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Index Immurement

Immurement (from Latin im- "in" and murus "wall"; literally "walling in") is a form of imprisonment, usually for life, in which a person is placed within an enclosed space with no exits. [1]

161 relations: Abadeh, Aida, Akbar, Albanian mythology, Amitābha, Anarkali, Anarkali Bazaar, Anchorite, Antigone (Sophocles play), Antonia Minor, Asceticism, Ashurnasirpal II, Asphyxia, Augsburg, Aurangzeb, Émile Durkheim, Basiliscus, Beirut, Bonny, Rivers, Bremen, Bridge of Arta, Brno, Byzantine Empire, Capital punishment, Capital punishment in Mongolia, Cappadocia, Cassius Dio, Catacombs, Catharism, Cesvaine Palace, Christianity, Cistern, Coldingham Priory, Corfu, Count, Curtea de Argeș Cathedral, Dante Alighieri, Decius, Dehydration, Deva, Romania, Divine Comedy, Doge of Venice, Domenico I Contarini, Doublet (clothing), Dried cat, Duke of Dorset, Dungeon, Edgar Allan Poe, Edward Eastwick, Edward Granville Browne, ..., Folklore, Folklore of Romania, François Bernier, Germans, Gilding, Giuseppe Verdi, Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Grobiņa Castle, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Guru Gobind Singh, Haapsalu, Harburg (quarter), Harold Edward Bindloss, Heidelberg, Henry Charles Lea, History of the Peloponnesian War, Hradisko Monastery, Human sacrifice, Hungarian language, Ibn Battuta, Inca Empire, Iran, Jacob Grimm, Jahangir, Jazzar Pasha, Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, Jerome, John Fryer (FRS), John, King of England, Kingdom of Hungary, Kuressaare, Lahore, Latvians, Lincolnshire, List of Tom Sawyer characters, Livilla, Lorestan Province, Madliena, Malmö, Mamluk, Mark Twain, Marmion (poem), Marrakesh, Mary King's Close, Maud de Braose, Meșterul Manole, Miorița, Mongolia, Moravia, Mughal emperors, Music of Bulgaria, Nathaniel Wraxall, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Olavinlinna, Oscar Wilde, Paganism, Pakistan, Palace, Patriarchate of Aquileia, Põlva, Přemyslid dynasty, Pederasty, Perlachturm, Persecution of Christians, Pisa, Plesse Castle, Poppo of Treffen, Premature burial, Priscus, Qin Shi Huang, Rakhine State, Refectory, Rowan, Rozafa Castle, Sardar, Sejanus, Serbian epic poetry, Seven Sleepers, Shah Jahan, Shah Shuja (Mughal prince), Shiraz, Smolyan, Song of Çelo Mezani, Sophocles, Southeast Europe, Starvation, Struga, Suicide (book), Sumer, Swedes, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Black Cat (short story), The Building of Skadar, The Canterville Ghost, The Cask of Amontillado, The Lancashire Witches, Thornton Abbey, Thucydides, Tiberius, Torre dei Gualandi, Ugolino della Gherardesca, Ur, Valdemar IV of Denmark, Vesta (mythology), Vestal Virgin, Visby, Vlad the Impaler, Waldensians, Wallachia, Walter Scott, William Harrison Ainsworth. Expand index (111 more) »


Abadeh (آباده., also Romanized as Ābādeh) is a city and capital of Abadeh County, in Fars Province, Iran.

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Aida is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni.

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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

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Albanian mythology

Albanian mythology comprises myths and legends of the Albanians.

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Amitābha, also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism.

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Anarkali (انارکلی (Shahmukhi); Anārkalī) (pomegranate blossom), born as Sharif un-Nissa, and also known as Nadira Begum, was a legendary slave girl.

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Anarkali Bazaar

Anarkali Bazaar (Punjabi, اناركلى بازار) is a major bazaar in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.

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Antigone (Sophocles play)

Antigone (Ἀντιγόνη) is a tragedy by Sophocles written in or before 441 BC.

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Antonia Minor

Antonia Minor (PIR2 A 885), also known as Julia Antonia Minor, Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BC - 1 May AD 37) was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Ashurnasirpal II

Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aššur-nāṣir-apli, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir") was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.

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Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.

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Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگ‌زیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Basiliscus (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus; Βασιλίσκος; d. 476/477) was Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperor from 475 to 476.

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Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Bonny, Rivers

Bonny (or Ubani) is an island town and a Local Government Area in Rivers State in southern Nigeria, on the Bight of Bonny.

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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Bridge of Arta

The Bridge of Arta (Γεφύρι της Άρτας) is a stone bridge that crosses the Arachthos river (Άραχθος) in the west of the city of Arta (Άρτα) in Greece.

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Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Capital punishment in Mongolia

Capital punishment has been abolished in Mongolia since 2016, following a previous eight-year moratorium.

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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice.

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Catharism (from the Greek: καθαροί, katharoi, "the pure ") was a Christian dualist or Gnostic revival movement that thrived in some areas of Southern Europe, particularly northern Italy and what is now southern France, between the 12th and 14th centuries.

