229 relations: Abolition of the han system, Alexander Kolchak, Allied submarines in the Pacific War, Alvin Coox, American Expeditionary Force, Siberia, Aoki Shūzō, Army, Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, Artillery, Artillery of Japan, Asan, Austria-Hungary, Avalon Project, Ōkubo Toshimichi, Ōmura Masujirō, Ōshima Yoshimasa, Ōyama Iwao, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battle of Port Arthur, Battle of Pungdo, Battle of Pyongyang (1894), Battle of Seonghwan, Battle of the Taku Forts (1900), Battle of the Yalu River (1894), Battle of Tientsin, Battle of Toba–Fushimi, Battlefield (TV series), Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Beijing, Beiyang Fleet, Black Dragon Society, Bolsheviks, Boshin War, Boxer Rebellion, British Indian Army, British Malaya, Burma Campaign, Busan, Caliber, Cavalry, Chōshū Domain, China, Cold War, Commander-in-chief, Communism, Conscription, Daijō-kan, Dalian, Death, Decisive victory, ..., Declared death in absentia, Donghak Peasant Revolution, Double Leaf Society, Dutch East Indies, Eight-Nation Alliance, Emperor Meiji, Emperor of Japan, Emperor Taishō, Empire of Japan, Far Eastern Republic, First Army (Japan), First Sino-Japanese War, French military mission to Japan (1872–80), French military mission to Japan (1884–89), French military mission to Japan (1918–19), French Third Republic, Fukushima Yasumasa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, German Empire, German General Staff, Gojong of Korea, Government of Meiji Japan, Great Britain, Hajime Sugiyama, Han system, HarperCollins, Hideki Tojo, Hirohito, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, Hiroo Onoda, Hiroshima Domain, Hokurikudō, Hokushin-ron, Hong Kong, Imperial Court in Kyoto, Imperial General Headquarters, Imperial Guard (Japan), Imperial Japanese Army Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Japanese Army Railways and Shipping Section, Imperial Japanese Navy, Imperial Japanese rations, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Imperial Way Faction, Imperialism, Incheon, Indonesia, Infantry, Inspectorate General of Aviation, Jacques-Paul Faure, Jakob Meckel, Japanese army and diplomatic codes, Japanese holdout, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874), Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895), Japanese military strategies in 1942, Japanese war crimes, Japanese yen, Katō Tomosaburō, Kiheitai, Kingdom of Italy, Koku, Korea, Kuge, Kyoto, Lake Baikal, Lüshunkou District, Li Hongzhang, List of Japanese Army military engineer vehicles of World War II, List of Japanese government and military commanders of World War II, List of Japanese Infantry divisions, List of Japanese military equipment of World War II, List of Japanese World War II army bombs, List of Japanese World War II radars, Lubang Island, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Masaharu Homma, Meiji Constitution, Meiji Restoration, Militarism, Military Medal of Honor (Japan), Ministry of the Army, Ministry of the Navy (Japan), Missing in action, Miyako-jima, Modernization theory, Morotai, Moscow, Mudan incident, Mukden Incident, Myanmar, Nanshin-ron, National Diet, Nishihara Loans, October Revolution, Paiwan people, Philippines, President of the United States, Prime Minister of Japan, Primorsky Krai, Prince Arisugawa Taruhito, Prince Kan'in Kotohito, Prince Komatsu Akihito, Prisoner of war, Provisional Priamurye Government, Punitive expedition, Pyongyang, Qingdao, Random House, Ranks of the Imperial Japanese Army, Rōnin, Red Army, Rising Sun Flag, Romantic nationalism, Russian Empire, Russian Far East, Russo-Japanese War, Ryō, Ryukyu Kingdom, Saga Domain, Sakoku, San'indō, Satsuma Domain, Satsuma Rebellion, Second Army (Japan), Second Boer War, Second French Empire, Second Sino-Japanese War, Seoul, Shandong, Shanhai Pass, Shunroku Hata, Siberia, Siberian Intervention, Siege of Port Arthur, Siege of Tsingtao, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, Stanford University Press, Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Taedong River, Taiwan under Qing rule, Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman, Tōkaidō (road), Tōsandō, Tōseiha, Terauchi Masatake, Teruo Nakamura, Thailand, Tianjin, Tokugawa shogunate, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Tottori Domain, Triple Entente, Triple Intervention, Uniforms of the Imperial Japanese Army, United States, University of Nebraska Press, University Press of Kansas, Vladivostok, Volunteer Fighting Corps, White movement, Woodrow Wilson, World War I, World War II, Wound, Yale University, Yalta Conference, Yamagata Aritomo, Yasuji Okamura, Yìhéquán, Yui Mitsue, Zhili, 5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (179 more) » « Shrink index
The in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868, starting year of Meiji period (currently, there are 47 prefectures from Hokkaido to Okinawa in Japan).
