liberal theorists, Lithuania, Logicism, Lutheranism, Markus Herz, Martin Heidegger, Martin Knutzen, Martin Wight, Marxism, Master of Arts, Mathematics, Mausoleum, Max Weber, Maxim (philosophy), Maximilien Robespierre, Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, Metaphysics, Michel Foucault, Milky Way, Mind, Mixed government, Modern philosophy, Morality, Morąg, Moses Mendelssohn, Multilateralism, Nachlass, Natural law, Nature, Nebula, Nebular hypothesis, Necessity and sufficiency, Neo-Kantianism, Nicolai Hartmann, Nicolaus Copernicus, Noam Chomsky, Noogony, Noology, Noumenon, Novalis, Nuremberg, Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, On the Basis of Morality, On Vision and Colors, Ontological argument, Ontotheology, Optic nerve, Original position, Otto Liebmann, Oxford University Press, P. F. Strawson, Pantheism controversy, Paradigm shift, Paul Guyer, Paul Natorp, Perpetual peace, Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of psychology, Pietism, Plato, Poland, Political philosophy, Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant, Political science, Positivism, Post-structuralism, Practical reason, Pre-established harmony, Predicate (grammar), Priekulė, Lithuania, Princeton University Press, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Protestantism, Prussia, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Quassim Cassam, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalism, Reason, Rechtsstaat, Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason, René Descartes, Robert B. Pippin, Robert S. Hartman, Roger Scruton, Romanticism, Ronald Englefield, Routledge, Rudolf Makkreel, Russia, SAGE Publications, Sapere aude, Scandal, Schema (Kant), Scientific method, Sextus Empiricus, Solar System, Soul, Soviet Union, Space, Spacetime, Spinozism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Press, Stephan Körner, Steven Pinker, Structuralism, Subject (philosophy), Sublime (philosophy), Subreption, Susanne Bobzien, Syllogism, T. K. Seung, Teleology, The Antichrist (book), The Bodley Head, The Bounds of Sense, The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures, The Metaphysics of Morals, The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God, The Stuff of Thought, Theism, Theory, Culture & Society, Thesis, Thing-in-itself, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thomas Kingsmill Abbott, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces, Time, Tom Rockmore, Transcendence (philosophy), Transcendental idealism, Universal history, Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven, University of Chicago Press, University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Königsberg, University of Minnesota Press, University of Oklahoma Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, Utilitarianism, Value theory, Vladimir Putin, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Western philosophy, Wiley-Blackwell, Wilfrid Sellars, Wilhelm Dilthey, William Swan Sonnenschein, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, World, World War II, Yale University Press, 1755 Lisbon earthquake. 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The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Aenesidemus is a German book published anonymously by Professor Gottlob Ernst Schulze of Helmstedt in 1792.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (17 JulyJan Lekschas, 1714 – 27 May 1762) was a German philosopher.
Allen William Wood (born October 26, 1942) is an American philosopher specializing in the work of Immanuel Kant and German Idealism, with particular interests in ethics and social philosophy.
The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.
Andrew Brook (born March 17, 1943) is a Canadian philosopher, author and academic particularly known for his writings on Immanuel Kant and the interplay between philosophy and cognitive science.
"Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" (Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?) is a 1784 essay by the philosopher Immanuel Kant.
Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Schopenhauer's criticism of Kant's schemata is part of Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy which was published in 1819.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Baron Redesdale, of Redesdale in the County of Northumberland, is a title that has been created twice, both times in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Béatrice Longuenesse (born September 6, 1950) is a Silver Professor of Philosophy at New York University.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
BiblioBazaar is, with Nabu Press, an imprint of the historical reprints publisher BiblioLife, which is based in Charleston, South Carolina and owned by BiblioLabs LLC.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camera obscura (plural camera obscura or camera obscuras; from Latin, meaning "dark room": camera "(vaulted) chamber or room," and obscura "darkened, dark"), also referred to as pinhole image, is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening.
The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
In Kant's philosophy, a category (Categorie in the original or Kategorie in modern German) is a pure concept of the understanding (Verstand).
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian Garve (7 January 1742 – 1 December 1798) was one of the best-known philosophers of the late Enlightenment along with Immanuel Kant and Moses Mendelssohn.
