769 relations: Atomic orbital, Édouard Branly, Édouard Brézin, Émile Amagat, Émile Verdet, Émilie du Châtelet, Étienne-Gaspard Robert, Étienne-Louis Malus, Barycenter, Bohr–Einstein debates, CMB cold spot, Dielectric heating, Dielectric spectroscopy, DONUT, E-folding, E. Peter Raynes, E=MC2 (disambiguation), Earl W. McDaniel, Earle Hesse Kennard, Earle M. Terry, Earnshaw's theorem, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth tide, Earth's magnetic field, Earth's shadow, Earth, Moon, and Planets, Earth–ionosphere waveguide, Eastman Jacobs, Easy Java Simulations, Eötvös experiment, Eötvös number, EBOR, Ebullioscopic constant, Eccentric anomaly, Eccentricity vector, Echea, Echo, Echo chamber, Echogenicity, Eckert number, Eclipse, Ecliptic, Economizer, Econophysics, Ed Grothus, Ed Lu, Ed Seidel, Eddington luminosity, Eddington number, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates, ..., Eddy (fluid dynamics), Eddy current, Eddy diffusion, EDELWEISS, Eden growth model, Edgar Buckingham, Edgar Choueiri, Edgar D. Zanotto, Edge wave, Edge-localized mode, Edge-of-the-wedge theorem, Edme Mariotte, Edmond Halley, Edmund Clifton Stoner, Edoardo Amaldi, Eduard Grüneisen, Eduard Prugovečki, Eduard Shpolsky, Education and training of electrical and electronics engineers, Edward A. Guggenheim, Edward A. Irving, Edward Alan Knapp, Edward Andrade, Edward Arthur Milne, Edward Bennett (physicist), Edward Bennett Rosa, Edward Bouchet, Edward Bullard, Edward Condon, Edward Drobyshevski, Edward George Bowen, Edward Hinds, Edward J. Lofgren, Edward Kasner, Edward Kolb, Edward L. Wright, Edward Leamington Nichols, Edward Lee (scientist), Edward Mills Purcell, Edward Nairne, Edward P. Ney, Edward Pigot, Edward Ramberg, Edward Salisbury Dana, Edward Samuel Ritchie, Edward Spiegel, Edward Teller, Edward Tryon, Edward Victor Appleton, Edward W. Morley, Edward W. Piotrowski, Edward Witten, Edwin Bidwell Wilson, Edwin C. Kemble, Edwin F. Taylor, Edwin Fitch Northrup, Edwin Hall, Edwin Hubble, Edwin Power, Edwin Thompson Jaynes, Effect of Sun angle on climate, Effective action, Effective atomic number, Effective diffusion coefficient, Effective dose (radiation), Effective field theory, Effective input noise temperature, Effective mass (solid-state physics), Effective medium approximations, Effective nuclear charge, Effective potential, Effective radiated power, Effects of nuclear explosions, Effects of nuclear explosions on human health, Effervescence, Efim Fradkin, Efimov state, Egbert Kankeleit, Egg drop competition, Egon Bretscher, Egon Orowan, Egon Schweidler, EGS (program), Ehlers group, Ehrenfest equations, Ehrenfest paradox, Ehrenfest theorem, Eigenspinor, Eight-Foot High Speed Tunnel (Hampton, Virginia), Eightfold Way (physics), Einasto profile, Einselection, Einstein (unit), Einstein aether theory, Einstein Cross, Einstein field equations, Einstein force, Einstein manifold, Einstein notation, Einstein Papers 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In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Édouard Eugène Désiré Branly (23 October 1844 – 24 March 1940) was a French inventor, physicist and professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris.
Édouard Brézin (born 1 December 1938 Paris) is a French theoretical physicist.
Émile Hilaire Amagat (2 January 1841, Saint-Satur – 15 February 1915) was a French physicist.
Marcel Émile Verdet (13 March 1824 – 3 June 1866) was a French physicist.
Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise Du Châtelet (17 December 1706 – 10 September 1749) was a French natural philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and author during the early 1730s until her untimely death due to childbirth in 1749.
Étienne-Gaspard Robert (15 June 1763 – 2 July 1837), often known by the stage name of "Robertson", was a prominent Belgian physicist, stage magician and influential developer of phantasmagoria.
Étienne-Louis Malus (23 July 1775 – 24 February 1812) was a French officer, engineer, physicist, and mathematician.
The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.
The Bohr–Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.
The CMB Cold Spot or WMAP Cold Spot is a region of the sky seen in microwaves that has been found to be unusually large and cold relative to the expected properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR).
Dielectric heating, also known as electronic heating, RF (radio frequency) heating, and high-frequency heating, is the process in which a radio frequency alternating electric field, or radio wave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material.
Dielectric spectroscopy (which falls in a subcategory of impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency.
DONUT (Direct observation of the nu tau, E872) was an experiment at Fermilab dedicated to the search for tau neutrino interactions.
In science, e-folding is the time interval in which an exponentially growing quantity increases by a factor of ''e''; it is the base-e analog of doubling time.
Edward Peter Raynes FInstP, FRS (born) is Professor of Optoelectronic Engineering at the University of Oxford (since 1998).
Earl W. (Wadsworth) McDaniel (April 15, 1926 – May 4, 1997) was a Regents Professor of Physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Georgia Tech Research Institute and is most noted for his contributions to the field of ion mobility spectrometry.