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.
Alvin David Coox, (pronounced "cooks"; March 8, 1924, Rochester, New York – November 4, 1999, San Diego, California) was an American military historian and author known for his award-winning book, Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia.
The American Expeditionary Force, Siberia (AEF in Siberia) was a formation of the United States Army involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russia, during the end of World War I after the October Revolution, from 1918 to 1920.
was a diplomat and Foreign Minister in Meiji period Japan.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Artillery in Japan was first used during the Sengoku period in the 16th century; and its use has continued to develop.
Asan is a city in South Chungcheong Province, South Korea.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
was a Japanese statesman, a samurai of Satsuma, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration.
was a Japanese military leader and theorist in Bakumatsu period Japan.
Viscount was a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.
was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29 – August 11, 1938), also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.
The of Monday 8 February – Tuesday 9 February 1904 marked the commencement of the Russo-Japanese War.
The Battle of Pungdo or Feng-tao (Japanese) was the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Pyongyang (平壌作戦; 平壤之戰) was the second major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Seonghwan was the first major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.
The Battle of the Yalu River (Japanese) was the largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang.
The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China.
The occurred between pro-Imperial and Tokugawa shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan.
Battlefield is a documentary series initially shown in 1994 that explores the most important battles fought primarily during the Second World War and the Vietnam War.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beiyang Fleet (Pei-yang Fleet;, alternatively Northern Seas Fleet) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty.
The, or Amur River Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultranationalist right-wing group in Japan.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The, sometimes known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
Busan, formerly known as Pusan and now officially is South Korea's second most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million inhabitants.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The, also known as the Great Council of State, was (i) (Daijō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's premodern Imperial government under Ritsuryō legal system during and after the Nara period or (ii) (Dajō-kan) the highest organ of Japan's government briefly restored to power after the Meiji Restoration, which was replaced by the Cabinet.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The term decisive victory refers to a military victory in battle that definitively resolves the objective being fought over, ending one stage of the conflict and beginning another stage.
A person may be legally declared death in absentia or legal presumption of death despite the absence of direct proof of the person's death, such as the finding of remains (e.g., a corpse or skeleton) attributable to that person.
The is a joke: only redlinks ! The Donghak Peasant Revolution, also known as the Donghak Peasant Movement, Donghak Rebellion, Peasant Revolt of 1894, Gabo Peasant Revolution, and a variety of other names, was an armed rebellion in Korea led by aggravated peasants and followers of the Donghak religion, a panentheistic snobism (in any case: not in the lead) religion viewed by many rebels as a political ideology.
The was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
, or, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 29, 1912.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
was the 123rd Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 30 July 1912 until his death in 1926.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Far Eastern Republic (p), sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East.
The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The 1872–1880 French Military Mission to Japan was the second French military mission to that country.
The 1884 French Military Mission to Japan was the third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.
