162 relations: Andrew H. Plaks, Ann Paludan, Ao (turtle), Aristocracy (class), Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, Bar examination, Benjamin A. Elman, Bible, Boxer Rebellion, C. K. Yang (sociologist), Cao Wei, Caste, Chamber pot, Chang'an, Chariots in ancient China, Cheating, Chinese classics, Chinese dragon, Civil service, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Civil service entrance examination, Civil Service of the People's Republic of China, Communist Party of China, Confucian court examination system in Vietnam, Confucianism, Corporal punishment, Corruption in China, Corvée, County magistrate, Crane (bird), David Hinton, Doctor of Philosophy, Dong Zhongshu, Donglin Academy, East India Company, Education in China, Eight-legged essay, Emperor Renzong of Song, Emperor Wen of Han, Emperor Wu of Han, Emperor Xuan of Han, Emperor Yang of Sui, Emperor Yao, Emperor Yuan of Han, Emperor Zhao of Han, Equestrianism, Ethnic group, Eunuch, Europeans in Medieval China, Examination Yuan, ..., Fan Zhongyan, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Forbidden City, Four Books and Five Classics, Fu (poetry), Fu Shanxiang, Fubing system, Ghosts in Chinese culture, Gongsun Hong, Goryeo, Great Divergence, Guo Ziyi, Guozijian, Gwageo, Han dynasty, Hanlin Academy, Heian period, History of China, Hongwu Emperor, Huang Zongxi, Hundred Days' Reform, Imperial examination in Chinese mythology, Indian Civil Service (British India), Ink brush, Inkstick, Inkstone, Japan, Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, Jiang Shunfu, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), John K. Fairbank, Joseon, K. C. Wu, Kang Youwei, Khải Định, Kong Yiji, Korea, Kublai Khan, Kuomintang, Later Silla, Latin honors, Lý dynasty, Lý Nhân Tông, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Li Deyu, Li He, Li Jiao (Tang dynasty), Liang Qichao, Library of Congress, Licentiate (degree), List of Chinese military texts, Liu Xiang (scholar), Lu Xun, Luoyang, Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin square, Memorial to the throne, Ming dynasty, Mongol Empire, Music Bureau, Naming taboo, Neo-Confucianism, New Culture Movement, New Policies, Nguyễn dynasty, Nine-rank system, Ningbo, Nobi, Northcote–Trevelyan Report, Qi Jiguang, Qing dynasty, Race (human categorization), Regulated verse, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rulin waishi, Ryukyu Kingdom, Samurai, Scholar-official, Second Sino-Japanese War, Semu, Shen Buhai, Shen Quanqi, Shi (poetry), Six Arts, Song dynasty, Standardized test, Su Shi, Su Zhe, Sui dynasty, Sun Tzu, Sun Yat-sen, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Tang dynasty, Tang poetry, Test (assessment), Three Kingdoms, Tian, Vietnam, Wang Anshi, Wen Wu temple, Wm. Theodore de Bary, Wu (shaman), Wu Sangui, Wu Zetian, Yu Dayou, Yuan dynasty, Zhang Yue (Tang dynasty), Zhao Hongyin, Zhong Kui, Zhou dynasty, Zhu Xi, Zhuangyuan. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
Andrew Henry Plaks (born 1945) is an American sinologist who specializes in the study of the vernacular fiction of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Ann Elizabeth Paludan (née Murray) (1928–2014) was a British author of several books on Chinese history, sculpture and architecture.
Ao (Chinese: 鳌, Áo) is a large marine turtle in Chinese mythology.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
Buyantu Khan (Mongolian: Буянт хаан), born Ayurbarwada, also known by the temple name Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Yuan (Chinese: 元仁宗, April 9, 1285 – March 1, 1320), was the fourth emperor of the Yuan dynasty. Apart from Emperor of China, he is regarded as the eighth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire or Mongols, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire. His name means "blessed/good Khan" in the Mongolian language. His name "Ayurbarwada" was from a Sanskrit compound "Āyur-parvata", which means "the mountain of longevity", in contrast with Emperor Wuzong's name Qaišan (海山, "mountains and seas" in Chinese). Ayurbarwada was the first Yuan emperor who actively supported the adoption of confucian principles into the Mongolian administration system. The emperor, who was mentored by the Confucian academic Li Meng, succeeded peacefully to the throne and reversed his older brother Khayisan's policies. More importantly, Ayurbarwada reinstituted the civil service examination system for the Yuan dynasty.
