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Incandescent light bulb

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An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence). [1]

237 relations: A-series light bulb, Air conditioning, Ajka, Albon Man, Alexander Just, Alexander Lodygin, American National Standards Institute, Angewandte Chemie, Arc lamp, Arcturus, Argon, Bamboo, Bayonet mount, Bi-pin lamp base, Black body, Brush Electrical Machines, Bureau of Indian Standards, Business Wire, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, CBC News, Centennial Light, Charles D. Wrege, Château de Blois, Christmas tree, Chromium, City of Westminster, Cobalt, Cold cathode, Color rendering index, Color temperature, Compact fluorescent lamp, Convective heat transfer, Conveyor belt, Corning Inc., Cragside, Croats, Diffraction grating, Dimmer, Donald G. Fink, Dopant, Dundee, Dynamo, Easy-Bake Oven, Ebenezer Kinnersley, Edison and Swan Electric Light Company, Edison screw, Edward Libbey, Egg incubation, ..., Egon Orowan, Electric arc, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric generator, Electric light, Electric power, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electro-Dynamic Light Company, Electron, Energy & Environmental Science, Energy Policy (journal), Evaporation, Exposition Universelle (1900), Fire station, Flash (photography), Flashlight, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorescent lamps and health, Franjo Hanaman, Frosting (decorative arts), Fuse (electrical), Fused quartz, General Electric, Getter, Glass coloring and color marking, Globar, Graphite, Guinness World Records, Hakunetsusha, Halogen, Halogen lamp, Harper (publisher), Headlamp, Heinrich Göbel, Helsingin Sanomat, Henry Woodward (inventor), High-intensity discharge lamp, Hiram Maxim, Hot cathode, Humphry Davy, Hungary, Hydrogen, Imre Bródy, Incandescence, Incubator (egg), Inert gas, Infrared, Infrared heater, Infrared lamp, Interference filter, International Textbook Company, Internet Archive, Iridium, Irving Langmuir, James Bowman Lindsay, Japanese Industrial Standards, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, John Wellington Starr, Joseph Swan, Kaolinite, Kelvin, Krypton, Lampshade, Lava lamp, Lawsuit, LED lamp, Lewis Howard Latimer, Library and Archives Canada, Light, Light tube, Lightbulb joke, Lighting, List of automotive light bulb types, List of light sources, Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne, Livermore, California, Longest-lasting light bulbs, Lumen (unit), Luminescence, Luminosity function, Luminous efficacy, Manufacturing cost, Marcellin Jobard, Marketing, Marvin Pipkin, Mathew Evans, Mazda (light bulb), Melting point, Mercury (element), Microscope, Molecular mass, Molybdenum, Moses G. Farmer, Multifaceted reflector, Nernst lamp, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nicola Armaroli, Nitrogen, Ohm, Opera house, Optical fiber, Optical microscope, Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, Osmium, Osram, Osram Sylvania, Over illumination, Parabolic aluminized reflector light, Patent, Phase-out of incandescent light bulbs, Philips, Phoebus cartel, Photometry (optics), Photonic crystal, Platinum, Positive feedback, Poultry, Power factor, Procyon, Redox, Regulator (automatic control), Relative atomic mass, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Reptile, Retrofitting, Rhenium, Rhodium, Royal Institution, Rutgers University Press, Ruthenium, Sandia National Laboratories, Savoy Theatre, Siemens, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, Spectral line, Spectrometer, Sprengel pump, SS Columbia (1880), Stage lighting instrument, Stellar classification, Tantalum, Temperature coefficient, Terrarium, The New York Times, The Times, Thermal conduction, Thermal conductivity, Thermal decomposition, Thermionic emission, Thomas Edison, Thorn Electrical Industries, Toronto Star, Toshiba, TRIAC, Trouble light, Tungsram, Tungsten, Tungsten nitride, Tungsten pentoxide, Tungsten trioxide, Tungsten(IV) oxide, Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead, United Kingdom, United States Patent and Trademark Office, USA Today, Vacuum, Vacuum tube, Vincenzo Balzani, Vitrite, Volt-ampere, Voltage, Walther Nernst, Warren De la Rue, Wedge base, Wellsboro, Pennsylvania, William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, William D. Coolidge, William E. Sawyer, Wireless telegraphy, Xenon, Xenon arc lamp, Zirconium, 3-way lamp. Expand index (187 more) »

A-series light bulb

The A-series light bulb is the "classic" type of light bulb that has been the most commonly used type for general-purpose lighting applications since the early 20th century.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Ajka

Ajka is a city in Hungary with about 35,000 inhabitants.

