275 relations: Abzu, Adam and Eve, Adonis, Aihole, Ainina and Danina, Akitu, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Alexander Hislop, Anat, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Ancient Semitic religion, Androgyny, Anu, Anunnaki, Anzû, Aphrodite, Aphrodite Areia, Aphrodite Urania, Apollo, Aratta, Archetype, Aries (constellation), Arina, Ashur (god), Ashurbanipal, Assur, Assyria, Assyrian people, Assyriology, Astarte, Attar (god), Aya (goddess), Ḫannaḫanna, Babylon, Babylonian religion, BDSM, Berlin, Bible, Blood Feast, Box office bomb, Brill Publishers, British Museum, Bronze Age, Buffy Summers, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Bull of Heaven, Cain and Abel, Canto, Catholic Church, ..., Christianity, Civilization, Crescent, Cronus, Cross-dressing, Cult (religious practice), Cuneiform script, Cylinder seal, Cyprus, Dali (goddess), Death metal, Diane Wolkstein, Dingir, Divine judgment, Divine retribution, Dominatrix, Dumuzid, Durga, Eanna, Early Christianity, Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia), East Semitic languages, Easter, Edward FitzGerald (poet), Edwin Arnold, Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, Emasculation, EN (cuneiform), Enheduanna, Enki, Enkidu, Enkimdu, Enlil, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, Epic of Gilgamesh, Equinox, Erbil, Ereshkigal, Eridu, Eshnunna, Euphrates, Evangelicalism, Female body shape, Feminist art, Feminist theory, Femme fatale, First Babylonian dynasty, Flood myth, Fly, Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), Gala (priests), Gallu, Gardnerian Wicca, Gay sexual practices, Georgian mythology, Geshtinanna, Gilgamesh, Goddess movement, Gugalanna, Gutian dynasty of Sumer, Hadad, Hamlyn (publishers), Harran, Heaven, Hellenistic art, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, Hermaphrodite, Hesiod, Hieros gamos, Hijra (South Asia), Hinduism, Hittite mythology and religion, Homosexuality, Hubris, Human sexual activity, Humbaba, Hurrians, Ideogram, Inanna, Incest, Inn, Internet, Internet meme, Iraq, Ishara, Ishtar (film), Ishtar Gate, Isimud, Isin, Isis, Jacob of Serugh, Jemdet Nasr period, Jerusalem, Jesus, John Craton, Joseph Campbell, Judy Chicago, Katabasis, Kesh (Sumer), Kevin Tuite, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of Judah, Kudurru, Kumarbi, Kythira, Lagash, Lapis lazuli, Larsa, Law, Libation, Library of Ashurbanipal, Lilac-breasted roller, Lilith, Lion, Lion of Babylon, List of Mesopotamian deities, Liturgy, Lugalbanda, Lulal, Magna Graecia, Mahishasura, Manasseh of Judah, March equinox, Mardin, Mari, Syria, Mary, mother of Jesus, Me (mythology), Measuring rod, Meli-Shipak II, Mesopotamia, Mircea Eliade, Modern Paganism, Motif (folkloristics), Namtar, Nanaya, National god, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neti (deity), NIN (cuneiform), Nineveh, Ningal, Ninshubur, Ninsun, Nippur, Old Testament, Origin myth, Palmyra, Papsukkal, Patriarchy, Pausanias (geographer), Phoenicia, Pisces (constellation), Prostitution, Protestantism, Proto-Euphratean language, Proverb, Queen of heaven (antiquity), Rape, Rock music, Romanos the Melodist, Rosette (design), Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Sabaeans, Sacred prostitution, Samuel Noah Kramer, Sargon of Akkad, Semitic languages, Shara (god), Shuruppak, Simone de Beauvoir, Sin (mythology), Solar symbol, Song of Songs, Sparta, Splatter film, Star of Ishtar, Sumer, Sumerian language, Sumerian religion, Susa, Syncretism, Syria, Tanakh, Taranto, Taurus (constellation), Tell Uqair, Temple in Jerusalem, Teshub, The Dinner Party, The Georgian Chronicles, The Light of Asia, The Second Sex, The Two Babylons, Theogony, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tikva Frymer-Kensky, Transvestism, Truth, Turkey, Typographic ligature, Ubaid period, Ugarit, Ullikummi, Upper Mesopotamia, Ur, Uranus (mythology), Uruk, Uruk period, Utnapishtim, Utu, Venus, Venus (mythology), Victory, Vincent d'Indy, Warka Vase, Weather god, Weaving, West Semitic languages, Wicca, Willow, Writing, Zabala (Sumer), Zagros Mountains. Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
The Abzu or Apsu (Cuneiform:, ZU.AB; Sumerian: abzu; Akkadian: apsû), also called engur (Cuneiform:, LAGAB×HAL; Sumerian: engur; Akkadian: engurru - lit., ab.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.