Earle Hesse Kennard (August 2, 1885 – January 31, 1968) was a theoretical physicist and professor at Cornell University.
Earle Melvin Terry (1869 - May 2, 1929) was an American physicist, known for contributions to wireless transmission systems.
Earnshaw's theorem states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
Earth tide (also known as solid Earth tide, crustal tide, body tide, bodily tide or land tide) is the displacement of the solid earth's surface caused by the gravity of the Moon and Sun.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Earth's shadow or Earth shadow is the shadow that Earth itself casts onto its atmosphere and into outer space, toward the antisolar point.
Earth, Moon, and Planets is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published approximately ten times per year by Springer Science+Business Media.
The Earth–ionosphere waveguide refers to the phenomenon in which certain radio waves can propagate in the space between the ground and the boundary of the ionosphere.
Eastman Jacobs (1902–1987) was a leading aerodynamicist who worked for NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory (renamed NASA Langley Research Center in 1958) from the 1920s to the 1940s.
The Eötvös experiment was a famous physics experiment that measured the correlation between inertial mass and gravitational mass, demonstrating that the two were one and the same, something that had long been suspected but never demonstrated with the same accuracy.
In fluid dynamics the Eötvös number (Eo), also called the Bond number (Bo), is a dimensionless number measuring the importance of gravitational forces compared to surface tension forces and is used (together with Morton number) to characterize the shape of bubbles or drops moving in a surrounding fluid.
The Experimental Beryllium Oxide Reactor (EBOR) was a 10MWt helium cooled beryllium moderated nuclear reactor at Idaho National Laboratory.
In thermodynamics, the ebullioscopic constant, K_\mathrm b, relates molality b to boiling point elevation.
In orbital mechanics, eccentric anomaly is an angular parameter that defines the position of a body that is moving along an elliptic Kepler orbit.
In celestial mechanics, the eccentricity vector of a Kepler orbit is the dimensionless vector with direction pointing from apoapsis to periapsis and with magnitude equal to the orbit's scalar eccentricity.
An echea, or sounding vase (literally echoer), is a pot, chamber or vessel that is similar in function to a modern-day bass trap.
In audio signal processing and acoustics, Echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sound.
Echo chamber of the Dresden University of Technology Hamilton Mausoleum has a long lasting unplanned echo An echo chamber is a hollow enclosure used to produce reverberated sounds, usually for recording purposes.
Echogenicity (misspelled sometimes as echogenecity) or echogeneity is the ability to bounce an echo, e.g. return the signal in ultrasound examinations.
The Eckert number (Ec) is a dimensionless number used in continuum mechanics.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Economizers (US and Oxford spelling), or economisers (UK), are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform useful function such as preheating a fluid.
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.
Edward Bernard Grothus (June 28, 1923 – February 12, 2009) was an American machinist and technician at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the 1950s and 1960s.
Edward Tsang "Ed" Lu (born July 1, 1963) is an American physicist and former NASA astronaut.
Edward Seidel (born August 21, 1957) is the Vice President for Economic Development and Innovation for the University of Illinois System, as well as a Founder Professor in the Department of Physics and a professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The Eddington luminosity, also referred to as the Eddington limit, is the maximum luminosity a body (such as a star) can achieve when there is balance between the force of radiation acting outward and the gravitational force acting inward.
In astrophysics, the Eddington number, NEdd, is the number of protons in the observable universe.
In general relativity, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates are a pair of coordinate systems for a Schwarzschild geometry (i.e. a spherically symmetric black hole) which are adapted to radial null geodesics.
In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid is in a turbulent flow regime.
Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.
Eddy diffusion, eddy dispersion, multipath, or turbulent diffusion is any diffusion process by which substances are mixed in the atmosphere or in any fluid system due to eddy motion.
EDELWEISS (Expérience pour DEtecter Les WIMPs En Site Souterrain) is a dark matter search experiment located at the Modane Underground Laboratory in France.
The Eden growth model describes the growth of specific types of clusters such as bacterial colonies and deposition of materials.
Edgar Buckingham (July 8, 1867 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – April 29, 1940 in Washington DC) was an American physicist.
Edgar Y. Choueiri (born 1961 in Lebanon) is a Lebanese American plasma physicist and previously President of the Lebanese Academy of Sciences.
Edgar Dutra Zanotto is a materials engineer and professor at the Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar) in Brazil.
In fluid dynamics, an edge wave is a surface gravity wave fixed by refraction against a rigid boundary, often a shoaling beach.
An edge-localized mode ("ELM") is a disruptive instability occurring in the edge region of a tokamak plasma due to the quasi-periodic relaxation of a transport barrier previously formed during an L --> H transition (i.e. in H-mode).
In mathematics, Bogoliubov's edge-of-the-wedge theorem implies that holomorphic functions on two "wedges" with an "edge" in common are analytic continuations of each other provided they both give the same continuous function on the edge.
Edme Mariotte (c. 1620 – 12 May 1684) was a French physicist and priest (Abbé).
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Edmund Clifton Stoner FRS (2 October 1899 – 27 December 1968) was a British theoretical physicist.
Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist.
Eduard Grüneisen (26 May 1877 – 5 April 1949) was a German physicist; co-eponym of Mie–Gruneisen equation of state Grüneisen was born in Giebichenstein.
