200 relations: Abolition of the han system, Alexander Kolchak, Allied submarines in the Pacific War, American Expeditionary Force Siberia, Army, Army ranks of the Japanese Empire during World War II, Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, Artillery, Artillery of Japan, Austria-Hungary, Avalon Project, Ōyama Iwao, Bataan, Bataan Death March, Battle of Changde, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battle of Okinawa, Battle of Saipan, Battle of Tarawa, Battle of Wuhan, Battlefield (TV series), Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Beijing, Black Dragon Society, Bolsheviks, Boxer Rebellion, British Malaya, Burma Campaign, Caliber, Cavalry, Chōshū Domain, Chemical warfare, China, Civilian, Cold War, Commander-in-chief, Communism, Conscription, Daimyo, Death, Decisive victory, Declared death in absentia, Double Leaf Society, Dutch East Indies, Eight-Nation Alliance, Emperor Meiji, Emperor of Japan, Empire of Japan, Empress Dowager Cixi, Fanaticism, ..., Far Eastern Republic, Field marshal, First Sino-Japanese War, Forbidden City, Franco-Prussian War, French military mission to Japan (1872–80), French military mission to Japan (1884–89), French military mission to Japan (1918–19), French Third Republic, Fumimaro Konoe, Gensui (Imperial Japanese Army), German Empire, German General Staff, Government of Meiji Japan, Great Britain, Hajime Sugiyama, Hand grenade, HarperCollins, Hideki Tojo, Hirō Onoda, Hirohito, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, Hokushin-ron, Hong Kong, Imperial General Headquarters, Imperial Guard (Japan), Imperial Japanese Army Academy, Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, Imperial Japanese Army Railways and Shipping Section, Imperial Japanese Navy, Imperial Japanese rations, Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, Imperial Way Faction, Imperialism, Indonesia, Infantry, Inspector general, Jakob Meckel, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Japanese holdout, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874), Japanese military strategies in 1942, Japanese war crimes, Joseon, Katō Tomosaburō, Kōichi Kido, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Korea, Lake Baikal, List of Japanese Army military engineer vehicles of World War II, List of Japanese government and military commanders of World War II, List of Japanese Infantry divisions, List of Japanese military equipment of World War II, List of Japanese World War II army bombs, List of Japanese World War II radars, Lubang Island, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Masaharu Homma, Meiji Constitution, Meiji Restoration, Militarism, Military Medal of Honor (Japan), Military of the Qing dynasty, Military ranks and insignia of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, Ministry of War of Japan, Missing in action, Miyako-jima, Modernization theory, Morotai, Moscow, Mudan Incident (1871), Mukden Incident, Myanmar, Nanking Massacre, Nanshin-ron, National Diet, Nishihara Loans, North German Confederation, October Revolution, Osaka, Pacific War, Paiwan people, Philippines, Prime Minister of Japan, Primorsky Krai, Prince Kan'in Kotohito, Prisoner of war, Provisional Priamurye Government, Prussia, Punitive expedition, Qingdao, Random House, Red Army, Rising Sun Flag, Romantic nationalism, Russian Empire, Russo-Japanese War, Ryukyu Kingdom, Saigō Takamori, Samurai, Satsuma Domain, Satsuma Rebellion, Schermbeck, Second French Empire, Second Sino-Japanese War, Shōwa period, Shunroku Hata, Siberia, Siberian Intervention, Siege of Port Arthur, Siege of Tsingtao, Solomon Islands, South West Pacific theatre of World War II, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, Stanford University Press, Surrender of Japan, Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Taiwan under Qing rule, Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman, Tōseiha, Terauchi Masatake, Teruo Nakamura, Thailand, Tomitarō Horii, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Triple Entente, Uniforms of the Imperial Japanese Army, United States, University of Nebraska Press, University Press of Kansas, Vladivostok, Volunteer Fighting Corps, White movement, World War I, World War II, Wound, Yale University, Yalta Conference, Yamagata Aritomo, Yasuji Okamura, Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Yui Mitsue, 5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army). Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
The in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.
The American Expeditionary Force Siberia (AEF Siberia) was a United States Army force that was involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russian Empire, during the end of World War I after the October Revolution, from 1918 to 1920.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
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The following tables present the rank insignia of the Japanese military before and during World War II.
is a clause in the National Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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Artillery in Japan was first used during the Sengoku period in the 16th century; and its use has continued to develop.
Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.
Bataan is a province of the Philippines occupying the entire Bataan Peninsula on Luzon.
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The was the forcible transfer from Saisaih Pt.
The Battle of Changde (Battle of Changteh) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War in and around the Chinese city of Changde (Changteh) in the province of Hunan.
The Battle of Lake Khasan (July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Russian: Хасанские бои, Chinese and Japanese: 張鼓峰事件; Chinese Pinyin: Zhānggǔfēng Shìjiàn; Japanese Romaji: Chōkohō Jiken) in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo (Japanese) into the territory claimed by the Soviet Union.
The, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a series of battles fought in the Ryukyu Islands, centered on the island of Okinawa, and included the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War during World War II being the 1 April 1945 invasion of the island of Okinawa itself.
The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June–9 July 1944.
The Battle of Tarawa was a battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that was fought from November 20 to November 23, 1943.
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defence of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Battlefield is a documentary series initially shown in 1994 that explores the most important battles fought primarily during the Second World War and the Vietnam War.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol (Халхын голын дайн; ノモンハン事件; Japanese Romaji Nomon-Han Jiken; бои на реке Халхин-Гол) were the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.
Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
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The, or Amur River Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultranationalist right-wing group in Japan.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II was fought primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it fires, usually shown in millimeters, or in hundredths or thousandths of an inch.
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Cavalry (from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
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The was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A civilian under the laws of war (also known as international humanitarian law) is a person who is not a legitimate member of the armed forces to a conflict.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The were the powerful feudal lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
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Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
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The term decisive victory refers to a military victory in battle that definitively resolves the objective being fought over, ending one stage of the conflict and beginning another stage.
A person may be legally declared dead (declared death in absentia or legal presumption of death) despite the absence of direct proof of the person's death, such as the finding of remains (e.g., a corpse or skeleton) attributable to that person.
The was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies; Nederlands-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion by the nations of Japan, Russia, the British Empire, France, the United States, Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary.
, or, was the 122nd Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death on July 30, 1912.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and is the ceremonial head of state of Japan's system of constitutional monarchy.
The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (also romanised as Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi;;; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
Fanaticism is a belief or behavior involving uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm.
The Far Eastern Republic (p), sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East.
Field marshal is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea.
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The 1872–1880 French Military Mission to Japan was the second French military mission to that country.
The 1884 French Military Mission to Japan was the third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.
The French Aeronautical Mission to Japan (1918-1919) was the first foreign military mission to Japan since the 1890s.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
was the highest title in the pre-war Imperial Japanese military.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
The Government of Meiji Japan was the government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain, Chōshū Domain and Tenno in the 1860s.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.
was a field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II between 1937 and 1944.
A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand.
HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and, alongside Hachette, Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster, is part of the "Big Five" English-language publishing companies.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
was an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence officer who fought in World War II and a Japanese holdout who did not surrender in 1945.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.
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Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (2000, ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0) is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
The was a pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.
Hong Kong, traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.
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The as part of the Supreme War Council was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.
The Japanese is an organization which is dedicated to protection of the Emperor of Japan and his family, palaces and other imperial properties.
The was the principal officer's training school for the Imperial Japanese Army.
The (IJAAS or IJAAF), was the land-based aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army. As with the IJA itself, the IJAAS was developed along the lines of Imperial German Army Aviation so its primary mission was to provide tactical close air support for ground troops while maintaining a limited air interdiction capability. The IJAAS also provided important reconnaissance support for the Army. However, the Army Air Service usually did not control the light aircraft or balloons deployed and operated by the IJA artillery battalions as spotters or observers. Although the Army Air Service engaged in strategic bombing of enemy cities such as Shanghai, Nanking, Canton, Chongqing, Rangoon, and Mandalay, this was not its primary mission, and it lacked the heavy strategic bombers as were later deployed by the United States Army Air Forces. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was responsible for long-range strikes and strategic air defense and it was not until the later stages of the Pacific War that both services attempted anything like integrated air defense.
, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the four principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Imperial Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit of the Imperial Japanese Army charged with shipping personnel, materiel and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, literally "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
Imperial Japanese rations were the field rations issued by Imperial Japan in World War II, and which reflected the culture of the Japanese military.
The was the official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan's pre-World War II national ideology.
The was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army, active in the 1920s and 1930s and largely supported by junior officers aiming to establish a military government that promoted totalitarian, militarist, and expansionist ideals.
Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The infantry is the branch of a military force that fights on foot.
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An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel (March 28, 1842 – July 5, 1905) was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known as the The Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Joseon Kingdom in 1876.
or stragglers were Japanese soldiers in the Pacific Theatre who, after the August 1945 surrender of Japan ending World War II, either adamantly doubted the veracity of the formal surrender due to strong dogmatic or militaristic principles, or simply were not aware of it because communications had been cut off by Allied advances including the United States island hopping campaign.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 18, 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The Japanese punitive expedition to Taiwan in 1874, referred to in Japan as the Taiwan Expedition (Japanese) and in Taiwan and mainland China as the Mudan incident, was a punitive expedition launched by the Japanese in retaliation for the murder of 54 Ryukyuan sailors by Paiwan aborigines near the southwestern tip of Taiwan in December 1871.
Immediately after the fall of Singapore in 1942 certain Army circles argued that Japan should exploit her advantage and seek peace with Great Britain.
Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
Joseon (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun) was a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries, from July 1392 to October 1897. It was officially renamed the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Yalu and Tumen Rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and the first and second Manchu invasions of 1636 nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom". After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century. The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and the modern Korean language and its dialects derive from the culture and traditions of Joseon.