Aihole (pronounced "Eye-hoé"), also referred to as Aivalli, Ahivolal or Aryapura, is a historic site of ancient and medieval era Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments in north Karnataka (India) dated from the fourth century through the twelfth century CE.
Ainina and Danina (აინინა და დანინა) or Ainina and Danana (აჲნინა და დანანა) are a pair of pre-Christian female deities worshipped in ancient Kartli—Iberia of the Classical sources—as claimed by the medieval Georgian chronicles.
Akitu or Akitum (Sumerian:, akiti-šekinku,, "the barley-cutting", akiti-šununum, "barley-sowing"; Akkadian: akitu or rêš-šattim, "head of the year") was a spring festival in ancient Mesopotamia.The Babylonian Akitu festival has played a pivotal role in the development of theories of religion, myth and ritual, yet the purpose of the festival remains a point of contention among both historians of religion and Assyriologists.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alexander Hislop (1807 - 13 March 1865) was a Free Church of Scotland minister known for his criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.
The Anunnaki (also transcribed as Anunaki, Anunna, Ananaki, and other variations) are a group of deities that appear in the mythological traditions of the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians.
Anzû, also known as dZû and Imdugud (Sumerian: AN.IM.DUGUDMUŠEN), is a lesser divinity or monster in several Mesopotamian religions.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Areia or Aphrodite Areia (Ἀρεία) or "Aphrodite the Warlike" was a cultic epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, in which she was depicted in full armor like the god Ares.
Aphrodite Urania (Οὐρανία) was an epithet of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, signifying "heavenly" or "spiritual", to distinguish her from her more earthly aspect of Aphrodite Pandemos, "Aphrodite for all the people".
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Aratta is a land that appears in Sumerian myths surrounding Enmerkar and Lugalbanda, two early and possibly mythical kings of Uruk also mentioned on the Sumerian king list.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Aries is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Arina is a feminine given name.
Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; cuneiform: dAš-šur) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria.
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Assyriology (from Greek Ἀσσυρίᾱ, Assyriā; and -λογία, -logia) is the archaeological, historical, and linguistic study of not just Assyria, but the entirety of ancient Mesopotamia (a region encompassing what is today modern Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey, and north western and south western Iran) and of related cultures that used cuneiform writing.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
Aṯtar (عثتر; Musnad: 𐩲𐩻𐩧) is an ancient Semitic deity whose role, name, and even gender varied by culture.
Aya (or Aja) in Akkadian mythology was a mother goddess, consort of the sun god Shamash.
Ḫannaḫanna (from Hittite ḫanna- "grandmother") is a Hurrian Mother Goddess related to or influenced by the Sumerian goddess Inanna.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Blood Feast is a 1963 American horror splatter film composed, shot and directed by Herschell Gordon Lewis and starring Mal Arnold, William Arnold, Connie Mason and Lyn Bolton.
In the motion picture industry, a "box office bomb" or "box office flop" is a film that is considered highly unsuccessful or unprofitable during its theatrical run, often following significant hype regarding its cost, production, or marketing efforts.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buffy Anne Summers is the titular character from the Buffy the Vampire Slayer franchise.
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with later co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, and David Solomon.
In Tablet VI of the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Bull of Heaven is a mythical beast that Ishtar demands from her father Anu in the Sumerian poem Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven after Gilgamesh repudiates her sexual advances.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
The canto is a principal form of division in medieval and modern long poetry.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cross-dressing is the act of wearing items of clothing and other accoutrements commonly associated with the opposite sex within a particular society.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dali (also Daal or Dæl; Georgian: დალი) is a goddess who appears in the Georgian mythology of the Caucasus region.
Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music.
Diane Wolkstein (November 11, 1942 – January 31, 2013) was a folklorist and author of children's books.
Dingir (usually transliterated DIĜIR) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in e.g. DInanna.
