21 relations: Antigen, B-cell receptor, Cell membrane, Complement receptor, Complement system, Cytokine, Cytokine receptor, Epitope, Fc receptor, Immune system, Inflammation, Killer activation receptor, Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, Major histocompatibility complex, Natural killer cell, NOD-like receptor, Pathogen-associated molecular pattern, Pattern recognition receptor, Receptor (biochemistry), T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptor.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokine receptors are receptors that bind cytokines.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Killer Activation Receptors (KARs) are receptors expressed on the plasmatic membrane of Natural Killer cells (NK cells).
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the plasma membrane of natural killer (NK) cells and a minority of T cells.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, in short NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of PAMPs that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores and DAMPs that are associated with cell stress.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.