215 relations: Abacus, Absolute monarchy, Aclla, Alejandro Toledo, Alfred A. Knopf, Alpaca, Altiplano, Amauta, Amazon basin, Amazonas before the Inca Empire, Andén, Andean civilizations, Andes, Anesthetic, Antisuyu, Apurímac Region, Arauco War, Argentina, Arquebus, Artificial cranial deformation, Astronomy, Atahualpa, Axe-monies, Ayacucho, Ayar Cachi, Aymara language, Aymaran languages, Ayni, Battle of Cajamarca, Battle of Puná, Battle of the Maule, Biodiversity Heritage Library, Biome, Bolas, Bolivia, Bureaucracy, Cajamarca, Calendar, Cannon, Capacocha, Carl Troll, Ceramic art, Chanka, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chasqui, Chavín culture, Chicha, Chile, Chimor, Chincha culture, ..., Chinchay Suyu, Chinchipe River, Choquequirao, Chuño, Coca, Code of law, Cojitambo, Colombia, Congress of the Republic of Peru, Conquistador, Corvée, Cubit, Cusco, Decimal, Destruction of the Seven Cities, Diego de Almagro, Diphtheria, Eclipse, Ecuador, El Fuerte de Samaipata, Environmental determinism, Equinox, Erdkunde, Federal district, Federation, Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, Francisco Pizarro, Guayaquil, Hemoglobin, Hernando de Soto, Hiram Bingham III, History of Peru, History of the Incas, Huaca, Huayna Capac, Huánuco Pampa, Huáscar, Huchuy Qosqo, Human sacrifice, Imperial cult, Inca Civil War, Inca cuisine, Inca Empire, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Inca mythology, Inca-Caranqui, Incan agriculture, Incan aqueducts, Incan engineers, Incas in Central Chile, Incest, Influenza, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Inti, Inti Raymi, Io9, Isabella of Portugal, José Bengoa, Judicial independence, Kanopa, Kingdom of Cusco, Kuntisuyu, Lake Titicaca, Larco Museum, Lima, Llama, Llaqtapata, Lunar calendar, Lung, Lunisolar calendar, Machu Picchu, Maipo River, Mama Killa, Mama Ocllo, Manco Cápac, Manco Inca Yupanqui, Mapuche, María Rostworowski, Market economy, Maule River, Measles, Mit'a, Mochica language, Moray (Inca ruin), Muisca Confederation, National Academies Press, National Geographic, Nazca, Neo-Inca State, Old World, Ollantaytambo, Oral history, Oral tradition, Oroncota, Oxygen, Pachacamac, Pachacuti, Pachamama, Pambamarca Fortress Complex, Panama, Paria, Bolivia, Pastoralism, Páramo, Písac, Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Peru, Piura, Planned economy, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Potosí, Pre-Columbian era, Pukara, Pukara of La Compañía, Puna grassland, Puquina language, Qiru, Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift, Quechuan languages, Quillota, Quipu, Quispiguanca, Qulla, Qullasuyu, Qullqa, Rainbow flag, Ransom Room, Rapier, Reciprocity (cultural anthropology), Reincarnation, Religion in the Inca Empire, Rumicucho, Sacsayhuamán, Sapa Inca, Shuar, Sinchi Roca, Smallpox, Smithsonian Institution, Solar calendar, Solar deity, Solstice, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish Requirement of 1513, Staple food, Tambo (Incan structure), Tampukancha, Túpac Amaru, The New York Times, Tiwanaku, Tiwanaku empire, Topa Inca Yupanqui, Traditional economy, Transit of Venus, Trepanning, Tumebamba, Typhus, Vertical archipelago, Vilcabamba, Peru, Vincente de Valverde, Viracocha, Vitcos, Wari Empire, Willaq Umu, William H. Prescott, Yupana, Zenith. Expand index (165 more) » « Shrink index
The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.