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Albon Man

Albon Man (June 29, 1826 – February 18, 1905) is associated with the early technology of the electric incandescent light bulb.

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Alexander Just

Alexander Friedrich Just (12 April 1874 in Bremen – 30 May 1937 in Budapest) was a German/Hungarian chemist and inventor.

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Alexander Lodygin

Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин; 18 October 1847 – 16 March 1923) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb.

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American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

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Angewandte Chemie

Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Arcturus

|- bgcolor.

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Argon

Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Bamboo

The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.

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Bayonet mount

A bayonet mount (mainly as a method of mechanical attachment, as for fitting a lens to a camera) or bayonet connector (for electrical use) is a fastening mechanism consisting of a cylindrical male side with one or more radial pins, and a female receptor with matching L-shaped slot(s) and with spring(s) to keep the two parts locked together.

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Bi-pin lamp base

A bipin or bi-pin, (sometimes referred to as two-pin, bipin cap or bipin socket), is a type of lamp fitting.

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Brush Electrical Machines

Brush Electrical Machines is a manufacturer of electrical generators typically for gas turbine and steam turbine driven applications.

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Bureau of Indian Standards

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the national Standards Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.

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Business Wire

Business Wire is a company that disseminates full-text press releases from thousands of companies and organizations worldwide to news media, financial markets, disclosure systems, investors, information web sites, databases, bloggers, social networks and other audiences.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Centennial Light

The Centennial Light is the world's longest-lasting light bulb, burning since 1901.

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Charles D. Wrege

Charles D. (Chuck) Wrege (March 11, 1924 - August 19, 2014)Art Bedeian, Dan Wren and Regina Greenwood "," Academy of Management,at aom.org, 2014.

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Château de Blois

The Royal Château de Blois (French: "Château Royal de Blois") is located in the Loir-et-Cher département in the Loire Valley, in France, in the center of the city of Blois.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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City of Westminster

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which also holds city status.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Cold cathode

A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.

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Color rendering index

A color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.

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Color temperature

The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source.

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Compact fluorescent lamp

A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs.

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Convective heat transfer

Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.

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Conveyor belt

A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor).

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Corning Inc.

Corning Incorporated is an American multinational technology company that specializes in specialty glass, ceramics, and related materials and technologies including advanced optics, primarily for industrial and scientific applications.

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Cragside

Cragside is a Victorian country house near the town of Rothbury in Northumberland, England.

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Croats

Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.

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Diffraction grating

In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.

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Dimmer

Dimmers are devices connected to a light fixture and used to lower the brightness of light.

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Donald G. Fink

Donald Glen Fink (November 8, 1911 – May 3, 1996) was an American electrical engineer, a pioneer in the development of radio navigation systems and television standards, vice president for research of Philco, president of the Institute of Radio Engineers, General Manager of the IEEE, and an editor of many important publications in electrical engineering.

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Dopant

A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

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Dundee

Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.

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Dynamo

A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator.

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Easy-Bake Oven

The Easy-Bake Oven is a working toy oven which Kenner introduced in 1963, and which Hasbro still manufactured as of late April 2016.

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Ebenezer Kinnersley

Ebenezer Kinnersley (November 30, 1711 in Gloucester, England – July 4, 1778 in Lower Dublin Township, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a scientist, inventor and lecturer, specializing in the investigation of electricity.

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Edison and Swan Electric Light Company

The Edison and Swan Electric Light Company Limited was a manufacturer of incandescent lamp bulbs and other electrical goods.

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Edison screw

Edison screw (ES) is a standard socket for light bulbs in North America.

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Edward Libbey

Edward Drummond Libbey (April 17, 1854 – November 13, 1925) is regarded as the father of the glass industry in Toledo, Ohio, where he opened the Libbey Glass Company (later Libbey, Inc.) in 1888.

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Egg incubation

Incubation refers to the process by which certain oviparous (egg-laying) animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg.