Divine judgment means the judgment of God or other supreme beings within a religion.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
A dominatrix, plural dominatrixes or dominatrices, is a woman who takes the dominant role in BDSM activities.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
E-anna (𒂍𒀭𒈾, house of heavens) was an ancient Sumerian temple in Uruk.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to c. 2900–2350 BC and was preceded by the Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Edward FitzGerald (31 March 1809 – 14 June 1883) was an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Sir Edwin Arnold KCIE CSI (10 June 1832 – 24 March 1904) was an English poet and journalist, who is most known for his work The Light of Asia.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) is a project that provides an online digital library of texts and translations of Sumerian literature.
Emasculation of a human male is the removal of the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs.
EN (Borger 2003 nr. 164; U+12097 𒂗, see also ENSI) is the Sumerian cuneiform for "lord" or "priest".
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enkidu (EN.KI.DU3, "Enki's creation"), formerly misread as Eabani, is a central figure in the Ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh.
Enkimdu is the Sumerian god of farming, in charge of canals and ditches, a task assigned to him by the water god Enki during his organization of the world.
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account, of preserved, early post-Sumerian copies, composed in the Neo-Sumerian period (ca. 21st century BC).
Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum is thought to be the first museum by some historians, although this is speculative.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal (lit. "Queen of the Great Earth") was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology.
Eridu (Sumerian:, NUN.KI/eridugki; Akkadian: irîtu; modern Arabic: Tell Abu Shahrain) is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia (modern Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq).
Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body.
Feminist art is a category of art associated with the late 1960s and 1970s feminist movement.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
A femme fatale, sometimes called a maneater, is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations.
The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843.
The Gala (Akkadian: kalû) were priests of the Sumerian goddess Inanna, significant numbers of the personnel of both temples and palaces, the central institutions of Mesopotamian city states, individuals with neither male nor female gender identities.
In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, the Gallus (also called gallu demons or gallas) were great demons/devils of the underworld.
Gardnerian Wicca, or Gardnerian witchcraft, is a "Wicca is essentially a mystery cult" --> tradition in the neopagan religion of Wicca, whose members can trace initiatory descent from Gerald Gardner.
Gay sexual practices are sexual activities involving men who have sex with men (MSM), regardless of their sexual orientation or sexual identity.
Georgian mythology refers to the mythology of pre-Christian Georgians.
Geshtinanna (also known as Geštinanna or Ngeshtin-ana) is the ancient Sumerian goddess of agriculture, fertility, and dream interpretation, the so-called "heavenly grape-vine".
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
The Goddess movement includes spiritual beliefs or practices (chiefly neopagan) which has emerged predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand in the 1970s.
In Sumerian religion, Gugalanna is the first husband of Ereshkigal, the queen of the Underworld.
The Gutian dynasty (Sumerian:, gu-ti-umKI) was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia c. 2154—2112 BC after displacing the "Sargonic" dynasty.
Hadad (𐎅𐎄), Adad, Haddad (Akkadian) or Iškur (Sumerian) was the storm and rain god in the Northwest Semitic and ancient Mesopotamian religions.
Hamlyn is a UK publishing company founded by Paul Hamlyn in 1950 with an initial investment of £350.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
Hercules: The Legendary Journeys is an American television series filmed in New Zealand, based on the tales of the classical Greek culture hero Heracles (Hercules was his Roman analogue).
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hieros gamos or Hierogamy (Greek ἱερὸς γάμος, ἱερογαμία "holy marriage") is a sexual ritual that plays out a marriage between a god and a goddess, especially when enacted in a symbolic ritual where human participants represent the deities.
Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hittite mythology and Hittite religion were the religious beliefs and practices of the Hittites, who created an empire centered in what is now Turkey from c. 1600 BC to 1180 BC.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Hubris (from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
In Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Humbaba (Assyrian spelling), also spelled Huwawa (Sumerian spelling) and surnamed the Terrible, was a monstrous giant of immemorial age raised by Utu, the Sun.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging and, usually, food and drink.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ishara is an ancient deity of unknown origin from northern modern Syria.
Ishtar is a 1987 American action-adventure-comedy film written and directed by Elaine May and produced by Warren Beatty, who co-starred with Dustin Hoffman.
The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.
Isimud (also Isinu; Usmû; Usumu (Akkadian)) is a minor god, the messenger of the god Enki, in Sumerian mythology.