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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
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Aclla (Quechua: aklla or aqlla, pl. aqllakuna), also called Chosen Women, Virgins of the Sun, and Wives of the Inca, were sequestered women in the Inca Empire.
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Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru, from 2001 to 2006.
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Alfred A. Knopf
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
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The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid, similar to, and often confused with the llama.
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The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest.
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Amauta (meaning "master" or "wise one" in Quechua) was a title for teachers in the Inca empire, especially of children of the nobility.
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The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
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Amazonas before the Inca Empire
Prehistoric evidence on rocky walls includes the rock paintings of Chiñuña-Yamón and Limones-Calpón in the province of Utcubamba.
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An andén (plural andenes), Spanish for "platform", is a stair-step like terrace dug into the slope of a hillside for agricultural purposes.
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The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
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Antisuyu (Quechua anti east, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire, "eastern region") was the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered on the modern-day Upper Amazon region which the Anti (people) inhabited.
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Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru.
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The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
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Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation or modification, head flattening, or head binding is a form of body alteration in which the skull of a human being is deformed intentionally.
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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
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Atahualpa, also Atahuallpa, Atabalipa (in Hispanicized spellings) or Atawallpa (Quechua) (c. 1502–26 July 1533) was the last Inca Emperor.
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Axe-monies refer to bronze artifacts found in both western Mesoamerica and the northern Andes.
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Ayacucho (Ayacuchu), is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.
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Ayar Cachi (in hispanicized spelling) or Ayar Kachi (kachi means salt in Quechua) was one of the brothers of Manco Cápac, who emerged from the cave at Paqariq Tampu.
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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
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Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan.
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Ayni (Quechua, also spelled Ayniy or Aini) can refer to either the concept of reciprocity or mutualism among people of the Andean mountain communities or the practice of this concept.
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Battle of Cajamarca
The 'Battle' of Cajamarca was the unexpected ambush and seizure of the Inca ruler Atahualpa by a small Spanish force led by Francisco Pizarro, on November 16, 1532.
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Battle of Puná
The Battle of Puná, a peripheral engagement of Francisco Pizarro's conquest of Peru, was fought in April 1531 on the island of Puná (in the Gulf of Guayaquil) in Ecuador.
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Battle of the Maule
The Battle of the Maule was fought between the Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru in what is now the Maule River, Chile.
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Biodiversity Heritage Library
The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a consortium of natural history and botanical libraries that cooperate to digitize and make accessible the legacy literature of biodiversity held in their collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” The BHL consortium works with the international taxonomic community, rights holders, and other interested parties to ensure that this biodiversity heritage is made available to a global audience through open access principles.
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A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
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A bolas (plural: bolas or bolases; from Spanish bola, "ball", also known as boleadoras) is a type of throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, used to capture animals by entangling their legs.
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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
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Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
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Cajamarca is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region as well as an important cultural and commercial center in the northern Andes.
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A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
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Capacocha or Qhapaq huchaOf Summits and Sacrifice: An Ethnohistoric Study of Inka Religious Practices, University of Texas Press, 2009 (Quechua qhapaq noble, principal, mighty, royal, hucha crime, sin, guilt Hispanicized spellings Capac cocha, Capaccocha, Capacocha, also qhapaq ucha) was an important sacrificial rite among the Inca that typically involved the sacrifice of children. The phrase Capacocha has also been translated to mean "solemn sacrifice" or "royal obligation." The rationale for this type of sacrificial rite has typically been understood as the Inca trying to ensure that humanity's best were sent to join their deities.
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Carl Troll (24 December 1899 in Gabersee – 21 July 1975 in Bonn), was a German geographer, brother of botanist Wilhelm Troll.
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Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
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The Chanka people (or Chanca) were a Late Intermediate (ca. 1400 CE.) ethnic group in Peru.
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
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The chasquis (also chaskis) were the messengers of the Inca empire.
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The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found.
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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.
