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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia (Zrakoplovstvo Nezavisne Države Hrvatske; ZNDH), was the air force of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a puppet state established with the support of the Axis Powers on the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during World War II.
Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955.
The Annunciation (from Latin annuntiatio), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God, marking his Incarnation.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
Ante Vokić (23 August 1909 – 8 May 1945) was a Croatian/Ustaše politician, general and putschist.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Čedem (in older sources also ČednoLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 68.) is a small settlement in the eastern Gorjanci Hills in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia, right on the border with Croatia.
Šibenik (Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
Baranya or Baranja (Baranya,; Baranja,; Branau, Барања/Baranja) is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Bay of Kotor (Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska); Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Berlin Philharmonic (Berliner Philharmoniker) is a German orchestra based in Berlin.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Bleiburg repatriations (see terminology) is a term encompassing events that took place after the end of World War II in Europe, when tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians associated with the Axis fleeing Yugoslavia were repatriated to that country.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Brijuni or the Brijuni Islands (also known as the Brionian Islands; Brioni) are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
Central European University (CEU) is a graduate-level, private university accredited in Hungary and the U.S., located in Budapest.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
Christopher H. Pyle (born 1939) is a journalist and Professor of Politics at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts.
During World War II, there existed numerous Concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Croatia national football team (Hrvatska nogometna reprezentacija) represents Croatia in international football.
This is a list of football (soccer) games played by the Croatia national football team between 1940 and 1944.
The Croatia national handball team represents Croatia in international men's team handball competitions and friendly matches.
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.
The Croatian Air Force Legion (Hrvatska Zrakoplovna Legija), or HZL, also known as the Croatian Legion, was a foreign volunteer unit of the Luftwaffe raised from volunteers drawn from the Independent State of Croatia which fought on the Eastern Front between 1941–1943 in the Second World War.
The Croatian Encyclopedia (Hrvatska enciklopedija) is a Croatian national encyclopedia published by the Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography.
The Croatian First Football League (Prva hrvatska nogometna liga), (also known as Prva HNL or 1. HNL) or for sponsorship reasons the Hrvatski Telekom Prva Liga, is the top Croatian professional football league competition, established in 1992.
The Croatian Football Federation (Hrvatski nogometni savez or HNS) is the governing body of association football in Croatia.
The Croatian Handball Federation (Hrvatski rukometni savez or HRS) is the governing body of team handball in Croatia.
The Croatian Home Guard (Hrvatsko domobranstvo) was part of the armed forces of the Independent State of Croatia which existed during World War II.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Croatian Littoral (Hrvatsko primorje) is a historical name (period of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) littoral for the region of Croatia comprising mostly Kvarner coastal area between traditional Dalmatia to the south, Mountainous Croatia to the north and east, and Istria and the Kvarner Gulf of the Adriatic Sea to the west.
The Croatian National Theatre (Hrvatsko narodno kazalište u Osijeku) is a theatre building in Osijek, capital of the Croatian region of Slavonia.
The Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb (Hrvatsko narodno kazalište u Zagrebu), commonly referred to as HNK Zagreb, is a theatre, opera and ballet house located in Zagreb.
The Croatian Olympic Committee (Hrvatski olimpijski odbor (HOO)) is the non-profit organization representing Croatian athletes in the International Olympic Committee.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
The Croatian Party of Rights (Hrvatska stranka prava or HSP) is an extra-parliamentary Croatian nationalist conservative right-wing political party in Croatia.
The Croatian Peasant Party (Hrvatska seljačka stranka or HSS) is a centrist political party in Croatia founded on December 22, 1904 by Antun and Stjepan Radić as Croatian Peoples' Peasant Party (HPSS).
Croatian Radiotelevision (Hrvatska radiotelevizija or HRT) is a Croatian public broadcasting company.
The Croatian Red Cross (Hrvatski Crveni križ) is the national Red Cross Society of Croatia.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
The Crown of Zvonimir was bestowed on King Dmitar Zvonimir of Croatia in 1076 by the papal legate.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube Banovina or Danube Banate (Serbo-Croatian: Дунавска бановина, Dunavska banovina), was a banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Deutsche Reichsbahn, also known as the German National Railway, the German State Railway, German Reich Railway, and the German Imperial Railway, was the name of the German national railway system created after the end of World War I from the regional railways of the individual states of the German Empire.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Eugen Dido Kvaternik (29 March 1910 – 10 March 1962) was a Croatian Ustaše General-Lieutenant and the Chief of the Internal Security Service in the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state during World War II.