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Cesvaine Palace

Cesvaine Palace (Cesvaines pils; Schloss Seßwegen) is located in the town of Cesvaine, Latvia in the Madona District.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.

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Coldingham Priory

Coldingham Priory was a house of Benedictine monks.

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Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.

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Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.

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Curtea de Argeș Cathedral

The Cathedral of Curtea de Argeș (early 16th century) is a Romanian Orthodox cathedral in Curtea de Argeș, Romania.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Trajan Decius (Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus; c. 201June 251) was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Deva, Romania

Deva (Hungarian: Déva, Hungarian pronunciation:; German: Diemrich, Schlossberg, Denburg; Latin: Sargetia; Turkish: Deve, Devevar) is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, on the left bank of the Mureș River.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Doge of Venice

The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).

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Domenico I Contarini

Domenico Contarini (Birthdate unknown, died 1071 in Venice) was the 30th Doge of Venice.

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Doublet (clothing)

A doublet is a man's snug-fitting jacket that is shaped and fitted to the man's body which was worn in Spain and was spread to Western Europe from the late Middle Ages up to the mid-17th century.

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Dried cat

It is the custom in some European cultures to place the dried or desiccated body of a cat inside the walls of a newly built home to ward off evil spirits or as a good luck charm.

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Duke of Dorset

Duke of Dorset was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.

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A dungeon is a room or cell in which prisoners are held, especially underground.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.

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Edward Eastwick

Edward Backhouse Eastwick CB (1814 – 16 July 1883, Ventnor, Isle of Wight) was a British orientalist, diplomat and Conservative Member of Parliament.

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Edward Granville Browne

Edward Granville Browne, FBA (7 February 1862 – 5 January 1926) was a British orientalist.

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Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Folklore of Romania

A feature of Romanian culture is the special relationship between folklore and the learned culture, determined by two factors.

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François Bernier

François Bernier (25 September 162022 September 1688) was a French physician and traveller.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Grado (Gravo; Grau; Gradus) is a town and comune in the north-eastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located on an island and adjacent peninsula of the Adriatic Sea between Venice and Trieste.

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Grobiņa Castle

Grobiņa Castle is a medieval castle located in the town of Grobiņa, Latvia, in western Courland.

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Guelphs and Ghibellines

The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.

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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Haapsalu (Swedish and German: Hapsal) is a seaside resort town located on the west coast of Estonia.

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Harburg (quarter)

is a quarter (Stadtteil) in the homonymous borough (Bezirk) of Hamburg, Germany.

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Harold Edward Bindloss

Harold Edward Bindloss (1866 – December 30, 1945) was an English novelist who wrote many adventure novels set in western Canada.

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Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Henry Charles Lea

Henry Charles Lea (September 19, 1825 – October 24, 1909) was an American historian, civic reformer, and political activist.

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History of the Peloponnesian War

The History of the Peloponnesian War (Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens).

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Hradisko Monastery

Hradisko Monastery or Monastery Hradisko (Czech language: Klášter Hradisko or Klášterní Hradisko, or simply Hradiště; colloquially also: Moravský Escorial, English: Castle Monastery or Hillfort Monastery) is a former monastery and a former village north-east of the city of Olomouc, nowadays a suburb of Olomouc.

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Human sacrifice

Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.

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Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

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Jazzar Pasha

Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (أحمد الجزار; Cezzar Ahmet Paşa; ca. 1720–30s7 May 1804) was the Acre-based Ottoman governor of Sidon from 1776 until his death in 1804.

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Jean-Baptiste Tavernier

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.

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Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.

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John Fryer (FRS)

John Fryer (circa 1650 - 31 March 1733) was an English doctor and Fellow of the Royal Society, now best remembered for his descriptions of travel in Persia and East India.

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John, King of England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.

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Kingdom of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

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Kuressaare, also known as Arensburg, is a town and a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonia.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.

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Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.

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List of Tom Sawyer characters

Mark Twain's series of books featuring the fictional characters Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn include.

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Claudia Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA; c. 13 BC – AD 31) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor and sister of the Roman Emperor Claudius and general Germanicus, and thus the paternal aunt of the emperor Caligula and maternal great-aunt of emperor Nero, as well as the niece and daughter-in-law of Tiberius.

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Lorestan Province

Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.

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Madliena (formerly spelt Madalena, Il-Madliena) is an area in Swieqi, Malta, formerly part of the adjacent town of Għargħur.

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Malmö (Malmø) is the capital and largest city of the Swedish county of Scania.

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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.

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Marmion (poem)

Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field was published in 1808; it is a historical romance in verse of 16th-century Britain, ending with the Battle of Flodden in 1513, by Sir Walter Scott.

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Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Mary King's Close

Mary King's Close is a historic close located under buildings on the Royal Mile, in the historic Old Town area of Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Maud de Braose

Maud de Braose, Lady of Bramber (c. 1155 – 1210) was an English noble, the spouse of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber, a powerful Marcher baron and court favourite of King John of England.