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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor or Chimú Empire) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru beginning around 850 and ending around 1470.
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The Chincha culture consisted of a Native American (Indian) people living near the Pacific Ocean in southwest Peru.
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Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca Empire.
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The Chinchipe River is a river on the border between Ecuador and Peru.
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Choquequirao (possibly from Quechua chuqi metal, k'iraw crib, cot) is an Incan site in south Peru, similar in structure and architecture to Machu Picchu.
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Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Bolivia and Peru, and is known in various countries of South America, including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru.
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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
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Code of law
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
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Cojitambo is an Inca and pre-Inca archaeological ruin, a popular rock climbing site, and a small village west of Azogues, capital of Canar province of Ecuador.
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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
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Congress of the Republic of Peru
The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru.
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Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
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The cubit is an ancient unit of length that had several definitions according to each of the various different cultures that used the unit.
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Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
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The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
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Destruction of the Seven Cities
The Destruction of the Seven Cities (Destrucción de las siete ciudades) is a term used in Chilean historiography to refer to the destruction or abandonment of seven major Spanish outposts in southern Chile around 1600 caused by the Mapuche and Huilliche uprising of 1598.
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Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro, (– July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion.
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Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
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An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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El Fuerte de Samaipata
El Fuerte de Samaipata or Fort Samaipata, also known simply as "El Fuerte", is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Florida Province, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
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Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories.
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An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
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Erdkunde – Archive for Scientific Geography is a scientific journal published by the University of Bonn.
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A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body.
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A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
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Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala
Felipe Huaman Poma de Ayala (ca. 1535Fane, 165 – after 1616), also known as Guamán Poma or Wamán Poma, was a Quechua nobleman known for chronicling and denouncing the ill treatment of the natives of the Andes by the Spanish after their conquest.
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Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
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Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil (St.), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port.
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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
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Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto (1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (through Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and most likely Arkansas).
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Hiram Bingham III
Hiram Bingham III (November 19, 1875 – June 6, 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. He made public the existence of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu in 1911 with the guidance of local indigenous farmers. Later, Bingham served as a member of the United States Senate for the state of Connecticut.
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History of Peru
The history of Peru spans 4 millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the coastal desert.
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History of the Incas
The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.
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In the Quechuan languages of South America, a huaca or wak'a is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind.
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Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization.
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Huánuco Pampa, Huánuco Marka (also spelled Huánuco Marca) or Huánuco Viejo, is an archaeological site in Peru in the Huánuco Region, Dos de Mayo Province, La Unión District.
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Huáscar Inca (Quechua: Waskar Inka, 1503–1532) was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532.
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Huchuy Qosqo, (also spelled Yuchuy Cuzco), is an Incan archaeological site north of Cuzco, Peru.
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Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
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An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
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Inca Civil War
The Inca Civil War, also known as the Inca Dynastic War, the Inca War of Succession, or, sometimes, the War of the Two Brothers was fought between two brothers, Huáscar and Atahualpa, sons of Huayna Capac, over the succession to the throne of the Inca Empire.
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Inca cuisine originated in pre-Columbian times within the Inca civilization from the 13th to the 16th century.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
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Inca Garcilaso de la Vega
Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru.
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Inca mythology includes many stories and legends that attempt to explain or symbolize Inca beliefs.
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The Inca-Caranqui archaeological site is located in the village of Caranqui on the southern outskirts of the city of Ibarra, Ecuador.
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Incan Agriculture was the culmination of thousands of years of farming and herding in the high-elevation Andes mountains of South America, the coastal deserts, and the rainforests of the Amazon basin.
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The Incan aqueducts refer to any of a series of aqueducts built by the Inca people.
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The builders of the empire planned and built impressive waterworks in their city centers, including canals, fountains, drainage systems and expansive irrigation.
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Incas in Central Chile
Inca rule in Chile was brief, it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed.