Eduard Prugovečki (March 19, 1937 – October 13, 2003) was a Canadian physicist and mathematician of Croatian-Romanian descent.
Eduard Vladimirovich Shpolsky, also Shpolsk'ii, Shpolskii (Эдуард Владимирович Шпольский, born September 23, 1892 in Voronezh – died August 21, 1975 in Moscow) was a Russian and Soviet physicist and educator, co-founder and lifelong editor of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal (Soviet Physics Uspekhi and Physics-Uspekhi in English translation).
Both electrical and electronics engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electrical/ electronics engineering.
Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics.
Edward A. "Ted" Irving, (27 May 1927 – 25 February 2014) was a geologist and scientist with the Geological Survey of Canada.
Edward Alan Knapp (March 7, 1932 – August 17, 2009) was an American physicist and was Director of the National Science Foundation from 1982 to 1984.
Edward Neville da Costa Andrade FRS (27 December 1887 – 6 June 1971) was an English physicist, writer, and poet.
Edward Arthur Milne FRS (14 February 1896 – 21 September 1950) was a British astrophysicist and mathematician.
Edward Bennett was an American physicist, known from his early involvements in wireless transmission.
Edward Bennett Rosa (4 October 1873, Rogersville, Steuben County – 17 May 1921, Washington, D. C.) was an American physicist, specialising in measurement science.
Edward Alexander Bouchet (September 15, 1852 – October 28, 1918) was an African American physicist and educator and was the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. from any American university, completing his dissertation in physics at Yale in 1876.
Sir Edward "Teddy" Crisp Bullard FRS (21 September 1907 – 3 April 1980) was a geophysicist who is considered, along with Maurice Ewing, to have founded the discipline of marine geophysics.
Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished American nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, and a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project.
Edward Mikhailovich Drobyshevski (Дробышевский, Эдуард Михайлович), is a Russian astro- and plasma physicist.
Edward George 'Taffy' Bowen, CBE, FRS (14 January 1911 – 12 August 1991) was a Welsh physicist who made a major contribution to the development of radar, and so helped win both the Battle of Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic.
Edward Hinds FIOP FAPS FRS (born 8 Sept 1949) is a British physicist noted for his work with cold matter.
Edward Joseph Lofgren (January 18, 1914 – September 6, 2016) was an American physicist in the early days of nuclear physics and elementary particle research at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL).
Edward Kasner (April 2, 1878 – January 7, 1955) was a prominent American mathematician who was appointed Tutor on Mathematics in the Columbia University Mathematics Department.
Edward W. Kolb, known as Rocky Kolb, (born October 2, 1951) is a cosmologist and a professor at the University of Chicago as well as the dean of Physical Sciences.
Edward L. (Ned) Wright (born August 25, 1947 in Washington, D.C.) is an American astrophysicist and cosmologist, well known for his achievements in the COBE, WISE, and WMAP projects and as a strong Big Bang proponent in web tutorials on cosmology and theory of relativity.
Edward Leamington Nichols (14 September 1854 – November 10, 1937) was an American physicist.
Edward Lee ("Ted") (2 March 1914 – 31 December 2001) was a British scientist, inventor, and civil servant.
Edward Mills Purcell (August 30, 1912 – March 7, 1997) was an American physicist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for his independent discovery (published 1946) of nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and in solids.
Edward Nairne (1726 – 1 September 1806) was English optician and scientific instrument maker.
Edward Purdy Ney (October 28, 1920 – July 9, 1996) was an American physicist who made major contributions to cosmic ray research, atmospheric physics, heliophysics, and infrared astronomy.
Edward Francis Pigot (18 September 1858 – 22 May 1929) was an Irish-born Australian Jesuit priest, seismologist and astronomer.
Edward G. Ramberg (June 14, 1907 in Florence, Italy – January 9, 1995) was an American physicist who contributed to the early development of electron microscopy and color television.
Edward Salisbury Dana (November 16, 1849 – June 16, 1935) was an American mineralogist and physicist.
Edward Samuel Ritchie (1814–1895), an American inventor and physicist, is considered to be the most innovative instrument maker in nineteenth-century America, making important contributions to both science and navigation.
Edward A. Spiegel is the professor of Astronomy at Columbia University who worked on convection theory and on the application of fluid dynamics to astrophysics.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Edward P. Tryon (born September 4, 1940) is an American scientist and a professor emeritus of physics at Hunter College of the City University of New York.
Sir Edward Victor Appleton (6 September 1892 – 21 April 1965) was an English physicist, Nobel Prize winner (1947) and pioneer in radiophysics.
Edward Williams Morley (January 29, 1838 – February 24, 1923) was an American scientist famous for his extremely precise and accurate measurement of the atomic weight of oxygen, and for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Edward W. Piotrowski (b. Rybnik, Poland, 1955) is head of the Applied Mathematics Group at the University of Białystok, Poland.
Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Edwin Bidwell Wilson (April 25, 1879 – December 28, 1964) was an American mathematician and polymath.
Edwin Crawford Kemble (January 28, 1889 in Delaware, Ohio – March 12, 1984) was an American physicist who made contributions to the theory of quantum mechanics and molecular structure and spectroscopy.
Edwin F. Taylor is an American physicist known for his contributions to the teaching of physics.