The French Aeronautical Mission to Japan (1918-1919) was the first foreign military mission to Japan since the 1890s.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty and the first Emperor of Korea.
The was the government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
was a Japanese field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II between 1937 and 1944.
The or domain is the Japanese historical term for the estate of a warrior after the 12th century or of a daimyō in the Edo period (1603–1868) and early Meiji period (1868–1912).
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (2000) is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
was an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence officer who fought in World War II and was a Japanese holdout who did not surrender in August 1945.
was a han, or feudal domain, of Edo period Japan.
is a Japanese geographical term.
The was a pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Imperial Court in Kyoto was the nominal ruling government of Japan from 794 AD until the Meiji period (1868–1912), after which the court was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo and integrated into the Meiji government.
The was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.
The Japanese is an organization which is dedicated to protection of the Emperor of Japan and his family, palaces and other imperial properties.
The was the principal officer's training school for the Imperial Japanese Army.
The or, more literally, the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
The, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Imperial Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit of the Imperial Japanese Army charged with shipping personnel, material and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
Imperial Japanese rations were the field rations issued by Imperial Japan in World War II, and which reflected the culture of the Japanese military.
The was the official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan's pre-World War II national ideology.
The was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army, active in the 1920s and 1930s and largely supported by junior officers aiming to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and expansionist ideals.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Incheon (formerly romanized as Inchŏn; literally "kind river"), officially the Incheon Metropolitan City (인천광역시), is a city located in northwestern South Korea, bordering Seoul and Gyeonggi to the east.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Inspectorate-General of Army Aviation or was a section of the Imperial Japanese Army Aeronautical Department charged with planning and supervision of the training of flying and air maintenance personnel of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service.
Jacques-Paul Faure (14 November 1869 – 24 August 1924) was an officer of the French Army.
Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel (28 March 1842 – 5 July 1905) was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan.
Japanese army and diplomatic codes. This article is on Japanese army and diplomatic ciphers and codes used up to and during World War II, to supplement the article on Japanese naval codes.
or stragglers were Japanese soldiers in the Pacific Theatre who, after the August 1945 surrender of Japan ending World War II, either adamantly doubted the veracity of the formal surrender due to dogmatic militaristic principles, or simply were not aware of it because communications had been cut off by Allied advances.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The Japanese punitive expedition to Taiwan in 1874, referred to in Japan as the and in Taiwan and mainland China as the Mudan incident, was a punitive expedition launched by the Japanese in retaliation for the murder of 54 Ryukyuan sailors by Paiwan aborigines near the southwestern tip of Taiwan in December 1871.
The Japanese invasion of Taiwan (May–October 1895) was a conflict between the Empire of Japan and the armed forces of the short-lived Republic of Formosa following the Qing Dynasty's cession of Taiwan to Japan in April 1895 at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War.
Immediately after the fall of Singapore in 1942 certain Army circles argued that Japan should exploit her advantage and seek peace with Great Britain.
War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Marshal-Admiral Viscount was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and 12th Prime Minister of Japan from 12 June 1922 to 24 August 1923.
The was a volunteer militia raised by Takasugi Shinsaku of the Chōshū domain during the Bakumatsu period of Japan.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The is a Japanese unit of volume, equal to ten cubic shaku.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.
This is a list of Japanese Army Military Engineer Vehicles during World War II.
List of Japanese Infantry divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army.
The following is a list of Japanese military equipment of World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels, and other support equipment of both the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from operations conducted from 1937 through 1945.
This is a complete list of all Aerial bombs used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War.
A list of Japanese radars used during World War II.
Lubang Island is the largest island in the Lubang Group of Islands, an archipelago which lies to the northwest of the northern end of Mindoro in the Philippines.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國憲法; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国憲法 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kenpō), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (明治憲法 Meiji Kenpō), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which had the proclamation on February 11, 1889, and had enacted since November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
was a military decoration for meritorious service to the Empire of Japan, formerly awarded to all military personnel who participated in battles in a war.