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Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
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International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs
The International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) is an independent and non-profit international human rights-based membership organization, whose central charter is to endorse and promote the collective rights of the world's indigenous peoples.
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Inti is the ancient Incan sun god.
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The Inti Raymi'rata (Quechua for "sun festival") is a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the god Inti (Quechua for "sun"), the most venerated deity in Inca religion.
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io9 is a blog launched in 2008 by Gawker Media, which focuses on the subjects of science fiction, fantasy, futurism, science, technology and related areas.
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Isabella of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal (24 October 1503 – 1 May 1539) was a Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Spain, Germany, Italy, Naples and Sicily and Duchess of Burgundy by her marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and regent of Spain during the absences of her husband during 1529-1532, 1535-1536 and 1538-1539.
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José Bengoa Cabello (31 January 1936) is a Chilean historian and anthropologist.
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Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
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Kanopa was the god of pregnancy in the Incan Empire.
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Kingdom of Cusco
The Kingdom of Cusco (sometimes spelled Cuzco and in Quechua Qosqo or Qusqu) was a small kingdom based in Cusco on the Andean mountain ranges that began as a small city-state founded by the Incas around the start of 13th century.
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Kuntisuyu or Kunti Suyu (Quechua kunti west, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire, "western region") was the southwestern provincial region of the Inca Empire.
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Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
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The Museo Larco (English: Larco Museum) or Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera is a privately owned museum of pre-Columbian art, located in the Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru.
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Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
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Llaqtapata (Quechua) llaqta place (village, town, city, country, nation), pata elevated place / above, at the top / edge, bank (of a river), shore,Lost City of the Incas.
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A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
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A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
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Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
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The Maipo River is the main river flowing through the Santiago Metropolitan Region and the Valparaiso Region of Chile.
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Mama Killa (Quechua mama mother, killa moon, "Mother Moon", hispanicized spelling Mama Quilla), in Inca mythology and religion, was the third power and goddess of the moon.
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In Inca mythology, Mama Cora Ocllo, Mama Ocllo, Mama Ogllo, Mama Oello (in Hispanicized spellings), Mama Oella, Mama Oullo, Mama Occlo (spellings resulting from bad OCR), Mama Okllo or Mama Uqllu (Quechua) was deified as a mother and fertility goddess.
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Manco Cápac (Quechua: Manqu Qhapaq, "the royal founder"), also known as Manco Inca and Ayar Manco was, according to some historians, the first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco, possibly in the early 13th century.
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Manco Inca Yupanqui
Manco Inca Yupanqui (1516–1544) (Manqu Inka Yupanki in Quechua) was the founder and monarch (Sapa Inca) of the independent Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, although he was originally a puppet Inca Emperor installed by the Spaniards.
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The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
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María Rostworowski Tovar de Diez Canseco (8 August 1915 – 6 March 2016) was a Peruvian historian known for her extensive and detailed publications about Peruvian Ancient Cultures and the Inca Empire.
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A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
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The Maule river or Río Maule (Mapudungun: rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile.
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Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
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Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.
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Mochica (also Yunga, Yunca, Chimú, Muchic, Mochika, Muchik, Chimu) is a Chimuan language formerly spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in an inland village.
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Moray (Inca ruin)
Moray (Muray) is an archaeological site in Peru approximately northwest of Cuzco on a high plateau at about and just west of the village of Maras.
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The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America.
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National Academies Press
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
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National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
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Nazca (sometimes spelled Nasca) is a city and system of valleys on the southern coast of Peru.
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The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established by Inca emperor Huayna Capac's son Manco Inca Yupanqui in Vilcabamba in 1537.
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The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
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Ollantaytambo (Ullantaytampu) is a town and an Inca archaeological site in southern Peru some by road northwest of the city of Cusco.
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Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
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Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
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Oroncota or Huruncuta was an Inca provincial center or capital on the border of Chuquisaca and Potosi Departments of Bolivia.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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Pachacamac (Pachakamaq) is an archaeological site southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River.