The Independent State of Croatia (1941-1945) was a European country located in Southern Europe, corresponding approximately to today's Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift ("flying pencil"), was a light bomber of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Drava or Drave by Jürgen Utrata (2014).
Dušan Simović (Душан Симовић; 28 October 1882 – 26 August 1962) was a Serbian general who served as Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army and as the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Edmund Glaise-Horstenau (also known as Edmund Glaise von Horstenau; 27 February 1882 – 20 July 1946) was an Austrian officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, last Vice-Chancellor of Austria before the 1938 Anschluss, a military historian and archivist, and general in the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
Far-right politics in Croatia refers to any manifestation of far-right politics in the Republic of Croatia.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Federal Foreign Office (German), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign policy and its relationship with the European Union.
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (previously Ferrovie dello Stato, FS) (in English Italian State Railways) is a state-owned holding company that manages infrastructure and services on the Italian rail network.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Franjo Bučar (25 November 1866 – 26 December 1946) was a Croatian writer and sports popularizer.
General Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso, Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and later political life from 1914 to 1924.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The German War Graves Commission (Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge in German) is responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of German war graves in Europe and North Africa.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Glina massacres were killings of Serb peasants in the town of Glina in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) that occurred between May and August 1941, during World War II.
Globus is a Croatian language weekly news magazine published in Zagreb, Croatia.
Gorski Kotar (Gorski kotar,; 'Highlands' or 'Mountain District') is the mountainous region in Croatia between Karlovac and Rijeka.
The Croatian State Government (Hrvatska državna vlada) was the government of the Independent State of Croatia from 16 April 1941 until 8 May 1945.
The Governorate of Dalmatia (Governatorato di Dalmazia), was a territory divided in three Provinces of Italy during Italian Kingdom and Italian Empire epoch, created in April 1941 at the start of World War II in Yugoslavia from the existing Province of Zara together with occupied Yugoslav territory annexed by Italy after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers and the signing of the Rome Treaties.
Grand, Great or Chief Župan (transl. Grand prince, magnus iupanus, ζουπανος μεγας, zoupanos megas) is the English rendering of a South Slavic title which relate etymologically to Župan (originally a pater familias, later the tribal chief of a unit called župa) like a Russian Grand Prince to a Knyaz (rendered as Prince or Duke depending on administration).
HAŠK (full name Hrvatski akademski športski klub, Croatian Academic Sports Club) was a Croatian football club established in Zagreb in 1903 which ceased operating in 1945.
HŠK Concordia was a Croatian football club formed in Zagreb.
HŠK Građanski (alternatively spelled Gradjanski or Gradanski), also known as 1.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Hostages Trial (or, officially, The United States of America v. Wilhelm List, et al.) was held from 8 July 1947 until 19 February 1948 and was the seventh of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Nuremberg after the end of World War II.
Hrvatsko zagorje is a region north of Zagreb, Croatia.
Hrvoje Matković (October 14, 1923 – August 26, 2010) was a Croatian historian.
The Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories consisted of the military occupation, then annexation, of the Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje and Prekmurje regions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Kingdom of Hungary during World War II.
Hungarian State Railways (Magyar Államvasutak, MÁV) is the Hungarian national railway company, with divisions "MÁV START Zrt." (passenger transport), "MÁV-Gépészet Zrt." (maintenance) and "MÁV-Trakció Zrt.". The "MÁV Cargo Zrt" (freight transport) was sold to Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) in 2007.
During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers.
The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus Christ.
The Independent Democratic Party (Samostalna demokratska stranka, Самостална демократска странка; Samostojna demokratska stranka, SDS) was a social liberal political party in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The kuna was the currency of the Independent State of Croatia in the period between 1941 and 1945 during World War II.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The International Broadcasting Union (IBU; official name in Union Internationale de Radiophonie, UIR) was an alliance of European radio broadcasters, established on April 3–4, 1925.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic New Year, also known as Arabic New Year or Hijri New Year (رأس السنة الهجرية) is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year, and is the day on which the year count is incremented.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
Italian nationalism builds upon the idea that Italians are the ethnic, cultural, and linguistic successors of the ancient Romans who inhabited the Italian Peninsula for over a millennium.
The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) was a self-proclaimed state in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) led by Gabriele d'Annunzio between 1919 and 1920.
Ivan Meštrović (Vrpolje, 15 August 1883 - South Bend, 16 January 1962) was a renowned Croatian sculptor, architect and writer of the 20th century.