Isin (Sumerian: I3-si-inki, modern Arabic: Ishan al-Bahriyat) is an archaeological site in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
Jacob of Sarug (ܝܥܩܘܒ ܣܪܘܓܝܐ, Yaʿqûḇ Srûḡāyâ; his toponym is also spelled Serug or Serugh; Iacobus Sarugiensis; 451 – 29 November 521 AD), also called Mar Jacob, was one of the foremost Syriac poet-theologians among the Syriac, perhaps only second in stature to Ephrem the Syrian and equal to Narsai.
The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Douglas Craton (born August 6, 1953) is an American classical composer.
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Professor of Literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion.
Judy Chicago (born Judith Sylvia Cohen; July 20, 1939) is an American feminist artist, art educator, and writer known for her large collaborative art installation pieces about birth and creation images, which examine the role of women in history and culture.
Katabasis or catabasis (κατάβασις, from κατὰ "down" and βαίνω "go") is a descent of some type, such as moving downhill, the sinking of the winds or sun, a military retreat, a trip to the underworld, or a trip from the interior of a country down to the coast.
Kesh was an ancient Sumerian city and religious site, whose patron goddess was Ninhursag.
Kevin Tuite (Irish: Caoimhín de Tiúit; born April 3, 1954) is a full Professor of Anthropology at the Université de Montréal.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Kudurru was a type of stone document used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Babylonia between the 16th and 12th centuries BCE.
Kumarbi is the chief god of the Hurrians.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid (ex: milk or other fluids such as corn flour mixed with water), or grains such as rice, as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have "passed on".
The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC.
The lilac-breasted roller (Coracias caudatus) is an African member of the roller family of birds.
Lilith (לִילִית Lîlîṯ) is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud (3rd to 5th centuries).
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
The Lion of Babylon is an ancient Babylonian symbol.
Deities in ancient Mesopotamia were almost exclusively anthropomorphic.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Lugalbanda (𒈗𒌉𒁕, young/fierce king) is a character found in Sumerian mythology and literature.
In Sumerian mythology, Lulal, inscribed dlú.làl in cuneiform, is the younger son of Inanna.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Mahishasura is a buffalo demon in Hindu mythology, known for deception and who pursued his evil ways by shape shifting into different forms.
Manasseh was a king of the Kingdom of Judah.
The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian: me; paršu) is one of the decrees of the gods that is foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians understood it, possible.
A measuring rod is a tool used to physically measure lengths and survey areas of various sizes.
Meli-Šipak II, or alternatively MelišiḫuMe-li-dŠI-ḪU or mMe-li-ŠI-ḪU, where the reading of ḪU is uncertain, -ḫu or -pak.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Motif is a word used by folklorists who analyze, interpret, and describe the traditional elements found in the lore of particular folk groups and compare the folklore of various regions and cultures of the world based on these motif patterns.
Namtar (or Namtaru, or Namtara; meaning destiny or fate), was a chthonic minor deity in Mesopotamian mythology, god of death, and minister and messenger of An, Ereshkigal, and Nergal.
Nanaya (Sumerian, DNA.NA.A; also transcribed as "Nanâ", "Nanãy", "Nanaja", "Nanãja", or '"Nanãya"; in Greek: Ναναια or Νανα; Aramaic: ננױננאױ) is the canonical name for a goddess worshipped by the Sumerians and Akkadians, a deity who personified voluptuousness and sexuality,Westenholz, 1997 and warfare.
National gods are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation), and of that group's leaders.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
In Sumerian, Babylonian, and Akkadian mythology, Neti is a minor god of the Underworld.
The Sumerian word NIN (from the Akkadian pronunciation of the sign EREŠ) was used to denote a queen or a priestess, and is often translated as "lady".
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
Ningal ("Great Lady/Queen") was a goddess of reeds in the Sumerian mythology, daughter of Enki and Ningikurga and the consort of the moon god Nanna by whom she bore the sun god Utu, his sister Inanna, and in some texts, Ishkur.
Ninshubur (also known as Ninshubar, Nincubura or Ninšubur) was the sukkal or second-in-command of the goddess Inanna in Sumerian mythology.
In Sumerian mythology, Ninsun or Ninsumun (cuneiform: dNIN.SUMUN2; Sumerian: Nin-sumun(ak) "lady of the wild cows") is a goddess, best known as the mother of the legendary hero Gilgamesh, and as the tutelary goddess of Gudea of Lagash.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
Papsukkal is the messenger god in the Akkadian pantheon.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Euphratean is a hypothetical unclassified language or languages which was considered by some Assyriologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer), to be the substratum language of the people that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC).