Edwin Fitch Northrup (born February 23, 1866 – May 13, 1940) was a professor of physics at Princeton University from 1910 to 1920.
Edwin Herbert Hall (November 7, 1855 – November 20, 1938) was an American physicist who discovered the eponymous Hall effect.
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer.
Edwin Albert Power (12 February 1928 – 31 January 2004) was an English physicist and an emeritus professor of applied mathematics at University College London.
Edwin Thompson Jaynes (July 5, 1922 – April 30, 1998) was the Wayman Crow Distinguished Professor of Physics at Washington University in St. Louis.
The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of Sun angle on climate, as the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth varies by location, time of day, and season due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Earth's rotation around its tilted axis.
In quantum field theory, the effective action is a modified expression for the action, which takes into account quantum-mechanical corrections, in the following sense: In classical mechanics, the equations of motion can be derived from the action by the principle of stationary action.
Effective atomic number has two different meanings: one that is the effective nuclear charge of an atom, and one that calculates the average atomic number for a compound or mixture of materials.
The effective diffusion coefficient (also referred to as the apparent diffusion coefficient) of a diffusant in atomic diffusion of solid polycrystalline materials like metal alloys is often represented as a weighted average of the grain boundary diffusion coefficient and the lattice diffusion coefficient.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.
In telecommunications, effective input noise temperature is the source noise temperature in a two-port network or amplifier that will result in the same output noise power, when connected to a noise-free network or amplifier, as that of the actual network or amplifier connected to a noise-free source.
In solid state physics, a particle's effective mass (often denoted) is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution.
Effective medium approximations or effective medium theory (sometimes abbreviated as EMA or EMT) pertains to analytical or theoretical modeling that describes the macroscopic properties of composite materials.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
The effective potential (also known as effective potential energy) combines multiple, perhaps opposing, effects into a single potential.
Effective radiated power (ERP), synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency (RF) power, such as that emitted by a radio transmitter.
The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories.
The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
Efim Samoilovich Fradkin (Russian: Ефим Самойлович Фрадкин) (November 30, 1924 – May 25, 1999) was a Russian physicist.
The Efimov effect is an effect in the quantum mechanics of few-body systems predicted by the Russian theoretical physicist V. N. EfimovВ.И. Ефимов: Слабосвязанные состояния трех резонансно взаимодействующих частиц, Ядерная Физика, т. 12, вып.
Egbert Kankeleit (born Hamburg, Germany, 16 April 1929) is a German nuclear physicist.
The egg drop contest is an experiment usually performed by college or primary school students.
Egon Bretscher (1901–1973) was a Swiss-born British chemist and nuclear physicist and Head of the Nuclear Physics Division from 1948 to 1966 at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, also known as Harwell Laboratory, in Harwell, United Kingdom.
Egon Orowan FRS (Orován Egon) (August 2, 1902 – August 3, 1989) was a Hungarian/British/U.S. physicist and metallurgist.
Egon Schweidler, (* 10 February 1873, in Vienna; † 10 February 1948, in Salzburg Seeham) was an Austrian physicist.
The EGS (Electron Gamma Shower) computer code system is a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the coupled transport of electrons and photons in an arbitrary geometry for particles with energies from a few keV up to several hundreds of GeV.
In mathematical physics, the Ehlers group, named after Jürgen Ehlers, is a finite-dimensional transformation group of stationary vacuum spacetimes which maps solutions of Einstein's field equations to other solutions.
Ehrenfest equations (named after Paul Ehrenfest) are equations which describe changes in specific heat capacity and derivatives of specific volume in second-order phase transitions.
The Ehrenfest paradox concerns the rotation of a "rigid" disc in the theory of relativity.
The Ehrenfest theorem, named after Paul Ehrenfest, an Austrian theoretical physicist at Leiden University, relates the time derivative of the expectation values of the position and momentum operators x and p to the expectation value of the force F.
In quantum mechanics, eigenspinors are thought of as basis vectors representing the general spin state of a particle.
The Eight-Foot High Speed Tunnel, also known as Eight-Foot Transonic Tunnel, was a wind tunnel located in Building 641 of NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.
In physics, the Eightfold Way is a theory organizing subatomic hadrons.
The Einasto profile (or Einasto model) is a mathematical function that describes how the density \rho of a spherical stellar system varies with distance r from its center.
In quantum mechanics, einselection, short for environment-induced superselection, is a name coined by Wojciech H. Zurek for a process which is claimed to explain the appearance of wavefunction collapse and the emergence of classical descriptions of reality from quantum descriptions.
An einstein is a unit defined as the energy in one mole of photons.
Einstein æther theory, also called æ-theory, is a generally covariant modification of general relativity which describes a spacetime endowed with both a metric and a unit timelike vector field named the æther.
The Einstein Cross (Q2237+030 or QSO 2237+0305) is a gravitationally lensed quasar that sits directly behind ZW 2237+030, Huchra's Lens.
The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.
The Einstein force is an apparent force which acts in an accelerated reference system.
In differential geometry and mathematical physics, an Einstein manifold is a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian differentiable manifold whose Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric.
In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.
The Einstein Papers Project was established in 1986 to assemble, preserve, translate, and publish papers selected from the literary estate of Albert Einstein (more than forty thousand documents) and from other collections (more than 15,000 Einstein-related documents).
Einstein protocol is a standard used for precisely measuring the distance between two objects in space.