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Egon Orowan

Egon Orowan FRS (Orován Egon) (August 2, 1902 – August 3, 1989) was a Hungarian/British/U.S. physicist and metallurgist.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Electrical conductor

In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electro-Dynamic Light Company

The Electro-Dynamic Light Company of New York was a lighting and electrical distribution company organized in 1878.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Energy & Environmental Science

Energy & Environmental Science is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles.

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Energy Policy (journal)

Energy Policy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on energy policy and energy supply.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.

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Fire station

A fire station (also called a fire house, fire hall, or firemen's hall) is a structure or other area for storing firefighting apparatus such as fire engines and related vehicles, personal protective equipment, fire hoses and other specialized equipment.

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Flash (photography)

A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K to help illuminate a scene.

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Flashlight

A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Fluorescent lamps and health

Fluorescent lamps have been suggested to affect human health in various ways.

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Franjo Hanaman

Franjo Hanaman (June 30, 1878 in Drenovci, Slavonia, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary – January 23, 1941 in Zagreb, Kingdom of Yugoslavia - Croatia today) was a Croatian inventor, engineer, and chemist, who gained world recognition for inventing the world's first applied electric light-bulb with a metal filament (tungsten) with his assistant Alexander Just, independently of his contemporaries.

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Frosting (decorative arts)

Frosting is a decorative effect named after its resemblance to the appearance of frost.

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Fuse (electrical)

In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is an electrical safety device that operates to provide overcurrent protection of an electrical circuit.

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Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Getter

A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.

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Glass coloring and color marking

Glass coloring and color marking may be obtained by 1) addition of coloring ions,Bernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, by 2) precipitation of nanometer sized colloides (so-called striking glassesBernard H. W. S. De Jong, Ruud G. C. Beerkens, Peter A. van Nijnatten: "Glass", in: "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2002, such as "gold ruby" or red "selenium ruby"),Werner Vogel: "Glass Chemistry"; Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K; 2nd revised edition (November 1994), 3) by colored inclusions (as in milk glass and smoked glass), 4) by light scattering (as in phase separated glass), 5) by dichroic coatings (see dichroic glass), or 6) by colored coatings.

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Globar

A Globar is used as thermal light source for infrared spectroscopy.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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Hakunetsusha

was a company established by Shōichi Miyoshi and Fujioka Ichisuke, two of Japan's industrial pioneers during the Tokugawa / Edo period.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp, also known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine.

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Harper (publisher)

Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.

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Headlamp

A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.

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Heinrich Göbel

Heinrich Göbel, or Henry Goebel (April 20, 1818 – December 4, 1893), born in Springe, Germany, was a precision mechanic and inventor.

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Helsingin Sanomat

Helsingin Sanomat, abbreviated HS and colloquially known as Hesari, is the largest subscription newspaper in Finland and the Nordic countries, owned by Sanoma.

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Henry Woodward (inventor)

Henry Woodward was a Canadian inventor and a major pioneer in the development of the incandescent lamp.

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High-intensity discharge lamp

High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.

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Hiram Maxim

Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim (5 February 1840 – 24 November 1916) was an American-born British inventor, best known as the creator of the Maxim Gun, the first portable fully automatic machine gun.

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Hot cathode

In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Imre Bródy

Imre Bródy (1891, Gyula, HungaryAntal Papp: Magyarország (Hungary), Panoráma, Budapest, 1982,, p. 860, pp. 453-456–1944, Mühldorf) was a Hungarian physicist who invented in 1930 the krypton-filled fluorescent lamps (also known as the krypton electric bulb), with fellow-Hungarian inventors Emil Theisz, Ferenc Kőrösy and Tivadar Millner.

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Incandescence

Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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Incubator (egg)

An incubator is a device simulating avian incubation by keeping eggs warm and in the correct humidity, and if needed to turn them, to hatch them.

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Infrared heater

An infrared heater or heat lamp is a body with a higher temperature which transfers energy to a body with a lower temperature through electromagnetic radiation.

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Infrared lamp

Infrared lamps are electrical devices which emit infrared radiation.

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Interference filter

An interference filter or dichroic filter is an optical filter that reflects one or more spectral bands or lines and transmits others, while maintaining a nearly zero coefficient of absorption for all wavelengths of interest.

