47 relations: Agglutination (biology), American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Bacteria, Blood plasma, Breast milk, Choosing Wisely, Classical complement pathway, Colostrum, Complement system, Disulfide, Epitope, Extracellular fluid, Fc receptor, Fetus, Fungus, Histamine, Humoral immunity, Hypersensitivity, IgG4-related disease, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin class switching, In utero, Infant, Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation, Macrophage, Mast cell, Memory B cell, Neonatal Fc receptor, Neutralisation (immunology), Opsonin, Pathogen, Perfusion, Phagocytosis, Placenta, Plasma cell, Platelet-activating factor, Proteasome, Sigma-Aldrich, Tissue (biology), Toxin, TRIM21, Unified atomic mass unit, Virus.
Agglutination is the clumping of particles.
Founded in 1943, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) is a professional medical membership organization of nearly 6,800 allergist/immunologists and related professionals around the world with advanced training and experience in allergy, asthma and other immunologic diseases.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune system.
Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), formerly known as IgG4-related systemic disease, is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by tissue infiltration with lymphocytes and IgG4-secreting plasma cells, various degrees of fibrosis (scarring) and a usually prompt response to oral steroids.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Intracellular antibody-mediated degradation (IAMD) is a neutralization mechanism of intracellular antibody-mediated immunity whereby an effector protein, TRIM21, directs antibody bound virions to the proteasome where they are degraded.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), also known as the Brambell receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene.
Neutralisation or neutralization in the immunological sense refers to the ability of specific antibodies to block the site(s) on viruses that they use to enter their target cell.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is an American chemical, life science and biotechnology company owned by Merck KGaA.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIM21 gene.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.