The Einstein radius is the radius of an Einstein ring, and is a characteristic angle for gravitational lensing in general, as typical distances between images in gravitational lensing are of the order of the Einstein radius.
The Einstein–Szilard or Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts, operates at constant pressure, and requires only a heat source to operate.
In physics (specifically, in kinetic theory) the Einstein relation (also known as Einstein–Smoluchowski relation) is a previously unexpected connection revealed independently by William Sutherland in 1904, Albert Einstein in 1905, and by Marian Smoluchowski in 1906 in their papers on Brownian motion.
In observational astronomy an Einstein ring, also known as an Einstein–Chwolson ring or Chwolson ring, is the deformation of the light from a source (such as a galaxy or star) into a ring through gravitational lensing of the source's light by an object with an extremely large mass (such as another galaxy or a black hole).
The Einstein solid is a model of a solid based on two assumptions.
In the centennial of "Annus Mirabilis" of 1905 (the miracle year during which Einstein published his five major papers on the special theory of relativity, Brownian motion and the quantum theory; which earned him the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics), the UNESCO designated year 2005 to be the World Year of Physics (WYP).
Einstein synchronisation (or Poincaré–Einstein synchronisation) is a convention for synchronising clocks at different places by means of signal exchanges.
Einstein Telescope (ET) or Einstein Observatory, is a proposed third-generation ground-based gravitational wave detector, currently under study by some institutions in the European Union.
In differential geometry, the Einstein tensor (named after Albert Einstein; also known as the trace-reversed Ricci tensor) is used to express the curvature of a pseudo-Riemannian manifold.
The Einstein Tower (German: Einsteinturm) is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany built by architect Erich Mendelsohn.
During the year of 1922, Albert Einstein was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
Albert Einstein conducted several unsuccessful investigations.
Einstein@Home is a volunteer distributed computing project that searches for signals from rotating neutron stars in data from the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors, from large radio telescopes, and from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The Einstein–Brillouin–Keller method (EBK) is a semiclassical method (named for Albert Einstein, Léon Brillouin, and Joseph B. Keller) used to compute eigenvalues in quantum-mechanical systems.
In theoretical physics, the Einstein–Cartan theory, also known as the Einstein–Cartan–Sciama–Kibble theory, is a classical theory of gravitation similar to general relativity.
Einstein–Cartan–Evans theory or ECE theory was an attempted unified theory of physics proposed by the Welsh chemist and physicist: "ECE Theory was discovered by chemist, physicist, and mathematician, Myron Wyn Evans...". Myron Wyn Evans (born May 26, 1950), which claimed to unify general relativity, quantum mechanics and electromagnetism.
The Einstein–Hilbert action (also referred to as Hilbert action) in general relativity is the action that yields the Einstein field equations through the principle of least action.
In physics, the Einstein–Hopf drag (named after Albert Einstein and Ludwig Hopf) is a velocity-dependent drag force upon charged particles that are being bathed in thermal radiation.
The Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann equations of motion, jointly derived by Albert Einstein, Leopold Infeld and Banesh Hoffmann, are the differential equations of motion describing the approximate dynamics of a system of point-like masses due to their mutual gravitational interactions, including general relativistic effects.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
The Einsteinhaus (Einstein House) is a museum and a former residence.
An einzel lens (from Einzellinse – single lens), or unipotential lens, is a charged particle lens that focuses without changing the energy of the beam.
The Ekman layer is the layer in a fluid where there is a force balance between pressure gradient force, Coriolis force and turbulent drag.
The Ekman number (Ek) is a dimensionless number used in fluid dynamics to describe the ratio of viscous forces to Coriolis forces.
The Ekman spiral is a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away from the boundary.
Ekman transport, part of Ekman motion theory first investigated in 1902 by Vagn Walfrid Ekman, refers to the wind-driven net transport of the surface layer of a fluid that, due to the Coriolis effect, occurs at 90° to the direction of the surface wind.
Ekmel Özbay is a Turkish professor of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Physics Departments at Bilkent University and the director of the Nanotechnology Research Center, and Space Technologies Research Center (BILUZAY) in Ankara.
The ekpyrotic universe is a cosmological model of the early universe that explains the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos.
Electrical elastance is the inverse of capacitance.
An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter.
Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), also referred to as forward recoil scattering (or, contextually, spectrometry), is an Ion Beam Analysis technique in materials science to obtain elemental concentration depth profiles in thin films.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
The elastica theory is a theory of mechanics of solid materials developed by Leonhard Euler that allows for very large scale elastic deflections of structures.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Elda Emma Anderson (October 5, 1899 – April 17, 1961) was an American physicist and health researcher.
Electret (formed of electr- from "electricity" and -et from "magnet") is a dielectric material that has a quasi-permanent electric charge or dipole polarisation.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
Electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) is a method to control the magnetic moments inside a material using quantum mechanical effects like the spin–orbit interaction.
Electric dipole transition is the dominant effect of an interaction of an electron in an atom with the electromagnetic field.
An electric discharge is the release and transmission of electricity in an applied electric field through a medium such as a gas.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics, the electric field gradient (EFG) measures the rate of change of the electric field at an atomic nucleus generated by the electronic charge distribution and the other nuclei.