A bar examination is a test intended to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given jurisdiction.
Benjamin A. Elman (born 1946) is Gordon Wu '58 Professor of Chinese Studies, Princeton University.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Ch'ing-k'un Yang (1911 – 10 January 1999), better known as C. K. Yang, was a Chinese-born American sociologist who pioneered the application of sociological theory to the study of China.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
A chamber pot is a portable toilet (bathroom), especially in the bedroom at night.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
The ancient Chinese chariot was used as an attack and pursuit vehicle on the open fields and plains of Ancient China from around 1200 BCE.
Cheating is the receiving of a reward for ability or finding an easy way out of an unpleasant situation by dishonest means.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
Civil service examinations (also public tendering) are examinations implemented in various countries for recruitment and admission to the civil service.
The Civil Service of the People's Republic of China is the administrative system of the traditional Chinese government which consists of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Confucian court examination system in Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chế-độ khoa-cử Việt-nam; 1075 – 1913) was a system for entry into the civil service modelled on the Imperial examination in China.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
Corruption in China post-1949 lies in the "organizational involution" of the ruling party, including the Communist Party of China's policies, institutions, norms, and failure to adapt to a changing environment in the post-Mao era caused by the market liberalization reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
County magistrate (or sometimes called local magistrate, in imperial China was the official in charge of the xian, or county, the lowest level of central government. The magistrate was the official who had face-to-face relations with the people and administered all aspects of government on behalf of the emperor. Because he was expected to rule in a disciplined but caring way and because the people were expected to obey, the county magistrate was informally known as the Fumu Guan, the "Father and Mother" or "parental" official. The emperor appointed magistrates from among those who passed the imperial examinations or had purchased equivalent degrees. Education in the Confucian Classics indoctrinated these officials with a shared ideology that helped to unify the empire, but not with practical training. A magistrate acquired specialized skills only after assuming office. Once in office, the magistrate was caught between the demands of his superiors and the needs and resistance of his often unruly constituents. Promotion depended on the magistrate's ability to maintain peace and lawful order as he supervised tax collection, roads, water control, and the census; handled legal functions as both prosecutor and judge; arranged relief for the poor or afflicted; carried out rituals; encouraged education and schools; and performed any further task the emperor chose to assign. Allowed to serve in any one place for only three years, he was also at the mercy of the local elites for knowledge of the local scene. There was a temptation to postpone difficult problems to the succeeding magistrate's term or to push them into a neighboring magistrate's jurisdiction. The Yongzheng emperor praised the magistrate: "The integrity of one man involves the peace or unhappiness of a myriad." But a recent historian said of the magistrate that "if he had possessed the qualifications for carrying out all his duties, he would have been a genius. Instead, he was an all-around blunderer, a harassed Jack-of-all trades...." The Republic of China (1912 –) made extensive reforms in county government, but the position of magistrate was retained.. Under the People's Republic of China (1949 –) the office of county magistrate, sometimes translated as "mayor," was no longer the lowest level of the central government, which extended its control directly to the village level.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
David Hinton is an American poet, and translator.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar.
The Donglin Academy (Wade–Giles Tung-lin), also known as the Guishan Academy (龜山書院 Guīshān Shūyuàn), was a former Chinese educational institution in Wuxi, China.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Education in China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education.
The eight-legged essay was a style of essay writing that needed to be used to pass the imperial examinations during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Emperor Renzong of Song (30 May 1010 – 30 April 1063, Chinese calendar: 14 April 1010（the 3rd year of Dazhongxiangfu, 大中祥符三年） - 29 March 1063 (the 8th year of Jiayou, 嘉祐八年)), personal name Zhao Zhen, was the fourth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC – 6 July 157 BC) was the fifth emperor of the Han Dynasty of ancient China.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Emperor Xuan of Han (91 BC – 10 January 49 BC), born Liu Bingyi (劉病已), later renamed to Liu Xun (劉詢), was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 74 to 49 BC.
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.
Emperor Yao (traditionally c. 2356 – 2255 BC) was a legendary Chinese ruler, according to various sources, one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC – 8 July 33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.
Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC – 5 June 74 BC), born Liu Fuling, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule.