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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki (Quechua) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu).
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Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
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Pambamarca Fortress Complex
The Pambamarca Fortress Complex consists of the ruins of a large number of pukaras (hilltop forts) and other constructions of the Inca Empire.
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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
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Paria, Bolivia was an important administrative center of the Inca Empire in the late 15th and 16th centuries CE and was the first Spanish settlement in Bolivia, founded in 1535.
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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
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Páramo can refer to a variety of alpine tundra ecosystems.
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Písac or Pisac (possibly from Quechua for Nothoprocta, also spelled p'isaqa) is a Peruvian village in the Sacred Valley of the Incas.
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Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru
This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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Piura is a city in northwestern Peru.
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A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
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Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.
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Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
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The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
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Pukara (Aymara and Quechuan "fortress", hispanicized spellings pucara, pucará) is a ruin of the fortifications made by the natives of the central Andean cultures (that is to say: from Ecuador to Central Chile and the Argentine Northwest) and particularly to those of the Inca Empire.
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Pukara of La Compañía
Pukara de La Compañia is an archaeological site containing the remains of a promaucae fortress, later used by the Incas, located on the large hill overlooking the village of La Compañia, a village in the commune of Graneros, Chile.
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The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America.
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Puquina (or Pukina) is an extinct language once spoken by a native ethnic group in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and in the north of Chile.
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A qiru (also spelled kero, quero, locally also qero) is an ancient Incan drinking vessel used to drink liquids like alcohol, or more specifically, chicha.
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Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift
In recent years, Peru and Bolivia have revised the official spelling for place-names originating from Aymara and the Quechuan languages.
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Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
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Quillota is a city located in the Aconcagua River valley in central Chile's Valparaíso Region.
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Quipu (also spelled khipu) or talking knots, were recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures, particularly in the region of Andean South America.
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Quispiguanca, also Q'espihuanca and Q'espiwanka, was a royal estate of the Inca emperor Huayna Capac (c. 1464–1525 CE).
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The Qulla (Quechuan for south, hispanicized and mixed spellings: Colla, Kolla) are an indigenous people of western Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina living in Jujuy and Salta Provinces.
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Qullasuyu (Qullasuyu and Quechua, qulla south, Qulla a people, suyu region, part of a territory, each of the four regions which formed the Inca Empire, "southern region", Hispanicized spellings Collasuyu, Kholla Suyu) was the southeastern provincial region of the Inca Empire.
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A qullqa ("deposit, storehouse"; (spelling variants: colca, collca, qolca, qollca) was a storage building found along roads and near the cities and political centers of the Inca Empire. To a "prodigious unprecedented in the annals of world prehistory" the Incas stored food and other commodities which could be distributed to their armies, officials, conscripted laborers, and, in times of need, to the populace. The uncertainty of agriculture at the high altitudes which comprised most of the Inca Empire was among the factors which probably stimulated the construction of large numbers of qullqas.
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A rainbow flag is a multicolored flag consisting of the colors of the rainbow.
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The Ransom Room (El Cuarto del Rescate) is a small building located in Cajamarca, Peru.
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Rapier or espada ropera, is a loose term for a type of slender, sharply pointed sword.
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Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.
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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
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Religion in the Inca Empire
In the heterogeneous Inca Empire, polytheistic religions were practiced.
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Rumicucho or Pucara de Rumicucho is an archaeological site of the Inca Empire in the parroquia of San Antonio de Pichincha, in Quito Canton, Pichincha Province.
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Sacsayhuamán, Sacsayhuaman, Sacsahuaman, Saxahuaman, Saksaywaman, Saqsaywaman, Sasawaman, Saksawaman, Sacsahuayman, Sasaywaman or Saksaq Waman (possibly from Quechua language, waman falcon or variable hawk) is a citadel on the northern outskirts of the city of Cusco, Peru, the historic capital of the Inca Empire.