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
Queen of Heaven was a title given to a number of ancient sky goddesses worshipped throughout the ancient Mediterranean and Near East during ancient times.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Saint Romanos the Melodist or the Hymnographer (often Latinized as Romanus or Anglicized as Roman), was one of the greatest of Syrio-Greek hymnographers, called "the Pindar of rhythmic poetry".
A rosette is a round, stylized flower design.
Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Sacred prostitution, temple prostitution, cult prostitution, and religious prostitution are general terms for a sexual rite consisting of sexual intercourse or other sexual activity performed in the context of religious worship, perhaps as a form of fertility rite or divine marriage (hieros gamos).
Samuel Noah Kramer (September 28, 1897 – November 26, 1990) was one of the world's leading Assyriologists and a world-renowned expert in Sumerian history and Sumerian language.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
In Sumerian mythology Shara, Šara (Sumerian: 𒀭𒁈, dšara2, dšara) is a minor god of war, mainly identified with the city of Umma, north-east of Unug (Uruk).
Shuruppak (𒋢𒆳𒊒𒆠, "the healing place"), modern Tell Fara, was an ancient Sumerian city situated about 55 kilometres (35 mi) south of Nippur on the banks of the Euphrates in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
A solar symbol is a symbol representing the Sun.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
A splatter film is a subgenre of horror film that deliberately focuses on graphic portrayals of gore and graphic violence.
The Star of Ishtar or Star of Inanna is a symbol of the ancient Sumerian goddess Inanna and her East Semitic counterpart Ishtar.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Sumerian religion was the religion practiced and adhered to by the people of Sumer, the first literate civilization of ancient Mesopotamia.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.
Tell Uqair (Tell Uquair, Tell Aqair) is a tell or settlement mound northeast of Babylon and about south of Baghdad in modern Babil Governorate, Iraq.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform; hieroglyphic Luwian, read as TarhunzasAnnick Payne (2014), Hieroglyphic Luwian: An Introduction with Original Texts, 3rd revised edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 159.) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm.
The Dinner Party is an installation artwork by feminist artist Judy Chicago.
The Georgian Chronicles is a conventional English name for the principal compendium of medieval Georgian historical texts, natively known as Kartlis Tskhovreba (ქართლის ცხოვრება), literally "Life of Kartli", Kartli being a core region of ancient and medieval Georgia, known to the Classical and Byzantine authors as Iberia.
The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, is a book by Sir Edwin Arnold.
The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, in which the author discusses the treatment of women throughout history.
The Two Babylons, subtitled The Papal Worship Proved to Be the Worship of Nimrod and His Wife is a religious pamphlet published in 1853 by the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland theologian Alexander Hislop (1807–65).
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Tikva Simone Frymer-Kensky (1943 – August 31, 2006) was a Professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School.
Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
__notoc__ In Hurrian mythology, Ullikummi is a giant stone monster, son of Kumarbi and the sea god's daughter, Sertapsuruhi or a female cliff.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
Utnapishtim or Utanapishtim (𒌓𒍣) is a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh who is tasked by Enki (Ea) to abandon his worldly possessions and create a giant ship to be called Preserver of Life.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
The term victory (from Latin victoria) originally applied to warfare, and denotes success achieved in personal combat, after military operations in general or, by extension, in any competition.
Paul Marie Théodore Vincent d'Indy (27 March 18512 December 1931) was a French composer and teacher.
The Warka Vase is a carved alabaster stone vessel found in the temple complex of the Sumerian goddess Inanna in the ruins of the ancient city of Uruk, located in the modern Al Muthanna Governorate, in southern Iraq.
A weather god is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain and wind.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Zabala (also Zabalam, modern Tell Ibzeikh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq) was a city of ancient Sumer in what is now the Dhi Qar governorate in Iraq.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Agasayam, Anunit, Anunitu, Anunītu, Goddess Inanna, Inana, Inanna and Shukaletuda, Inanna's Descent into the Underworld, Inanna-Ishtar, Innana, Innin, Innina, Irnina, Irnini, Ischtar, Ishatar, Ishtar, Ishtari, Isthar, Ištar, Kir-gu-lu, Priestesses of Inanna, Sahirtu, Sarbanda, Shukaletuda, 𒈹.