The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
th:ฟ่านจงเยียน Fan Zhongyan (5 September 989 – 19 June 1052) from Wu County of Suzhou (Jiangsu Province, China), courtesy name Xiwen (希文), ratified as the Duke of Wenzheng (文正公) posthumously, and conferred as Duke of Chu (楚國公) posthumously, is one of the most prominent figures in the Chinese history, as a founder of Neo-Confucianism and a great statesman, philosopher, writer, educator, military strategist, and philanthropist.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
Fu, sometimes translated "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206AD220).
Fu Shanxiang (1833 – 1864) was a Chinese scholar from Nanjing who became Chancellor under the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, which was nearly successful in its attempts to overthrow the Qing dynasty in the 1850s.
The fubing system was a local militia system in China from 6th to 8th centuries AD, originating in Western Wei and subsequently utilized during the Sui and Tang dynasties.
Chinese folklore features a rich variety of ghosts, monsters, and other supernatural creatures.
Gongsun Hong (公孫弘; Wade–Giles: Kung-sun Hung; 200 – 121 BCE), born Kingdom of Lu, Zichuan (part of present-day Shandong province), was a Chinese statesman in the Western Han dynasty under Emperor Wu.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Great Divergence is a term made popular by Kenneth Pomeranz's book by that title, (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981) referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Medieval India, Qing China, the Islamic World, and Tokugawa Japan.
Guo Ziyi (Kuo Tzu-i; Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪, Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo1 Tzu3-i2) (697 – July 9, 781), formally Prince Zhōngwǔ of Fényáng (汾陽忠武王), was the Tang dynasty general who ended the An Lushan Rebellion and participated in expeditions against the Uyghur Khaganate) and Tibetan Empire. He was regarded as one of the most powerful Tang generals before and after the Anshi Rebellion. After his death he was immortalized in Chinese mythology as the God of Wealth and Happiness (Lu Star of Fu Lu Shou). Guo Ziyi was a reportedly a Nestorian Christian.
The Guozijian,Yuan, 194.
The gwageo or kwago were the national civil service examinations under the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties of Korea.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Hanlin Academy (Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Huang Zongxi (September 24, 1610 – August 12, 1695), courtesy name Taichong (太冲), was a Chinese naturalist, political theorist, philosopher, and soldier during the latter part of the Ming dynasty into the early part the Qing.
The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 104-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 22 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.
The imperial examination was a civil service examination system in Imperial China designed to select the best potential candidates to serve as administrative officials, for the purpose of recruiting them for the state's bureaucracy.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
Ink brushes are used in Chinese calligraphy.
Inksticks (Chinese: 墨; Japanese: 墨 Sumi; Korean: 먹 Meok) or Ink Cakes are a type of solid ink (India ink) used traditionally in several East Asian cultures for calligraphy and brush painting.
An inkstone is a stone mortar for the grinding and containment of ink.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, also known as the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty, was made by representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire on August 22, 1910.
Jiang Shunfu (1453–1504) was a Chinese mandarin of the sixth rank under the Hongzhi Emperor during the Ming dynasty.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Kang Youwei (Cantonese: Hōng Yáuh-wàih; 19March 185831March 1927) was a Chinese scholar, noted calligrapher and prominent political thinker and reformer of the late Qing dynasty.
Khải Định (chữ Hán: 啓定; born Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo; 8 October 1885 – 6 November 1925) was the 12th Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam, reigning from 1916 to 1925.
Kong Yiji is a short story by Lu Xun, the founder of modern Chinese literature.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula.
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned.
The Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm: 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.
Lý Nhân Tông (22 February 1066–15 January 1127), given name Lý Càn Đức, was the fourth emperor of the Lý Dynasty, reigning over Vietnam from 1072 to his death in 1127.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Li Deyu (787 – January 26, 850 Old Book of Tang, vol. 174.), courtesy name Wenrao (文饒), formally the Duke of Wei (衛公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of brothers Emperor Wenzong and Emperor Wuzong and (briefly) their uncle Emperor Xuānzong.
Li He (–) was a Chinese poet of the mid-Tang dynasty.
Li Jiao, courtesy name Jushan (巨山), formally the Duke of Zhao (趙公), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reigns of Wu Zetian, her sons Emperor Zhongzong and Emperor Ruizong, and her grandson Emperor Shang.
Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.
Chinese military texts have existed ever since Chinese civilization was founded.
Liu Xiang (77–6BCE), born Liu Gengsheng and bearing the courtesy name Zizheng, was a Chinese politician, historian, and writer of the Western Han Dynasty.
