346 relations: Abortion, Accident, Activities of daily living, Acupuncture, Adolescent medicine, Adult daycare center, Advance healthcare directive, Aerobic exercise, Ageing, Ageless, Alcoholism, Allergy, Alternative medicine, Amputation, Anaerobic exercise, Anatomical pathology, Anatomy, Andrology, Anesthesia, Animal-assisted therapy, Antimicrobial resistance, Appetite, Assisted reproductive technology, Athletic training, Audiology, Autoimmune disease, Auxology, Bacteria, Basic life support, Binge eating, Biomedical technology, Bipolar disorder, Birth attendant, Birth control, Blood test, Body composition, Body contouring, Body mass index, Brain death, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Childbirth, Chiropractic, Circumcision controversies, Clinical chemistry, Clinical death, Cognitive therapy, Collaborative therapy, Community health, Community-based rehabilitation, ..., Convalescence, Cryosurgery, Death, Dementia, Dentistry, Dermatology, Detoxification, Developmental disability, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Diet (nutrition), Diet and obesity, Dietary fiber, Dietary supplement, Dieting, Dietitian, Digestion, Disability, Disease, Disease registry, Doctor–patient relationship, Dysarthria, Dyslexia, Ecological health, Energy medicine, Environmental health, Enzyme, Epidemic, Eugenics, Evidence-based medicine, Evidence-based practice, Evolutionary medicine, Exercise, Exercise equipment, Exercise physiology, Fad diet, Faith healing, Family centered care, Family planning, Famine, Fast food, Female infertility, Fertility, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Food, Food additive, Food allergy, Food group, Food pyramid (nutrition), Food quality, Food safety, Food science, Food technology, Forensic pathology, Free clinic, Functional diversity (disability), Gastrointestinal tract, Gene therapy, General fitness training, General surgery, Genetic counseling, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Genome project, Genomics, Geriatric sexology, Geriatrics, Gerontology, Gynaecology, Hair loss, Hand surgery, Healing, Health, Health care, Health claim, Health economics, Health education, Health effects from noise, Health equity, Health geography, Health literacy, Health promotion, Health system, Health technology, Healthcare industry, Healthy diet, Hematology, Herbalism, History of medicine, Home birth, Homeopathy, Homeostasis, Hormone, Hospice, Hospital, Hospital accreditation, Human body, Human cloning, Human digestive system, Human enhancement, Hygiene, Immortality, Immunity (medical), Immunology, Index of health articles, Infection, Infertility, Inflammation, Injury, Intellectual disability, Internal medicine, Life, Life expectancy, Life extension, List of hematologic conditions, Longevity, Male infertility, Malnutrition, Manual therapy, Maternal health, Maximum life span, Medical cannabis, Medical case management, Medical device, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical model, Medical physics, Medical privacy, Medical research, Medical school, Medical sociology, Medical tourism, Medication, Medicine, Megavitamin therapy, Memory and aging, Men's health, Mental disorder, Mental health, Metabolism, Microbiology, Micronutrient, Midwifery, Mind–body interventions, Mineral (nutrient), Miscarriage, Mortality rate, Multivitamin, Mutation, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Natalism, Naturopathy, Neonatal infection, Neuroenhancement, Neuroimmunology, Neurology, Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Non-communicable disease, Nuclear medicine, Nursing, Nursing school, Nutrient, Nutrient density, Nutrigenomics, Nutrition, Nutrition and pregnancy, Nutritionist, Obesity, Obstetrics, Obstetrics and gynaecology, Occupational hygiene, Occupational medicine, Occupational safety and health, Occupational therapy, Old age, Oncology, Online pharmacy, Ophthalmology, Optometry, Oral hygiene, Organ transplantation, Organic food, Organism, Orthopedic surgery, Osteopathy, Outline of dentistry and oral health, Outline of exercise, Outline of health, Outline of health sciences, Outline of nutrition, Over-the-counter drug, Overweight, Palliative care, Paramedic, Pathogen, Pathology, Pediatrics, Perioperative medicine, Pharmaceutical care, Pharmaceutical policy, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Physical education, Physical examination, Physical fitness, Physical therapy, Physician, Plastic surgery, Poor posture, Population health, Positive mental attitude, Pre-conception counseling, Pregnancy, Pregnant patients' rights, Prenatal care, Prescription drug, Preventive healthcare, Primary care, Primary healthcare, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychoeducation, Psychoneuroimmunology, Psychotherapy, Public health, Public health observatory, Quality of life (healthcare), Race and health, Radiology, Rare disease, Rejuvenation (aging), Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive health, Reproductive medicine, Research on meditation, Rheumatology, Rural health, Rural health clinic, Safe sex, Sanitation, Saturated fat, Self-care, Self-healing, Self-medication, Sex differences in medicine, Sex education, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual health clinic, Sexuality and disability, Sexually transmitted infection, Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep hygiene, Smoking cessation, Social determinants of health, Social medicine, Spa, Special needs, Sports medicine, Sports nutrition, Stem-cell therapy, Stress (biology), Stress management, Supported living, Surgery, Survivability, Symptom, Therapy dog, Toxicity, Toxicology, Toxin, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Korean medicine, Traditional medicine, Trans fat, Trauma surgery, Universal design, Vaccine, Vegetarianism, Virus, Vitamin, Vulvovaginal health, Weather pains, Weight loss, Wellness (alternative medicine), Witch doctor, Women's health, Workplace health surveillance, Workplace wellness, World Health Organization, X-ray. 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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Adolescent medicine or hebiatrics is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development, generally ranging from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school (some doctors in this subspecialty treat young adults attending college at area clinics, in the subfield of college health).