Ivo Banac (born March 1, 1947) is a Croatian historian, a long-time history professor at Yale University and was a politician of the former Liberal Party in Croatia.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jastrebarsko concentration camp held Serb children who had been brought there from various areas of the Axis puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) during World War II.
Jesenice (sometimes also Jesenice na Dolenjskem, JessenitzLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 68.) is a settlement on the right bank of the Sava River in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia, right on the border with Croatia.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jezdimir Dangić (Јездимир Дангић; 4 May 1897 – 22 August 1947) was a Bosnian Serb Chetnik commander during World War II.
Jimmy Lyggett (1897, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – c. 1955, somewhere in US) was an American boxer and boxing trainer.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Korčula (is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea. It has an area of; long and on average wide — and lies just off the Dalmatian coast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population are almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.
Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
Krk (Vegl; Curicta; Veglia; Vegliot Dalmatian: Vikla; Ancient Greek Kyrikon, Κύρικον) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county.
Lepoglava prison (officially Lepoglava penitentiary, Kaznionica u Lepoglavi) is the oldest prison in Croatia.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
"Lijepa naša domovino" is the national anthem of Croatia.
Lika is a traditional region of Croatia proper, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast.
Lisinski is a 1944 film directed by Oktavijan Miletić about the life of Croatian composer Vatroslav Lisinski.
This is the list of Croatian Righteous Among the Nations.
There are more than 1200 islands in the Adriatic Sea, 69 of which are inhabited.
This is a list of people who led the military and politics of the Independent State of Croatia.
The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius.
Lorković–Vokić plot (Urota Lorković-Vokić) was an attempt initiated by the Minister of Interior, Mladen Lorković and Minister of Armed Forces, Ante Vokić, to form a coalition government with the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), abandon the Axis powers and align the Independent State of Croatia with the Allies with help of the Croatian Home Guard.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Mare Nostrum (mare nostrvm, "Our Sea") was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea.
Marko Došen (7 July 1859 – 7 September 1944) was a Croatian politician and writer.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
Mate Ujević (July 13, 1901 – January 6, 1967) was a Croatian poet and encyclopedist.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Međimurje County (Međimurska županija) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia, roughly corresponding to the historical and geographical region of Međimurje.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Medvednica is a mountain in central Croatia, just north of Zagreb and marking the southern border of the historic region of Zagorje.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
Mile Budak (30 August 1889 – 7 June 1945) was a Croatian politician and writer best known as one of the chief ideologists of the Croatian fascist Ustaša movement, which ruled the Independent State of Croatia during World War II in Yugoslavia from 1941–45 and waged a genocidal campaign of extermination against its Roma and Jewish population, and of extermination, expulsion and religious conversion against its Serb population.
The military history of Bulgaria during World War II encompasses an initial period of neutrality until 1 March 1941, a period of alliance with the Axis Powers until 9 September 1944 (on 8 September, the Red Army entered Bulgaria) and a period of alignment with the Allies in the final year of the war.
The military history of Greece during World War II began on 28 October 1940, when the Italian Army invaded from Albania, beginning the Greco-Italian War.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
Mladen Lorković (1 March 1909 – April 1945) was a Croatian politician and lawyer who became a senior member of the Ustaše and served as the Foreign Minister and Minister of Interior of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Mljet (Melita, Meleda) is the southernmost and easternmost of the larger Adriatic islands of the Dalmatia region of Croatia.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
In NATO and most other western countries, motorized infantry is infantry that is transported by trucks or other un-protected motor vehicles.
The Municipality of Brežice (Občina Brežice) is a municipality in eastern Slovenia in the Lower Sava Valley, near the Croatian border.
Narodne novine (The People's Newspaper) is the official gazette (or newspaper of public record) of the Republic of Croatia which publishes laws, regulations, appointments and official decisions and releases them in the public domain.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.
The Navy of the Independent State of Croatia (Ratna Mornarica Nezavisne Države Hrvatske, RMNDH), was established as the navy of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) on 10 April 1941, the date the Axis puppet state was created by the fascist Ustaše party from parts of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which had been invaded by the Axis powers four days earlier.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nikola Mandić (20 January 1869 – 7 June 1945) was a Croatian politician who served as a Prime Minister of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.
Nova Vas pri Mokricah (Nova vas pri Mokricah, NeudorfLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 68.) is a settlement in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Obrežje is a settlement in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia.