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The Sapa Inca (Hispanicized spelling) or Sapa Inka (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one"), was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and, later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.
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The Shuar are an indigenous people of Ecuador and Peru.
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Sinchi Roca, Sinchi Rocca, Cinchi Roca (in hispanicized spellings), Sinchi Ruq'a or Sinchi Ruq'a Inka (Quechua for "valorous generous Inca") was the second Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco (beginning around 1230 CE, though as early as 1105 CE according to some) and a member of the Húrin dynasty.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
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A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
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A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
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A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
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Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
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Spanish Requirement of 1513
The Spanish Requirement of 1513 (Requerimiento) was a declaration by the Spanish monarchy, written by the Council of Castile jurist Juan López de Palacios Rubios, of Castile's divinely ordained right to take possession of the territories of the New World and to subjugate, exploit and, when necessary, to fight the native inhabitants.
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A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
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Tambo (Incan structure)
A tambo (Quechua: tampu, "inn") was an Incan structure built for administrative and military purposes.
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Tampukancha (Quechua, tampu inn, kancha enclosure, enclosed place, yard, a frame, or wall that encloses, Hispanicized Tambocancha, also Tambokancha) is an ancient Incan religious center located in Peru.
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Túpac Amaru or Thupa Amaro (from Quechua: Tupaq Amaru) (1545 – 24 September 1572) was the last indigenous monarch (Sapa Inca) of the Neo-Inca State, remnants of the Inca Empire in Vilcabamba, Peru.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
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The Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) state was a Pre-Columbian polity based in the city of Tiwanaku in western Bolivia that extended around Lake Titicaca and into present-day Peru and Chile from 300 to 1150.
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Topa Inca Yupanqui
Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui ('Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty, and tenth of the Inca civilization.
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Traditional economy is an original economic system in which traditions, customs, and beliefs help shape the goods and the services the economy produces, as well as the rules and manner of their distribution.
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Transit of Venus
A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.
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Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
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Tumebamba, Tomebamba (hispanicized spellings) or Tumipampa (Kichwa) was a former city-state in the Inca Empire.
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Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
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The vertical archipelago is a term coined by sociologist and anthropologist John Victor Murra under the influence of economist Karl Polanyi to describe the native Andean agricultural economic model of accessing and distributing resources.
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Vilcabamba (in hispanicized spelling), Willkapampa (Aymara and Quechua) or Espíritu Pampa was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 that served as the capital of the Neo-Inca State, the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule.
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Vincente de Valverde
Vicente de Valverde y Alvarez de Toledo, O.P. or Vincent de Valle Viridi was a Spanish Dominican friar, who was involved in the Conquest of the Americas, later becoming the Bishop of Cuzco.
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Viracocha is the great creator deity in the pre-Inca and Inca mythology in the Andes region of South America.
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Vitcos (Rusaspata) is an archaeological site in the Cusco Region in Peru, believed to have been used by ruler in exile Manco Inca during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
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The Wari Empire was a political formation that emerged around AD 600 in the central highlands of Peru and lasted for about 500 years, to 1100 AD.
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The Willaq Umu ("priest who recounts") were the High Priests of the Sun in the Inca Empire.
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William H. Prescott
William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 – January 28, 1859) was an American historian and Hispanist, who is widely recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian.
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A yupana (from Quechua yupay: count) is an abacus used to perform arithmetic operations dating back to the time of the Incas.
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The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
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Andean Peoples, Inca, Inca calendar, Inca culture, Inca empire, Inca state, Incan, Incan Empire, Incan empire, Incan ruins, Incans, Incas, Inka Empire, Inka empire, Kingdom of Tawantinsuyu, Northern Inca Empire, Purumacu, Suyu (Inca Empire), Tahuantin Suyu, Tahuantinsuyo, Tahuantinsuyu, Tawantin Suyu, Tawantinsuyo, Tawantinsuyu, Tawatin suyu, Tawatinsuyu, Twantinsuyu.