An adult daycare center is typically a non-residential facility that supports the health, nutritional, social, and daily living needs of adults in a professionally staffed, group setting.
An advance healthcare directive, also known as living will, personal directive, advance directive, medical directive or advance decision, is a legal document in which a person specifies what actions should be taken for their health if they are no longer able to make decisions for themselves because of illness or incapacity.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Ageless is an adjective describing a person or thing whose age cannot be defined, is non-existent, or appears not to change.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.
Anatomical pathology (Commonwealth) or Anatomic pathology (U.S.) is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Andrology (from ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a type of therapy that involves animals as a form of treatment.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since June 1991.
Audiology (from Latin audīre, "to hear"; and from Greek -λογία, -logia) is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and related disorders.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basic life support (BLS) is a level of medical care which is used for victims of life-threatening illnesses or injuries until they can be given full medical care at a hospital.
Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.
Biomedical technology broadly refers to the application of engineering and technology principles to the domain of living or biological systems.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A birth attendant, also known as "skilled birth attendant" ("SBA"), is a midwife, physician, obstetrician, nurse, or other health care professional who provides basic and emergency health care services to women and their newborns during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies.
Body contouring is a procedure that alters the shape of the human body.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.
Male circumcision has often been, and remains, the subject of controversy on a number of grounds—including religious, ethical, sexual, and health.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain human and many other organisms' lives.
Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.
Collaborative therapy is a therapy developed by Harlene Anderson, along with Harold A. Goolishian (1924–1991), in the USA.
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities.
The aim of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is to help people with disabilities, by establishing community-based programs for social integration, equalization of opportunities, and Physical therapy(Physiotherapy) rehabilitation programs for the disabled.
Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury.
Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue; thus, it is the surgical application of cryoablation.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Diet plays an important role in the genesis of obesity.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals.
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.
Ecological health is a term that has been used in relation to both human health and the condition of the environment.
Energy medicine, energy therapy, energy healing, psychic healing, spiritual medicine or spiritual healing are branches of alternative medicine based on a pseudo-scientific belief that healers can channel healing energy into a patient and effect positive results.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that has been gaining ground following its formal introduction in 1992.
Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Exercise equipment is any apparatus or device used during physical activity to enhance the strength or conditioning effects of that exercise by providing either fixed or adjustable amounts of resistance, or to otherwise enhance the experience or outcome of an exercise routine.
Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.
A fad diet or diet cult is a diet that makes promises of weight loss or other health advantages such as longer life without backing by solid science, and in many cases are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices.
Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.
Family-centered care or Family-centered service has been discussed and promoted most prominently in the context of child health, and especially concerning chronic conditions of childhood.
Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved".
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications.
A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a triangular diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups.
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse.
A free clinic is a health care facility in the United States offering services to economically disadvantaged individuals for free or at a nominal cost.
Functional diversity is a politically and socially correct term for special needs, disability, impairment and handicap, which began to be used in Spain in scientific writing, at the initiative of those directly affected, in 2005.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder (or may be carrying a child at risk) are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Geriatric sexology is the systematic study of sexuality in the elderly.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder), American Society for Surgery of the Hand.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.
Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.
Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information in order to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment.
Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities".
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
The healthcare industry (also called the medical industry or health economy) is the range of companies and non-profit organizations that provide medical services, manufacture medical equipment, and develop pharmaceuticals.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
A home birth is a birth that takes place in a residence rather than in a hospital or a birth centre.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hospital accreditation has been defined as “A self-assessment and external peer assessment process used by health care organizations to accurately assess their level of performance in relation to established standards and to implement ways to continuously improve”.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Human enhancement (Augment) is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
There are many conditions of or affecting the human hematologic system — the biological system that includes plasma, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes, the major components of blood and the bone marrow.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, chiropractors, massage therapists, athletic trainers, osteopaths, and osteopathic physicians to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most commonly includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.
Medical case management is a collaborative process that facilitates recommended treatment plans to assure the appropriate medical care is provided to disabled, ill or injured individuals.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical model is the term coined by psychiatrist R. D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays (1971), for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained".
Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.
Medical privacy or health privacy is the practice of maintaining the security and confidentiality of patient records.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.
Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.
Men's health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as experienced by men, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.
Mind–body interventions are medical and pseudomedical interventions based on the idea of the mind influencing the physical body.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Natalism (also called pronatalism or the pro-birth position) is a belief that promotes reproduction of sentient life.
Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine that employs an array of pseudoscientific practices branded as "natural", "non-invasive", and as promoting "self-healing".
Neuroenhancement refers to the targeted enhancement and extension of cognitive and affective abilities based on an understanding of their underlying neurobiology in healthy persons who do not have any mental illness.
Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
A nursing school is a type of educational institution, or part thereof, providing education and training to become a fully qualified nurse.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nutrient density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties.
Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Nutrition and pregnancy refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy.
A nutritionist is a person who advises on matters of food and nutrition and their impacts on human health.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae in the USA, and referred to as gynae in the UK) is the medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (obstetrics) and the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts (gynecology).
Occupational hygiene (United States: industrial hygiene (IH)) is the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, control and prevention of hazards from work that may result in injury, illness, or affect the well being of workers.
Occupational medicine, until 1960 called industrial medicine, is the branch of medicine which is concerned with the maintenance of health in the workplace, including prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries, with secondary objectives of maintaining and increasing productivity and social adjustment in the workplace.
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An online pharmacy, Internet pharmacy, or mail-order pharmacy is a pharmacy that operates over the Internet and sends the orders to customers through the mail or shipping companies.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Osteopathy is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes manual readjustments, myofascial release and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health: Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health: Health – functional and metabolic efficiency of an organism.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A paramedic is a healthcare professional who responds to medical emergencies outside of a hospital.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Perioperative medicine is the medical care of patients from the time of contemplation of surgery through the operative period to full recovery, but excludes the operation or procedure itself.
The most well-known definition for pharmaceutical care came from Doug Hepler and Linda Strand in their article ‘Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care’ from 1990.
Pharmaceutical policy is a branch of health policy that deals with the development, provision and use of medications within a health care system.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises (i.e. calisthenics).
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Poor posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening while others lengthen and become weak which often occurs as a result of one's daily activities.
Population health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group".
Positive mental attitude (PMA) is a concept first developed and introduced in 1937 by Napoleon Hill in the book Think and Grow Rich.
Pre-conception counseling (also called pre-conceptual counseling) is a meeting with a health-care professional (generally a physician or midwife) by a woman before attempting to become pregnant.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnant patients rights refers to the choices and legal rights available to a mother experiencing pregnancy or childbirth.
Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for patients and their loved ones that provides information and support to better understand and cope with illness.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
A public health observatory (PHO) is a public health and wellness project.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people to have children at a time of their choosing.
For the purpose of this article, research on meditation concerns research into the psychological and physiological effects of meditation using the scientific method.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
In medicine, rural health or rural medicine is the interdisciplinary study of health and health care delivery in rural environments.
A rural health clinic (RHC) is a clinic located in a rural, medically under-served area in the United States that has a separate reimbursement structure from the standard medical office under the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated.
Self-healing refers to the process of recovery (generally from psychological disturbances, trauma, etc.), motivated by and directed by the patient, guided often only by instinct.
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases or conditions which occur only in people of one sex (for example, prostate cancer in males or uterine cancer in females); sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more common to one sex (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus occurs predominantly in females); and diseases which occur at similar rates in males and females but manifest differently according to sex (for example, peripheral artery disease).
Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual health clinics specialize in the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Sexuality and disability is sexual behavior and practices of disabled people.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.
The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through.
A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths.
In the United States, special needs is a term used in clinical diagnostic and functional development to describe individuals who require assistance for disabilities that may be medical, mental, or psychological.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet with regards to improving anyone's athletic performance.
Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
Supported living or supportive living refers to a range of services designed to help disabled citizens retain their independence in their local communities.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Survivability is the ability to remain alive or continue to exist.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A therapy dog is a dog that might be trained to provide affection, comfort and love to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, schools, hospices, disaster areas, and are defined but not covered or protected under the Federal Housing Act or Americans with Disabilities act.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학(Hanuihak), Hanja: 韓醫學) or (Hangul: 향약 (Hyangyak), Hanja: 鄕藥) refers to the traditional medicine practices that originated and developed in Korea.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
Trauma surgery is a surgical specialty that utilizes both operative and non-operative management to treat traumatic injuries, typically in an acute setting.
Universal design (close relation to inclusive design) refers to broad-spectrum ideas meant to produce buildings, products and environments that are inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vulvovaginal health is the health and sanitation of the human vulva and vagina.
Weather pains, weather-related pain, or meteoropathy is a phenomenon that occurs when people with conditions such as arthritis or limb injuries claim to feel pain, particularly with changes in barometric pressure, humidity or other weather phenomena.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Wellness is generally used to mean a state beyond absence of illness but rather aims to optimize well-being.
A witch doctor was originally a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft.
Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways.
Workplace health surveillance or occupational health surveillance (U.S.) is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and dissemination of exposure and health data on groups of workers.
Workplace wellness is any workplace health promotion activity or organizational policy designed to support healthy behavior in the workplace and to improve health outcomes.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.