Lu Xun (Wade–Giles romanisation: Lu Hsün) was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
A mandarin square (traditional Chinese: 補子; simplified Chinese: 补子; pinyin: bŭzi; Wade-Giles: putzŭ; Manchu: sabirgi; Vietnamese: Bổ Tử; hangul: 흉배; hanja: 胸背; romanized: hyungbae), also known as a rank badge, was a large embroidered badge sewn onto the surcoat of an official in Imperial China, Korea and Vietnam.
A memorial to the throne (Chinese: 章表, zhāngbiǎo) was an official communication to the Emperor of China.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Music Bureau (Traditional Chinese: 樂府; Simplified Chinese: 乐府; Hanyu Pinyin: yuèfǔ, and sometimes known as the "Imperial Music Bureau") served in the capacity of an organ of various imperial government bureaucracies of China: discontinuously and in various incarnations, the Music Bureau was charged directly, by the emperor (or other monarchical ruler), or indirectly, through the royal (or imperial) government to perform various tasks related to music, poetry, entertainment, or religious worship.
A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.
The New Policies, or New Administration of the late Qing dynasty (1644-1912), also known as the Late Qing Reform, were a series of cultural, economic, educational, military, and political reforms that were implemented in the last decade of the Qing dynasty to keep the dynasty in power after the humiliating defeat in the Boxer Rebellion.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
The nine rank system, also known as the nine grade controller system, was used to categorize and classify government officials in Imperial China.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
Nobi were members of the slave class during the Korean dynasties of Goryeo and Joseon.
The Northcote–Trevelyan Report was a document prepared by Stafford H. Northcote (later to be Chancellor of the Exchequer) and C. E. Trevelyan (then permanent secretary at the Treasury).
Qi Jiguang (November 12, 1528 – January 17, 1588), courtesy name Yuanjing, art names Nantang and Mengzhu, posthumous name Wuyi, was a military general of the Ming dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Regulated verse – also known as Jintishi – is a development within Classical Chinese poetry of the shi main formal type.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Rulin waishi, or Unofficial History of the Scholars, is a Chinese novel authored by Wu Jingzi and completed in 1750 during the Qing dynasty.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.
The Chinese statesman Shen Buhai (c. 400c. 337) was Chancellor of the Han state under Marquis Zhao of Han for fifteen years, from 354 BC to 337 BC.
Shen Quanqi (c. 650 – 729), also known as Yunqing, was a Chinese poet and government official active during the Tang dynasty, and the interluding "restored Zhou dynasty" of Wu Zetian.
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry generally and across all languages.
The Six Arts formed the basis of education in ancient Chinese culture.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
Su Shi (8January103724August1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty.
Su Zhe (1039–1112), or Su Che in Taiwanese Mandarin, was a politician and essayist from Meishan, in modern Sichuan Province, China.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, officially the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang poetry refers to poetry written in or around the time of or in the characteristic style of China's Tang dynasty, (June 18, 618 – June 4, 907, including the 690–705 reign of Wu Zetian) and/or follows a certain style, often considered as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry.
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Wang Anshi (December 8, 1021 – May 21, 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted major and controversial socioeconomic reforms known as the New Policies.
A Wen Wu temple or Wenwu temple is a temple in China venerating both the patron gods of civil and martial affairs in the same temple complex.
William Theodore "Ted" de Bary (August 9, 1919July 14, 2017) was an American Sinologist and East Asian literary scholar who was a professor and administrator at Columbia University for nearly 70 years.
Wu are spirit mediums who have practiced divination, prayer, sacrifice, rainmaking, and healing in Chinese traditions dating back over 3,000 years.
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
Yu Dayou (1503–1579), courtesy name Zhifu, art name Xujiang, was a Chinese general and martial artist best known for countering the wokou pirates along China's southeastern coast during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in the Ming dynasty.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zhang Yue (663–730), courtesy name Daoji (道濟) or Yuezhi (說之), formally Duke Wenzhen of Yan (燕文貞公), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty, serving as a chancellor three separate stints during the reigns of Emperor Ruizong and Emperor Xuanzong.
Zhao Hongyin (趙弘殷) (899-956) was a military general in imperial China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Zhong Kui is a figure of Chinese mythology.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Zhuangyuan (pinyin: zhuàngyuan), variously translated into English as principal graduate, primus, or optimus, was the title given to the scholar who achieved the highest score on highest level of the Chinese imperial examinations.
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