Electric field NMR (EFNMR) spectroscopy differs from conventional NMR in that a sample containing suitable nuclei is polarised by a strong dc electric field instead of a constant magnetic field.
In electromagnetism, electric flux is the measure of flow of the electric field through a given area.
The electric form factor is the Fourier transform of electric charge distribution in space.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electric potential energy, or electrostatic potential energy, is a potential energy (measured in joules) that results from conservative Coulomb forces and is associated with the configuration of a particular set of point charges within a defined system.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
In electricity (electromagnetism), the electric susceptibility (\chi_; Latin: susceptibilis "receptive") is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of polarization of a dielectric material in response to an applied electric field.
The UCLA Electric Tokamak is a low field (0.25 T) magnetic fusion tokamak device with a large aspect ratio.
Electric torque may refer to.
The electric-field integral equation is a relationship that allows the calculation of an electric field (E) generated by an electric current distribution (J).
In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers.
Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is when current flows through an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is pulling them.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
Electrical phenomena are commonplace and unusual events that can be observed and that illuminate the principles of the physics of electricity and are explained by them.
In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
An electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is a semiconductor device which can be used for modulating the intensity of a laser beam via an electric voltage.
The electrogyration effect is the spatial dispersion phenomenon, that consists in the change of optical activity (gyration) of crystals by a constant or time-varying electric field.
An electro-optic effect is a change in the optical properties of a material in response to an electric field that varies slowly compared with the frequency of light.
Electro-optic modulator (EOM) is an optical device in which a signal-controlled element exhibiting the electro-optic effect is used to modulate a beam of light.
Electro-optics is a branch of electrical engineering, electronic engineering, materials science, and material physics involving components, devices (e.g. Lasers, LEDs, waveguides etc.) and systems which operate by the propagation and interaction of light with various tailored materials.
Electroosmotic flow (or electro-osmotic flow, often abbreviated EOF; synonymous with electroosmosis or electroendosmosis) is the motion of liquid induced by an applied potential across a porous material, capillary tube, membrane, microchannel, or any other fluid conduit.
The electrocaloric effect is a phenomenon in which a material shows a reversible temperature change under an applied electric field.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electroceramics is a class of ceramic materials used primarily for their electrical properties.
An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.
Electrochemical noise (ECN) is the generic term given to fluctuations of current and potential.
The Electrochemical Society is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of electrochemistry and solid-state science and technology.
Electrochemiluminescence or electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) is a kind of luminescence produced during electrochemical reactions in solutions.
Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed by some materials of reversibly changing colour stimulated by redox reactions.
Electrodeionization is a water treatment technology that utilizes electricity, ion exchange membranes and resin to deionize water and separate dissolved ions (impurities) from water.
Electrodeless plasma excitation methods include helicon plasma sources, inductively coupled plasmas, and surface-wave-sustained discharges.
The electrodeless plasma thruster is a spacecraft propulsion engine commercialized under the acronym "E-IMPAcT" for "Electrodeless-Ionization Magnetized Ponderomotive Acceleration Thruster".
Electrodynamic suspension (EDS) is a form of magnetic levitation in which there are conductors which are exposed to time-varying magnetic fields.
Electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) are long conducting wires, such as one deployed from a tether satellite, which can operate on electromagnetic principles as generators, by converting their kinetic energy to electrical energy, or as motors, converting electrical energy to kinetic energy.
In general relativity, the gravitoelectric tensor or tidal tensor is one of the pieces in the Bel decomposition of the Riemann tensor.
Electrogravitics is claimed to be an unconventional type of effect or anti-gravity force created by an electric field's effect on a mass.
Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), also known as electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics, is the study of the dynamics of electrically charged fluids.
An electrolaser is a type of electroshock weapon that is also a directed-energy weapon.
Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or to a strong electric field.
Electroluminescent Displays (ELDs) are a type of Flat panel display created by sandwiching a layer of electroluminescent material such as GaAs between two layers of conductors.
The electrolytic detector, or liquid barretter, was a type of detector (demodulator) used in early radio receivers.
Electromagnetic absorbers are specifically chosen or designed materials that can inhibit the reflection or transmission of electromagnetic radiation.
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.
Electromagnetic brakes (also called electro-mechanical brakes or EM brakes) slow or stop motion using electromagnetic force to apply mechanical resistance (friction).
Electromagnetic buoyancy (EMB) is a force that opposes the Lorentz force during electromagnetic phoresis of small particles or droplets in an aqueous medium.
An electromagnetic cavity is a cavity that acts as a container for electromagnetic fields such as photons, in effect containing their wave function inside.
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the branch of electrical engineering concerned with the unintentional generation, propagation and reception of electromagnetic energy which may cause unwanted effects such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) or even physical damage in operational equipment.
In telecommunication, the term electromagnetic environment (EME) has the following meanings.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
An electromagnetic four-potential is a relativistic vector function from which the electromagnetic field can be derived.
Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
In telecommunication, electromagnetic interference control (EMI) is the control of radiated and conducted energy such that emissions that are unnecessary for system, subsystem, or equipment operation are reduced, minimized, or eliminated.
Electromagnetic mass was initially a concept of classical mechanics, denoting as to how much the electromagnetic field, or the self-energy, is contributing to the mass of charged particles.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds.
An electromagnetic reverberation chamber (also known as a reverb chamber (RVC) or mode-stirred chamber (MSC)) is an environment for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing and other electromagnetic investigations.