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Meșterul Manole

In Romanian mythology, Meșterul Manole (roughly: The master builder Manole) was the chief architect of the Curtea de Argeș Monastery in Wallachia.

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Miorița (The Little Ewe) is an old Romanian pastoral ballad and is considered to be one of the most important pieces of Romanian folklore.

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Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

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Mughal emperors

The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

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Music of Bulgaria

The music of Bulgaria refers to all forms of music associated with the country of Bulgaria, including classical, folk, popular music, and other forms.

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Nathaniel Wraxall

Sir Nathaniel William Wraxall, 1st Baronet (8 April 1751 – 7 November 1831) was an English author.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Olavinlinna (Olofsborg; literally Olaf's Castle) is a 15th-century three-tower castle located in Savonlinna, Finland.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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Patriarchate of Aquileia

The Patriarchate of Aquileia was an episcopal see in northeastern Italy, centred on the ancient city of Aquileia situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Italian seacoast.

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Põlva is a town in southeastern Estonia, the capital of Põlva County, and the centre of Põlva Parish.

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Přemyslid dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.

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Pederasty or paederasty is a (usually erotic) homosexual relationship between an adult male and a pubescent or adolescent male.

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The 70-metre-tall Perlachturm is a tower in the central district of Augsburg, Germany.

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Persecution of Christians

The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.

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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Plesse Castle

Plesse Castle is situated to the north of Göttingen in Germany, close to the village of Bovenden.

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Poppo of Treffen

Poppo of Treffen (also Wolfgang) was the fifty-seventh patriarch of Aquileia from 1019 to 1045.

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Premature burial

Premature burial, also known as live burial, burial alive, or vivisepulture, means to be buried while still alive.

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Priscus of Panium (Greek: Πρίσκος) was a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian and rhetorician (or sophist).

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Rakhine State

Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).

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A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.

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The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae.

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Rozafa Castle

Rozafa castle (Kalaja e Rozafës) is a castle near the city of Shkodër, in northwestern Albania.

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Sardar (سردار,; "Commander" literally; "Headmaster"), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats.

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Lucius Aelius Sejanus (June 3, 20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.

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Serbian epic poetry

Serb epic poetry (Српске епске народне песме/Srpske epske narodne pesme) is a form of epic poetry created by Serbs originating in today's Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Montenegro.

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Seven Sleepers

In Christian and Islamic tradition, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (lit) is the story of a group of youths who hid inside a cave outside the city of Ephesus around 250 AD to escape a religious persecution and emerge 300 years later.

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Shah Jahan

Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.

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Shah Shuja (Mughal prince)

Shah Shuja (شاہ شُجاع), (23 June 1616 – unknown) was the second son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal.

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Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Smolyan (Смолян) is a town and ski resort in the far south of Bulgaria near the border with Greece.

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Song of Çelo Mezani

The Song of Çelo Mezani (Kënga e Çelo Mezanit) is an Albanian polyphonic folk song.

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Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.

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Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Struga (Струга, Albanian: Struga/Strugë) is a town and popular tourist destination situated in the south-western region of the Republic of Macedonia, lying on the shore of Lake Ohrid.

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Suicide (book)

Suicide (Le suicide) is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.

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The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River.

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The Black Cat (short story)

"The Black Cat" is a short story by American writer Edgar Allan Poe.

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The Building of Skadar

The Building of Skadar or The Walling of the Skadar or The Founding of Skadar (Зидање Скадра) is a poem of the pre-Kosovo cycle of Serbian epic poetry.

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The Canterville Ghost

The Canterville Ghost is a novella by Oscar Wilde.

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The Cask of Amontillado

"The Cask of Amontillado" (sometimes spelled "The Casque of Amontillado") is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in the November 1846 issue of Godey's Lady's Book.

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The Lancashire Witches

The Lancashire Witches is the only one of William Harrison Ainsworth's forty novels that has remained continuously in print since its first publication.

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Thornton Abbey

Thornton Abbey was a medieval abbey located close to the small North Lincolnshire village of Thornton Curtis, near Ulceby.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.

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Torre dei Gualandi

The Torre dei Gualandi (also known as the Muda Tower) is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dell'Orologio.

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Ugolino della Gherardesca

Count Ugolino della Gherardesca (March 1289), count of Donoratico, was an Italian nobleman, politician and naval commander.

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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

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Valdemar IV of Denmark

Valdemar IV Atterdag (the epithet meaning "A New Dawn"), or Waldemar (132024 October 1375; Valdemar Atterdag), was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375.

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Vesta (mythology)

Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.

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Vestal Virgin

In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.

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Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.

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Vlad the Impaler

Vlad III, known as Vlad the Impaler (Vlad Țepeș) or Vlad Dracula (1428/311476/77), was voivode (or prince) of Wallachia three times between 1448 and his death.

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The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.

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Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.

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Walter Scott

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.

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William Harrison Ainsworth

William Harrison Ainsworth (4 February 1805 – 3 January 1882) was an English historical novelist born at King Street in Manchester.

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Coffin torture, Execution by dehydration, Execution by starvation, Immure, Immured, Immurements, Immures, Immuring.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immurement

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