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christine Marion Korsgaard FBA (born April 9, 1952) is an American philosopher and Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University whose main scholarly interests are in moral philosophy and its history; the relation of issues in moral philosophy to issues in metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, and the theory of personal identity; the theory of personal relationships; and in normativity in general.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994), was an American essayist known mainly as an influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art of the mid-20th century.
A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms, religious rules and responsibilities of, and or proper practices for, an individual.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
The Collegium Fridericianum (also known as the Friedrichskolleg, Friedrichskollegium, and Friedrichs-Kollegium) was a prestigious gymnasium in Königsberg, Germany.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.
Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy (kritische Philosophie) movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge; criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself (from the Greek kritike (techne), or "art of judgment").
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
The Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, KdU), also translated as the Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant.
The Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, KpV) is the second of Immanuel Kant's three critiques, first published in 1788.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
"Critique of the Kantian philosophy" is a criticism Arthur Schopenhauer appended to the first volume of his The World as Will and Representation (1818).
The Curonians or Kurs (Curonian: Kursi; Kuren; kurši; курши; kuršiai; kuralased; Kurowie) were a Baltic tribe living on the shores of the Baltic Sea in what are now the western parts of Latvia and Lithuania from the 5th to the 16th centuries, when they merged with other Baltic tribes.
David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Democratic peace theory is a theory which posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Derek Antony Parfit, FBA (11 December 1942 – 1 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics.
Dieter Henrich (born 5 January 1927) is a German philosopher.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, published in 1998 by Oxford University Press, is an encyclopedia that covers philosophical, historical, sociological, and biographical aspects of Art and Aesthetics worldwide.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernst Alfred Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Fiat justitia, et pereat mundus is a Latin phrase, meaning "Let justice be done, and let the world perish".
In foundations of mathematics, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of logic, formalism is a theory that holds that statements of mathematics and logic can be considered to be statements about the consequences of certain string manipulation rules.
Frederick Charles Beiser (born November 27, 1949) is an American author and professor of philosophy at Syracuse University.
Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential German philosopher, literary figure, socialite, and the younger brother of poet Johann Georg Jacobi.
Johann Ludwig Friedrich Lahrs (11 July 1880 – 13 March 1964) was a German architect and professor.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
Functionalism is a view in the theory of the mind.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
Georg Friedrich Meier (26 March 1718 – 21 June 1777) was a German philosopher and aesthetician.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
Gottlob Ernst Schulze (23 August 1761 – 14 January 1833) was a German philosopher, born in Heldrungen (modern-day Thuringia, Germany).
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Sir Francis Harry Hinsley OBE (26 November 1918 – 16 February 1998) was an English historian and cryptanalyst.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.
Hermann Cohen (4 July 1842 – 4 April 1918) was a German Jewish philosopher, one of the founders of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, and he is often held to be "probably the most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century".
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D. Biddiss, a contributor to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a "racialist writer".
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell.
A hypothetical imperative (German: hypothetischer Imperativ) is originally introduced in the philosophical writings of Immanuel Kant.
"Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose" or "The Idea of a Universal History on a Cosmopolitical Plan" (Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht) is a 1784 essay by Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), a lecturer in anthropology and geography at Königsberg University.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Балтийский федеральный университет имени Иммануила Канта) formerly known as the Immanuel Kant Russian State University (Российский государственный университет имени Иммануила Канта, Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet imeni Immanuila Kanta), or in brief the Kant University (Университет Канта, Universitet Kanta) and as Kaliningrad State University (1967-2005), is a university in the Russian city of Kaliningrad (formerly Königsberg).
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
Introduction to Kant's Anthropology (Introduction à l'Anthropologie) is an introductory essay to Michel Foucault's translation of Immanuel Kant's 1798 book Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View — a textbook deriving from lectures he delivered annually between 1772/73 and 1795/96.
In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed to exist in an objective reality.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jakob Sigismund Beck (originally Jacob Sigismund Beck; 6 August 1761 – 29 August 1840), German philosopher, was born in the village of Liessau in the rural district of Marienburg (Malbork) in Royal Prussia in 1761 (later belonging to West Prussia, a province of the Kingdom of Prussia).
Jarnołtowo (German: Groß-Arnsdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Małdyty, within Ostróda County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Friedrich Schultz also known as Johann Schultz (11 June 1739 in Mühlhausen – 27 June 1805 in Königsberg) was a German Enlightenment, Protestant, theologian, mathematician and philosopher.
Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.
Johann Georg Heinrich Feder (15 May 1740 – 22 May 1821) was a German philosopher.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Gottfried Teske (-) was a Prussian physicist and philosopher who is best known for his collaboration with Immanuel Kant on his work De Igne.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Nikolaus Tetens (also Johann; Johan Nicolai Tetens; 16 September 1736 – 17 August 1807) was a German-Danish philosopher, statistician and scientist.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Henry McDowell (born 7 March 1942) is a South African philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.
John Miller Dow Meiklejohn (11 July 1836 – 5 April 1902) was a Scottish academic, journalist and author known for writing school books.
John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.
Jonathan Francis Bennett (born 17 February 1930) is a British philosopher of language and metaphysics, and a historian of early modern philosophy.
Joseph Green (1727 in Kingston upon Hull – 27 June 1786 in Königsberg) was an English merchant who became the "best friend" of Immanuel Kant.
Judgement (or judgment) is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Immanuel Kant's antinomies, from the Critique of Pure Reason, are contradictions which he believed follow necessarily from our attempts to conceive the nature of transcendent reality.
Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory ascribed to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
Karl Leonhard Reinhold (26 October 1757 – 10 April 1823) was an Austrian philosopher who helped to popularise the work of Immanuel Kant in the late 18th century.
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Königsberg Cathedral is a Brick Gothic-style monument in Kaliningrad, Russia, located on Kneiphof island in the Pregel (Pregolya) river.
The former Kneiphof Town Hall housed the Königsberg City Museum The Königsberg City Museum (Stadtgeschichtliches Museum) was a local museum in Königsberg, Germany.
The Kingdom of Ends (Reich der Zwecke) is a thought experiment centered on the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern.
Lewis White Beck (September 26, 1913 – June 7, 1997) was an American philosopher and scholar of German philosophy.
Linguistic philosophy is the view that philosophical problems are problems which may be solved (or dissolved) either by reforming language, or by understanding more about the language we presently use.
This is a list of German-language philosophers.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Markus Herz (also Marcus Herz,; January 17, 1747 – January 19, 1803) was a German Jewish physician and lecturer on philosophy.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Martin Knutzen (14 December 1713 – 29 January 1751) was a German philosopher, a follower of Christian Wolff and teacher of Immanuel Kant, to whom he introduced the physics of Isaac Newton.
Robert James Martin Wight (26 November 1913 – 15 July 1972), also known as Martin Wight, was one of the foremost British scholars of International Relations in the twentieth century.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
A maxim is a concise expression of a fundamental moral rule or principle, whether considered as objective or subjective contingent on one's philosophy.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft) is a 1786 book by Immanuel Kant.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morąg (Mohrungen) is a town in northern Poland in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Moses Mendelssohn (6 September 1729 – 4 January 1786) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the Haskalah, the 'Jewish enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
Nachlass (older spelling Nachlaß) is a German word, used in academia to describe the collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
Nicolai Hartmann (20 February 1882 – 9 October 1950) was a Baltic German philosopher.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Noogony is a general term for any theory of knowledge that attempts to explain the origin of concepts in the human mind by considering sense or a posteriori data as solely relevant.
Noology derives from the ancient Greek words νοῦς, nous or "mind" and λόγος, logos.
In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.
Novalis was the pseudonym and pen name of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg (2 May 1772 – 25 March 1801), a poet, author, mystic, and philosopher of Early German Romanticism.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel Kant.
On the Basis of Morality (Ueber die Grundlage der Moral, 1840) is one of Arthur Schopenhauer's major works in ethics, in which he argues that morality stems from compassion.
On Vision and Colors (Ueber das Sehn und die Farben) is a treatise by Arthur Schopenhauer that was published in May 1816 when the author was 28 years old.
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology.
Ontotheology means the ontology of God and/or the theology of being.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The original position (OP) is a hypothetical situation developed by American philosopher John Rawls as a thought experiment to replace the imagery of a savage state of nature of prior political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes.
Otto Liebmann (25 February 1840 – 14 January 1912) was a German Neo-Kantian philosopher.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.