Oktavijan Miletić (1 October 1902 – 17 August 1987) was a Croatian cinematographer and director.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral (Operationszone Adriatisches Küstenland, OZAK; or colloquially: Operationszone Adria); Zona d'operazioni del Litorale adriatico; Operativna zona Jadransko primorje; Operacijska zona Jadransko primorje) was a Nazi German district on the northern Adriatic coast created during World War II in 1943. It was formed out of territories that were previously under Fascist Italian control until its takeover by Germany. It included parts of present-day Italian, Slovenian, and Croatian territories. The area was administered as territory attached, but not incorporated to, the Reichsgau of Carinthia. The capital of the zone was the city of Trieste.
During World War II the Independent State of Croatia awarded a number of orders, decorations and medals.
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 108,048 in 2011.
Pacta conventa (Lat. agreed accords) was an alleged agreement concluded between King Coloman of Hungary and the Croatian nobility in 1102 or afterwards, defining the status of Croatia in the union with Hungary.
The Party of Rights (Stranka prava), and its best known faction the Pure Party of Rights (Čista stranka prava), was an influential Croatian political party in the 19th and 20th centuries.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The People's Radical Party (Народна радикална странка; Narodna radikalna stranka, NRS) was a political party in the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) formed on 8 January 1881.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Poglavnik was the title used by Ante Pavelić, leader of World War II Croatian movement Ustaše and of the Independent State of Croatia between 1941 and 1945.
The Posavje District (Velika župa Posavje) was an administrative division of the Independent State of Croatia.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prince Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino; 9 March 1900 – 29 January 1948) was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy.
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Costantino Giorgio Paolo Elena Maria Fiorenzo Zvonimir di Savoia-Aosta; born 27 September 1943)Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (editor).
Prokletije (Проклетије,; Bjeshkët e Nemuna; both translated as "cursed mountains"), also known as the Albanian Alps (Alpet Shqiptare) and the Accursed Mountains, is a mountain range on the western Balkan peninsula, extending from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Rab (Arba, Arbe, Arbey) is an island in Croatia and a town of the same name located just off the northern Croatian coast in the Adriatic Sea.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Reformation Day is a Protestant Christian religious holiday celebrated on October 31, alongside All Hallows' Eve (Halloween) during the triduum of Allhallowtide, in remembrance of the onset of the Reformation.
A regiment is a military unit.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Hungarian Army (Magyar Királyi Honvédség, Königlich Ungarische Armee) was the name given to the land forces of the Kingdom of Hungary in the period from 1922 to 1945.
This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.
The Royal Yugoslav Army (Jugoslavenska vojska, Југословенска војска) or Army of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was the armed force of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) from the state's formation in December 1918 until its surrender to the Axis powers on 17 April 1941.
The Royal Yugoslav Army Air Force (Zrakoplovstvo vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije, Ваздухопловство војске Краљевине Југославије; ВВКЈ), was formed in 1918 in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929) and existed until Yugoslavia's surrender to the Axis powers in 1941 following the Invasion of Yugoslavia during World War II.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The Sarajevo National Theatre (Bosnian and Serbian: Narodno pozorište Sarajevo, Народно позориште Сарајево, Narodno kazalište Sarajevo) was founded in November 1921.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbian and Bosnian: Срби у Босни и Херцеговини / Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (State-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
The Serbs of Croatia (Srbi u Hrvatskoj, Срби у Хрватској) or Croatian Serbs (Хрватски Срби/Hrvatski Srbi) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia.
Siegfried Kasche (18 June 1903 – 7 June 1947) was an ambassador of the German Reich to the Independent State of Croatia and Obergruppenführer of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.
Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, 1st Baronet, (11 March 1911 – 15 June 1996) was a Scottish soldier, writer and politician.
Sisak (Sziszek; also known by other alternative names) is a city and episcopal see in central Croatia, located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava and Odra rivers, southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).
Sisak children's concentration camp officially called "Shelter for Children Refugees" was a concentration camp during World War II located in Sisak, set up by the Ustaše government of the Nazi-puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, for Serbian, Jewish and Romani children.
The Sisak People's Liberation Partisan Detachment, also known as the 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment (Sisački narodnooslobodilački partizanski odred, 1.) was the first armed anti-fascist resistance unit formed by a resistance movement in occupied Yugoslavia and Europe during World War II.
Slavko Kvaternik (25 August 1878 – 7 June 1947) was a Croatian politician who, alongside Ante Pavelić, founded the Croatian nationalist movement known as the Ustaše and a direct perpetrator of the Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Slavonski Brod (literally Slavonian Crossing), commonly shortened to simply Brod, is a city in eastern Croatia, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Slovene Home Guard (Slovensko domobranstvo; Slowenische Landeswehr) was a Slovene military anti-Partisan organization during the 1943-1945 German occupation of the formerly Italian-occupied Province of Ljubljana.