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International Textbook Company

The International Textbook Company I.T.C. was founded in 1895 by publisher Thomas J. Foster in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Iridium

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.

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Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir (January 31, 1881 – August 16, 1957) was an American chemist and physicist.

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James Bowman Lindsay

James Bowman Lindsay (8 September 1799 – 29 June 1862) was a Scottish inventor and author.

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Japanese Industrial Standards

specifies the standards used for industrial activities in Japan.

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Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin

Jean-Eugène Robert-Houdin (December 7, 1805 – June 13, 1871) was a French magician.

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John Wellington Starr

John Wellington Starr (1822? – November 21, 1846) was an American inventor and pioneer in development of the incandescent light bulb.

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Joseph Swan

Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS (31 October 1828 – 27 May 1914) was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor.

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Kaolinite

Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Krypton

Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.

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Lampshade

A lampshade is a fixture that covers the lightbulb on a lamp to diffuse the light it emits.

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Lava lamp

A lava lamp (or Astro lamp) is a decorative novelty item, invented in 1963 by British accountant Edward Craven Walker, the founder of the British lighting company Mathmos.

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Lawsuit

A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.

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LED lamp

A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).

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Lewis Howard Latimer

Lewis Howard Latimer (September 4, 1848 – December 11, 1928) was an American inventor and draftsman.

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Library and Archives Canada

Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light tube

Light tubes (also known as light pipes or tubular skylights) are physical structures used for transmitting or distributing natural or artificial light for the purpose of illumination, and are examples of optical waveguides.

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Lightbulb joke

A lightbulb joke is a joke that asks how many people of a certain group are needed to change, replace, or screw in a light bulb.

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Lighting

Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.

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List of automotive light bulb types

Light bulbs for automobiles are made in several standardized series.

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List of light sources

This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.

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Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne

The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne (or the Lit & Phil as it is popularly known) is a historical library in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, and the largest independent library outside London.

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Livermore, California

Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States.

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Longest-lasting light bulbs

This is a list of the longest-lasting incandescent light bulbs.

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Lumen (unit)

The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source.

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Luminescence

Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.

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Luminosity function

A luminosity function or luminous efficiency function describes the average spectral sensitivity of human visual perception of brightness.

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Luminous efficacy

Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.

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Manufacturing cost

Manufacturing cost is the sum of costs of all resources consumed in the process of making a product.

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Marcellin Jobard

Jean-Baptiste-Ambroise-Marcellin Jobard (17 May 1792 – 27 October 1861) was a Belgian lithographer, photographer and inventor of French origin.

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Marketing

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Marvin Pipkin

Marvin Pipkin (November 18, 1889 – January 7, 1977) was an American chemist.

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Mathew Evans

Mathew Evans is one of two Canadians who developed and patented an incandescent light bulb, on July 24, 1874, five years before Thomas Alva Edison's U.S. patent on the device.

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Mazda (light bulb)

Mazda was a trademarked name registered by General Electric (GE) in 1909 for incandescent light bulbs.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Moses G. Farmer

Moses Gerrish Farmer (February 9, 1820 – May 25, 1893) was an electrical engineer and inventor.

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Multifaceted reflector

A multifaceted reflector (often abbreviated MR) light bulb is a reflector housing format for halogen as well as some LED and fluorescent lamps.

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Nernst lamp

The Nernst lamp was an early form of incandescent lamp.

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Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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Nicola Armaroli

Nicola Armaroli (born 2 September 1966 in Bentivoglio) is an Italian chemist, FRSC.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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Opera house

An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company

The Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company (OR&N) was a railroad that operated a rail network of of track running east from Portland, Oregon, United States to northeastern Oregon, northeastern Washington, and northern Idaho.

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Osmium

Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.

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Osram

OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany.

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Osram Sylvania

OSRAM Sylvania Inc. is the North American operation of lighting manufacturer OSRAM.

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Over illumination

Over illumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity.

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Parabolic aluminized reflector light

A parabolic aluminized reflector lamp (also PARCAN light, PARcan, or simply PAR) is a type of electric lamp that is widely used in commercial, residential, and transportation illumination.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Phase-out of incandescent light bulbs

Governments around the world have passed measures to phase out incandescent light bulbs for general lighting in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives.

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Philips

Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Phoebus cartel

The Phoebus cartel existed to control the manufacture and sale of incandescent light bulbs.