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Marshal-Admiral Viscount was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 12 June 1922 to 24 August 1923.
served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden;; Reino Hulandes), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe and in the Caribbean.
Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).
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Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Байгал нуур, Baygal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Turkic, "the rich lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
This is a list of Japanese Army Military Engineer Vehicles during World War II.
In the administration of Japan dominated by the Toseiha movement during World War II, the civil central government of Japan was under the management of some military men, and of some civilians.
List of Japanese Infantry divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army.
The following is a list of Japanese military equipment of World War II which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels, and other support equipment of both the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from operations conducted from 1937 through 1945.
This is a complete list of all Aerial bombs used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War.
A list of Japanese radars used during World War II.
Lubang Island is the largest island in the Lubang Group of Islands, an archipelago which lies to the northwest of the northern end of Mindoro in the Philippines.
Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.
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Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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was a Lieutenant General in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, Homma commanded the Japanese 14th Army which invaded Philippines and perpetrated the Bataan Death March.
The, known informally as the, was the constitution of the Empire of Japan in force from November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
was a military decoration for meritorious service to the Empire of Japan, formerly awarded to all military personnel who participated in battles in a war.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was established by conquest and maintained by armed force.
After World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dissolved by the United States during the occupation of Japan.
The, more popularly known as the Ministry of War of Japan, was cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to armed services personnel and other combatants who are reported missing during wartime.
is the largest and the most populous island among the Miyako Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Morotai Island (Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia's Maluku Islands (Moluccas).
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Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.
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The Mudan Incident of 1871 was the massacre of 54 Ryūkyūan sailors in Qing-era Taiwan who wandered into the central part of Taiwan after their ship was shipwrecked.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.
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The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking or Rape of Nanjing, was an episode during the Second Sino-Japanese War of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then capital of the Republic of China.
The was a political doctrine in the Empire of Japan which stated that Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to the Japanese Empire for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The were a series of loans made by the Japanese government under the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake to the Anhui clique warlord Duan Qirui from January 1917 to September 1918 to persuade him to favor Japanese interests in China.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was a federation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants.
The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.
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The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theatre of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia.
The Paiwan are an aboriginal tribe of Taiwan.
The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
The is the head of government of Japan.
Primorsky Krai (p), informally known as Primorye (Примо́рье), is a federal subject of Russia (a krai).
, was the sixth head of a cadet branch of the Japanese imperial family, and a career army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from 1931 to 1940.
A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Provisional Priamurye Government (or Provisional Priamur Government, Russian: Приамурский земский край) existed in the Siberian region of Priamurye, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922.
Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.
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A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Qingdao (formerly Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
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Random House is the largest general-interest trade book publisher in the world.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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The design was originally used by feudal warlords in Japan during the Edo period.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, living during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era.
were the military nobility of medieval and early-modern Japan.
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, also known as Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
The was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era.
Schermbeck is a municipality in the district of Wesel, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Second French Empire (Le Second empire français) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.
The, or Shōwa era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926, through January 7, 1989.
was a Gensui (Marshal-General) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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The Siberian Intervention, or the Siberian Expedition, of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army during the Russian Civil War.
The Siege of Port Arthur (旅順攻囲戦, Ryojun Kōisen; Оборона Порт-Артура, Oborona Port-Artura, August 1, 1904 – January 2, 1905), the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.
The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and Japan.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts was a series of combats and skirmishes, without any formal declaration of war, occurred between 1932 and 1945.
The, also known as the was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939).
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
General was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, part-time writer, haiku poet, diplomat, and General (Taisho) of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Taiwan from 1683 to 1895.
A Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman (Japanese: 台湾人日本兵) is any Taiwanese person who served in the Imperial Japanese Army or Navy during World War II whether as a soldier, a sailor, or in another non-combat capacity.
was a political faction in the Imperial Japanese Army, active in the 1920s and 1930s.
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Gensui Count, GCB (5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919), was a Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.
Private was a Taiwan-born soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army from the indigenous Amis tribe, who fought for Japan in World War II and did not surrender until 1974.
Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.
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was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
was an Imperial Japanese Army general during World War II.
The;, was an unequal treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hall in Japan on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") was the alliance linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Imperial Japanese Army Uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the time.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
The University of Nebraska Press, founded in 1941, is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas — Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University, Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas, and Wichita State University.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the East) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
were armed civil defense units planned in 1945 in the Empire of Japan as a last desperate measure to defend the Japanese home islands against the projected Allied invasion during Operation Downfall (Ketsugo Sakusen) in the final stages of World War II.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы, "White Guardsmen"), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks (большевики, "Majority") in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
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Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
Field Marshal Prince, also known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan.
was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, war criminal, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.
is a professor of Japanese modern history at Chuo University in Tokyo, Japan.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.
The was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army.
(Imperial) Japanese Army, Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun, Eastern Command of the Imperial Army, IJA Cavalry Units, Imperial Army of Japan, Imperial Japanese army, Japanese Imperial Army, Japanese Military Detachment (World War II), Japanese imperial army, Japanese military commander, 大日本帝国陸軍, 大日本帝國陸軍.