The pantheism controversy (Pantheismusstreit) was an event in German cultural history that lasted between 1785–1789 which had an effect throughout Europe.
A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.
Paul Guyer (born January 13, 1948) is an American philosopher.
Paul Gerhard Natorp (24 January 1854 – 17 August 1924) was a German philosopher and educationalist, considered one of the co-founders of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism.
Perpetual peace refers to a state of affairs where peace is permanently established over a certain area.
"Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch" (Zum ewigen Frieden.) is a 1795 essay by Immanuel Kant.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of psychology refers to the many issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The political philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) favoured a classical republican approach.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.
In philosophy, practical reason is the use of reason to decide how to act.
Gottfried Leibniz's theory of pre-established harmony (harmonie préétablie) is a philosophical theory about causation under which every "substance" affects only itself, but all the substances (both bodies and minds) in the world nevertheless seem to causally interact with each other because they have been programmed by God in advance to "harmonize" with each other.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
Priekulė (Prökuls) is a small city in Klaipėda District Municipality, Lithuania.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science (Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können) is a book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, published in 1783, two years after the first edition of his Critique of Pure Reason.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.
Quassim Cassam (born 31 January 1961) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Warwick.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) is a 1793 book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Robert Buford Pippin (born September 14, 1948) is an American philosopher.
Robert Schirokauer Hartman (January 27, 1910 – September 20, 1973) was a logician and philosopher.
Sir Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher and writer who specialises in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Frederick Ronald Hastings Englefield (1891–1975) was an English poet and philosopher.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudolf Adam Makkreel (born 1939) is Charles Howard Candler Professor of Philosophy at Emory University.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Sapere aude is the Latin phrase meaning “Dare to know”; and also is loosely translated as “Dare to be wise”, or even more loosely as "Dare to think for yourself!" Originally used in the First Book of Letters (20 BCE), by the Roman poet Horace, the phrase Sapere aude became associated with the Age of Enlightenment, during the 17th and 18th centuries, after Immanuel Kant used it in the essay, “Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?” (1784).
A scandal can be broadly defined as an accusation or accusations that receive wide exposure.
In Kantian philosophy, a transcendental schema (plural: schemata; from σχῆμα, "form, shape, figure") is the procedural rule by which a category or pure, non-empirical concept is associated with a sense impression.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
Spinozism (also spelled Spinoza-ism or Spinozaism) is the monist philosophical system of Baruch Spinoza which defines "God" as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought being attributes of such.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Stephan Körner, FBA (26 September 1913 – 17 August 2000) was a British philosopher, who specialised in the work of Kant, the study of concepts, and in the philosophy of mathematics.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.
Subreption is a concept in Roman law and, in this tradition, Canon law.
Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher,Who'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895.
The Bodley Head is an English publishing house, founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s.
The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason is a 1966 book about Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (1781) by the Oxford philosopher Peter Strawson, in which the author tries to separate what remains valuable in Kant's work from Kant's transcendental idealism, which he rejects.
The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures Proved (Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren erwiesen) is an essay published by Immanuel Kant in 1762.
The Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten) is a 1797 work of political and moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant.
The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God (Der einzig mögliche Beweisgrund zu einer Demonstration des Daseins Gottes) is a book by Immanuel Kant, published in 1763.
The Stuff of Thought: Language As a Window Into Human Nature is a 2007 book by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theory, Culture & Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1982 and covers sociology, cultural, and social theory.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The thing-in-itself (Ding an sich) is a concept introduced by Immanuel Kant.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Reverend Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (26 March 1829 – 18 December 1913) was an Irish scholar and educator.
Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces is Immanuel Kant's first published work.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Tom Rockmore (born 1942) is an American philosopher.
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.
Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels) is a work written and published anonymously by Immanuel Kant in 1755, based on a 1750 work by English astronomer Thomas Wright.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.
The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg) was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (May 20, 1912 – July 2, 1989) was an American philosopher and prominent developer of critical realism, who "revolutionized both the content and the method of philosophy in the United States".
Wilhelm Dilthey (19 November 1833 – 1 October 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, and hermeneutic philosopher, who held G. W. F. Hegel's Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin.
William Swan Sonnenschein (5 May 1855 – 31 January 1931), known from 1917 as William Swan Stallybrass, was a British publisher, editor and bibliographer.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.
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