The, also known as the Ministry of War, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
The was a cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN).
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Morotai Island (Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia's Maluku Islands (Moluccas).
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Mudan incident of 1871 was the massacre of 54 Ryūkyūan sailors in Qing-era Taiwan who wandered into the central part of Taiwan after their ship was shipwrecked.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The was a political doctrine in the Empire of Japan which stated that Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to the Japanese Empire for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The were a series of loans made by the Japanese government under the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake to the Anhui clique warlord Duan Qirui from January 1917 to September 1918 to persuade him to favor Japanese interests in China.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Paiwan are an indigenous people of Taiwan.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The is the head of government of Japan.
Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.
was a Japanese career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, who became the 9th head of the line of shinnōke cadet branches of the Imperial Family of Japan on September 9, 1871.
was the sixth head of a cadet branch of the Japanese imperial family, and a career army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from 1931 to 1940.
was a Japanese career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, who was a member of the Fushimi-no-miya, one of the shinnōke branches of the Imperial Family of Japan, which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Provisional Priamurye Government (or Provisional Priamur Government, Russian: Приамурский земский край) existed in the Far East Russian region of Priamurye, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
The following tables present the rank insignia of the Imperial Japanese Army before and during World War II.
A was a samurai without lord or master during the feudal period (1185–1868) of Japan.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The design was originally used by feudal warlords in Japan during the Edo period.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
A was a gold currency unit in pre-Meiji Japan Shakkanhō system.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
, also known as Hizen Domain, was a Japanese domain in the Edo period.
was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.
is a Japanese geographical term.
, also known as Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
The was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.
The was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.
was a Field Marshal (Gensui) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian Intervention or Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan and China to support White Russian forces against Soviet Russia and its allies during the Russian Civil War.
The Siege of Port Arthur (旅順攻囲戦, Ryojun Kōisen; Оборона Порт-Артура, Oborona Port-Artura, August 1, 1904 – January 2, 1905), the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.
The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (also known as the Soviet-Japanese Border War) was a series of battles and skirmishes between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan, as well as their respective client states of Mongolia and Manchukuo.
The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
General was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, part-time writer, haiku poet, diplomat, and commanding officer of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.
The Taedong River (Chosŏn'gŭl: 대동강) is a large river in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and the Pescadores (Penghu) from 1683 to 1895.
A Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman is any Taiwanese person who served in the Imperial Japanese Army or Navy during World War II whether as a soldier, a sailor, or in another non-combat capacity.
The was the most important of the Five Routes of the Edo period in Japan, connecting Kyoto to Edo (modern-day Tokyo).
is a Japanese geographical term.
, was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army active in the 1920s and the 1930s.
Gensui Count, GCB (5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919), was a Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.
Private was a Taiwan-born soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army from the indigenous Amis tribe, who fought for Japan in World War II and did not surrender until 1974.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
was an Imperial Japanese Army general during World War II.
was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.
Imperial Japanese Army uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the time.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher located in Lawrence, KS that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas: Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University (K-State), Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas (KU), and Wichita State University.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
were armed civil defense units planned in 1945 in the Empire of Japan as a last desperate measure to defend the Japanese home islands against the projected Allied invasion during Operation Downfall (Ketsugo Sakusen) in the final stages of World War II.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Prince, also known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan.
was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.
The Yihequan, or Fists of Harmony and Justice (also named Yihetuan, League of Harmony and Justice), was a Chinese secret society known for having triggered the Boxer Rebellion.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.
Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.
(Imperial) Japanese Army, Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun, Eastern Command of the Imperial Army, IJA Cavalry Units, Imperial Army of Great Japan, Imperial Army of Japan, Imperial Japanese army, Japanese Army in World War II, Japanese Imperial Army, Japanese Military Detachment (World War II), Japanese imperial army, Japanese military commander, 大日本帝国陸軍, 大日本帝國陸軍.