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Photometry (optics)

Photometry is the science of the measurement of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye.

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Photonic crystal

A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Poultry

Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Power factor

In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit, and is a dimensionless number in the closed interval of −1 to 1.

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Procyon

Procyon, also designated Alpha Canis Minoris (α Canis Minoris, abbreviated Alpha CMi, α CMi), is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Minor.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Regulator (automatic control)

In automatic control, a regulator is a device which has the function of maintaining a designated characteristic.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on sustainable energy.

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Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Retrofitting

Retrofitting refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.

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Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.

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Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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Rutgers University Press

Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.

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Ruthenium

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.

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Sandia National Laboratories

The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.

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Savoy Theatre

The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre in the Strand in the City of Westminster, London, England.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Sintering

Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectrometer

A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.

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Sprengel pump

The Sprengel pump is a vacuum pump that uses drops of mercury falling through a small-bore capillary tube to trap air from the system to be evacuated.

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SS Columbia (1880)

SS Columbia (1880–1907) was a cargo and passenger steamship that was owned by the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company and later the San Francisco and Portland Steamship Company.

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Stage lighting instrument

Stage lighting instruments (lanterns, or luminaires in Europe) are used in stage lighting to illuminate theatrical productions, concerts, and other performances taking place in live performance venues.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Tantalum

Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.

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Temperature coefficient

A temperature coefficient describes the relative change of a physical property that is associated with a given change in temperature.

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Terrarium

A terrarium (plural: terraria or terrariums) is usually a sealable glass container containing soil and plants, and can be opened for maintenance to access the plants inside.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal decomposition

Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.

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Thermionic emission

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Thorn Electrical Industries

Thorn Electrical Industries Limited was an electrical engineering business.

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Toronto Star

The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.

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Toshiba

, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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TRIAC

TRIAC, from triode for alternating current, is a generic trademark for a three terminal electronic component that conducts current in either direction when triggered.

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Trouble light

A trouble light, also known as a rough service light, drop light, or inspection lamp, is a special lamp used to illuminate obscure places and able to handle moderate abuse.

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Tungsram

Tungsram is in one of Hungary's largest, oldest, and internationally most prestigious firms, known for light bulbs and electronics.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Tungsten nitride

Tungsten nitride (W2N, WN, WN2) is an inorganic compound, a nitride of tungsten.

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Tungsten pentoxide

Tungsten pentoxide was reported in early literature but proved to have the stoichiometry W18O49.

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Tungsten trioxide

Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten.

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Tungsten(IV) oxide

Tungsten dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula WO2.

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Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead

Underhill is a large and imposing detached house, located at 99 Kells Lane in the Low Fell district of Gateshead, north-east England, United Kingdom.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Patent and Trademark Office

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Vincenzo Balzani

Vincenzo Balzani (born 15 November 1936 in Forlimpopoli, Italy) is an Italian chemist, now emeritus professor at the University of Bologna.

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Vitrite

Vitrite, also known as foam glass, is a very low fusing point black glass mainly used for the insulation base of electric lamps.

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Volt-ampere

A volt-ampere (VA) is the unit used for the apparent power in an electrical circuit, equal to the product of root-mean-square (RMS) voltage and RMS current.

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Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Walther Nernst

Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Warren De la Rue

Warren De La Rue (15 January 181519 April 1889) was a British astronomer, chemist, and inventor, most famous for his pioneering work in astronomical photography.

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Wedge base

W2.1x9.5d base, a common 5-watt bulb in landscape lighting and some interior automotive applications such as the dome light A wedge base is a type of electrical connector used as a fitting for small light bulbs.

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Wellsboro, Pennsylvania

Wellsboro is a borough in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, United States, northwest of Williamsport.

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William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong

William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside.

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William D. Coolidge

William David Coolidge (October 23, 1873 – February 3, 1975) was an American physicist and engineer, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.

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William E. Sawyer

William Edward Sawyer (1850 – May 15, 1883) was an American inventor whose contribution was primarily in the field of electric engineering and electric lighting.

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Wireless telegraphy

Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.

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Xenon

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xenon arc lamp

A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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3-way lamp

A 3-way lamp, also known as a tri-light, is a lamp that uses a 3-way light bulb to produce three levels of light in a low-medium-high configuration.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb

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