Electromagnetic shielding is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In relativistic physics, the electromagnetic stress–energy tensor is the contribution to the stress–energy tensor due to the electromagnetic field.
In electromagnetism, the electromagnetic tensor or electromagnetic field tensor (sometimes called the field strength tensor, Faraday tensor or Maxwell bivector) is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field in spacetime.
The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a coherent optical nonlinearity which renders a medium transparent within a narrow spectral range around an absorption line.
Electromagnetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Taylor & Francis.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electromanipulation refers to the act or practice of manipulating materials using electric fields.
Electromechanical coupling coefficient is a numerical measure of the conversion efficiency between electrical and acoustic energy in piezoelectric materials.
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
An electron avalanche is a process in which a number of free electrons in a transmission medium are subjected to strong acceleration by an electric field and subsequently collide with other atoms of the medium, thereby ionizing them (impact ionization).
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a microstructural-crystallographic characterisation technique to study any crystalline or polycrystalline material.
An electron bubble is the empty space created around a free electron in a cryogenic gas or liquid, such as neon or helium.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
This page shows the electron configurations of the neutral gaseous atoms in their ground states.
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Electron cyclotron resonance is a phenomenon observed in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, and accelerator physics.
Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.
The electron electric dipole moment (EDM) de is an intrinsic property of an electron such that the potential energy is linearly related to the strength of the electric field: The electron's EDM must be collinear with the direction of the electron's magnetic moment (spin).
Electron excitation is the transfer of a bound electron to a more energetic, but still bound state.
An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component in some vacuum tubes that produces a narrow, collimated electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Electron ionization (EI, formerly known as electron impact ionization and electron bombardment ionization) is an ionization method in which energetic electrons interact with solid or gas phase atoms or molecules to produce ions.
In atomic physics, the electron magnetic moment, or more specifically the electron magnetic dipole moment, is the magnetic moment of an electron caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge.
An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory.
In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.
An electron multiplier is a vacuum-tube structure that multiplies incident charges.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
Electron optics is a mathematical framework for the calculation of electron trajectories along electromagnetic fields.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
The electron rest mass (symbol) is the mass of a stationary electron.
Electron scattering occurs when electrons are deviated from their original trajectory.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
In an electron spectrometer, an incoming beam of electrons is bent with electric or magnetic fields.
Electron Power Systems, Inc. of Acton, Massachusetts, United States, claims to have developed a technology for maintaining small stable plasma toroids called electron spiral toroids (ESTs) which remain stable in Earth's atmosphere without the use of any special magnetic fields.
Temperature is a statistical quantity.
Electron tomography (ET) is a tomography technique for obtaining detailed 3D structures of sub-cellular macro-molecular objects.
Electron wake is the disturbance left after a high-energy charged particle passes through condensed matter or plasma.
The green plane is the x-y-plane, where two (non-interacting) electron wave-packets meet.
Electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) is an additive manufacturing process that builds near-net-shape parts requiring less raw material and finish machining than traditional manufacturing methods.
Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).
Electron-beam physical vapor deposition, or EBPVD, is a form of physical vapor deposition in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum.
Electron-beam processing or electron irradiation is a process that involves using beta radiation, usually of high energy, to treat an object for a variety of purposes.
Since the mid-20th century, electron-beam technology has provided the basis for a variety of novel and specialized applications in semiconductor manufacturing, microelectromechanical systems, nanoelectromechanical systems, and microscopy.
Electron-capture dissociation (ECD) is a method of fragmenting gas-phase ions for structure elucidation of peptides and proteins in tandem mass spectrometry.
The electron-cloud effect is a phenomenon that occurs in particle accelerators and reduces the quality of the particle beam.
Electron-longitudinal acoustic phonon interaction is an equation concerning atoms.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.
Electronic anticoincidence is a method (and its associated hardware) widely used to suppress unwanted, "background" events in high energy physics, experimental particle physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma-ray astronomy, experimental nuclear physics, and related fields.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system.
In quantum mechanics, and in particular quantum chemistry, the electronic density is a measure of the probability of an electron occupying an infinitesimal element of space surrounding any given point.
An electronic imager is an electronic device that detects electromagnetic radiation with spatial resolution.
The Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that was established in 2003.
Electronic pest control is the name given to any of several types of electrically powered devices designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects.
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), also known as TV Holography, is a technique which uses laser light, together with video detection, recording and processing to visualise static and dynamic displacements of components with optically rough surfaces.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Electrorheological (ER) fluids are suspensions of extremely fine non-conducting but electrically active particles (up to 50 micrometres diameter) in an electrically insulating fluid.
Electrorotation is the circular movement of an electrically polarized particle.
An electroscope is an early scientific instrument that is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body.
Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a technique used in mass spectrometry to produce ions using an electrospray in which a high voltage is applied to a liquid to create an aerosol.
Electrostatic deflection refers to a technique for modifying the path of a beam of charged particles by the use of an electric field applied transverse to the path of the particles.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
Electrostatic induction, also known as "electrostatic influence" or simply "influence" in Europe and Latin America, is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges.
An electrostatic lens is a device that assists in the transport of charged particles.
Electrostatic levitation is the process of using an electric field to levitate a charged object and counteract the effects of gravity.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
Electrostriction (cf. magnetostriction) is a property of all electrical non-conductors, or dielectrics, that causes them to change their shape under the application of an electric field.
