55 relations: Affirmation and negation, Ancient Greek, Auxiliary verb, Do-support, Dutch language, English grammar, English language, English subjunctive, English verbs, Exclamation mark, Finite verb, Finnish language, French language, German grammar, German language, Gerund, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Hortative, Infinitive, Inflection, Irish language, Irrealis mood, Japanese language, Jussive mood, Korean language, Korean speech levels, Latin, Latin conjugation, Let them eat cake, List of glossing abbreviations, Negation, Nominative case, Noun, Null-subject language, Periphrasis, Politeness, Pronoun, Realis mood, Sanskrit, Semantics, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Slavic languages, Standard Chinese, Subjunctive mood, Syntax, T–V distinction, ..., Turkic languages, Turkish language, Verb, Voseo, Vowel harmony. Expand index (5 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Do-support (or do-insertion), in English grammar, is the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to form negated clauses and questions as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The subjunctive in English is used to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts.
Verbs constitute one of the main word classes in the English language.
The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The jussive (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Korean, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Conjugation has two meanings.
"Let them eat cake" is the traditional translation of the French phrase "Qu'ils mangent de la brioche", supposedly spoken by "a great princess" upon learning that the peasants had no bread.
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Politeness is the practical application of good manners or etiquette.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In Spanish grammar, voseo is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
Command (linguistics), Immediate imperative mood, Imper., Imperative (grammar), Imperative form, Imperative mode, Imperative sentence, Imperative verb, Let us, Let's, Prohibitive, Prohibitive mood, Vetative.