The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Slovenska Vas (Slovenska vas) is a settlement in the Municipality of Brežice in eastern Slovenia, next to the border with Croatia.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/ Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was one of the six constituent federal units forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia (Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska; Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Хрватска; Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska/Социјалистичка Република Хрватска) was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia. By its constitution, modern-day Croatia is its direct continuation. Along with five other Yugoslav republics, it was formed during World War II and became a socialist republic after the war. It had four full official names during its 48-year existence (see below). By territory and population, it was the second largest republic in Yugoslavia, after the Socialist Republic of Serbia. In 1990, the government dismantled the single-party system of government - installed by the Communist Party - and adopted a multi-party democracy. The newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
A squadron was historically a cavalry subunit, a company sized military formation.
Standard 8 mm film, also known as Regular 8 mm film, Double 8 mm film, Double Regular 8 mm film, or simply as Standard-8 or Regular-8, is a film format originally developed by the Eastman Kodak company and released onto the market in 1932.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Stjepan Radić (11 June 1871 – 8 August 1928) was a Croatian and Yugoslav politician and the founder of the Croatian People's Peasant Party (HPSS).
Straža na Drini (Watch on the Drina) is a 1942 documentary war film directed by Branko Marjanović.
The subsequent Nuremberg trials (formally the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals) were a series of twelve U.S. military tribunals for war crimes against members of the leadership of Nazi Germany, held in the Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, after World War II from 1946 to 1949 following the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Syrmia (Srem/Срем, Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma (Rome Opera House) is an opera house in Rome, Italy.
Temple University Press is a university press founded in 1969 that is part of Temple University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia refers primarily to the genocide of Jews, but sometimes also include that of Serbs (the "Serbian Genocide") and Romani (Porajmos), during World War II within the Independent State of Croatia, a fascist puppet state ruled by the Ustashe regime, that included most of the territory of modern-day Croatia, the whole of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the eastern part of Syrmia (Serbia).
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
The Treaties of Rome were a set of three international treaties signed on 18 May 1941 by the Independent State of Croatia and Kingdom of Italy at the Palazzo Venezia in Rome.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and the Kingdom of Italy.
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the former Austrian Littoral in the upper Adriatic, and in Dalmatia.
The Trial of Mile Budak was the one-day trial of Mile Budak and a number of other members of the government of the Independent State of Croatia for high treason and war crimes on 6 June 1945 in Zagreb.
Tuzla is the third largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, Klinički bolnički centar Zagreb, KBC) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
The University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagrebu,; Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
The Ustashe Militia (Ustaška vojnica) was the party army of the Ustashe (or Ustaše), established by the fascist regime of Ante Pavelić in the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in Yugoslavia during World War II.
Vareš is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Velebit (Alpi Bebie) is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia.
The Velebit uprising or Lika uprising (Velebitski ustanak; Lički ustanak) was a small-scale sabotage action made by the Ustaše on the 6th and 7 September 1932.
The Venice Biennale (La Biennale di Venezia; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization organizes.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vinnytsia (Vinnycja,; translit, Vinnica; Winnica; Winniza, and Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Southern Bug.
Vis (Latin: Issa, Lissa) is a small Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea.
Vladimir "Vladko" Maček (20 June 1879 – 15 May 1964) was a Croatian politician in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and as a leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) following the 1928 assassination of Stjepan Radić, was a leading Croatian political figure until the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.
In law, void means of no legal effect.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Military operations in World War II in Yugoslavia began on 6 April 1941, when the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was swiftly conquered by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes.
Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Yugoslav Railways (Jugoslavenske željeznice; Југословенски железници, Jugoslovenski železnici; Југословенске железнице, Jugoslovenske železnice; Jugoslovanske železnice), with standard acronym JŽ (ЈЖ in Cyrillic), was the state railway company of Yugoslavia, operational from the 1920s to the 1990s.
Parliamentary elections were held in Yugoslavia on 1 December 1938.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Handschar" (1st Croatian) was a mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 1946 Yugoslav Constitution was the first constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
Croatia during World War II, Endehazija, Fascist Croatia, German occupation zone of the Independent State of Croatia, I.S. Croatia, I.S. of Croatia, IS Croatia, IS of Croatia, Independent Croatia, Italian occupation zone of the Independent State of Croatia, NDH, Nazi Croatia, Nezavisna Drzava Hrvatska, Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, Partisan uprising in Croatia, The Independent State of Croatia, Ustashe Croatia.