29 relations: Animal testing, Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, Biopsy, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Clinical trial, Drug discovery, Ex situ conservation, Ex vivo, Experiment, Harry Smith (microbiologist), In natura, In ovo, In papyro, In silico, In simulacra, In situ, In utero, In vino veritas, In vitro, Latin, Lipinski's rule of five, Organism, Oxford University Press, Petri dish, Preclinical imaging, Toxin, Vivisection.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
Ex vivo (Latin: "out of the living") means that which takes place outside an organism.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Harry Smith (7 August 1921 – 10 December 2011) was a British microbiologist, and Professor of Microbiology, at the University of Birmingham.
In natura (Latin for "in Nature") is a phrase to describe conditions present in a non-laboratory environment, to differentiate it from in vivo (experiments on live organisms in a lab) and ex vivo (experiments on cultivated cells isolated from multicellular organisms) conditions.,.
In ovo is Latin for in the egg.
In papyro (literally, "in/on paper") is a cod Latin term that refers to experiments or studies carried out only on paper.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
In simulacra is a Latin phrase meaning "within likenesses." The phrase is used similarly to in vivo or ex vivo to denote the context of an experiment.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
In vino veritas is a Latin phrase that means "in wine, truth", suggesting a person under the influence of alcohol is more likely to speak their hidden thoughts and desires.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lipinski's rule of five also known as the Pfizer's rule of five or simply the rule of five (RO5) is a rule of thumb to evaluate druglikeness or determine if a chemical compound with a certain pharmacological or biological activity has chemical properties and physical properties that would make it a likely orally active drug in humans.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
Preclinical imaging is the visualization of living animals for research purposes, such as drug development.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.