In general relativity, an electrovacuum solution (electrovacuum) is an exact solution of the Einstein field equation in which the only nongravitational mass-energy present is the field energy of an electromagnetic field, which must satisfy the (curved-spacetime) source-free Maxwell equations appropriate to the given geometry.
The history of electrovibration goes back to 1954.
In physical cosmology, the electroweak epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the temperature of the universe had fallen enough that the strong force separated from the electroweak interaction, but was high enough for electromagnetism and the weak interaction to remain merged into a single electroweak interaction (above energies of about 246 GeV).
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
In particle physics, the electroweak scale, also known as the Fermi scale, is the energy scale around 246 GeV, a typical energy of processes described by the electroweak theory.
An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star, whereby the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning, that is, the energy released by conversion of quarks to leptons through the electroweak force.
Electrowetting is the modification of the wetting properties of a surface (which is typically hydrophobic) with an applied electric field.
Elektronika is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Association of Polish Electrical Engineers.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Elements: An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by 17 scientific societies: Mineralogical Society of America, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Mineralogical Association of Canada, Geochemical Society, Clay Minerals Society, European Association of Geochemistry, International Association of GeoChemistry, Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, Association of Applied Geochemists,,, International Association of Geoanalysts, Polskie Towarzystwo Mineralogiczne (Mineralogical Society of Poland), Sociedad Española de Mineralogía (Spanish Mineralogical Society), Swiss Society of Mineralogy and Petrology, Meteoritical Society, and the Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences.
Elements of Dynamic is a book published by William Kingdon Clifford in 1878.
Elephter Luarsabovich Andronikashvili (the first name sometimes spelled Elevter or Elefter, ელეფთერ ანდრონიკაშვილი, Элевтер Луарсабович Андроникашвили; – 9 September 1989) was a Georgian physicist.
Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste is an international research center located in Basovizza on the outskirts of Trieste, Italy.
The elevator paradox relates to a hydrometer placed on an "elevator" or vertical conveyor that, by moving to different elevations, changes the atmospheric pressure.
Eli Barkai is a Professor of Physics in Bar Ilan University Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Eli Franklin Burton, (February 14, 1879 – July 6, 1948) was a Canadian physicist.
Eli L. Turkel is an Israeli applied mathematician and currently an emeritus professor of applied mathematics at the School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University.
Eli Yablonovitch (born 15 December 1946) is an American physicist and engineer who, along with Sajeev John founded the field of photonic crystals in 1987.
The Elitzur–Vaidman bomb-tester is a quantum mechanics thought experiment that uses interaction-free measurements to verify that a bomb is functional without having to detonate it.
Eliyahu Moshe Goldratt (March 31, 1947 – June 11, 2011) was an Israeli business management guru.
Elizabeth A. Rauscher is an American physicist and parapsychologist.
Anna Elizabeth Rhoades is a molecular biophysicist at University of Pennsylvania.
Ellery Schempp (born Ellory Schempp, August 5, 1940) is a physicist and is known for being the primary student involved in the landmark 1963 United States Supreme Court decision of Abington School District v. Schempp which declared that required public school sanctioned Bible readings were unconstitutional.
Elliott Hershel Lieb (born July 31, 1932) is an American mathematical physicist and professor of mathematics and physics at Princeton University who specializes in statistical mechanics, condensed matter theory, and functional analysis.
Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
In electrodynamics, elliptical polarization is the polarization of electromagnetic radiation such that the tip of the electric field vector describes an ellipse in any fixed plane intersecting, and normal to, the direction of propagation.
An elliptical wing is a wing planform whose leading and trailing edges each approximate two segments of an ellipse.
Elsa M. Garmire is the Sydney E. Junkins Professor of Engineering at Dartmouth College.
Elwin Bruno Christoffel (November 10, 1829 – March 15, 1900) was a German mathematician and physicist.
An emagram is one of four thermodynamic diagrams used to display temperature lapse rate and moisture content profiles in the atmosphere.
Emanoil Bacaloglu (11 April 1830 – 30 August 1891) was a Wallachian and Romanian mathematician, physicist and chemist and a scubadiver, medic, shoe salesman, a vegetarian,policeman and fireman.
Dr Emanuel Yousif Kamber is an Assyrian Physics professor at Western Michigan University and was the Secretary General of the Assyrian Universal Alliance.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
The Emerson Cavitation Tunnel is a propeller testing facility that is part of the School of Engineering at Newcastle University.
EMF measurements are measurements of ambient (surrounding) electromagnetic fields that are performed using particular sensors or probes, such as EMF meters.
Emil Hermann Bose (October 20, 1874 in Bremen, Germany – May 25, 1911 in La Plata, Argentina), was a German physicist.
Emil Georg Cohn (28 September 1854 – 28 January 1944), was a German physicist.
Emil John (Jan) Konopinski (December 25, 1911 in Michigan City, Indiana – May 26, 1990 in Bloomington, Indiana) was an American nuclear scientist, New York Times of Polish origin.
Emil John Martinec (born 1958) is an American string theorist, a physics professor at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago, and director of the Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics.
Emil Rupp (Philipp Heinrich Emil Rupp, 1898–1979) was a German physicist, regarded by many as a respectable and important experimentalist in the late 1920s.
Emil Gabriel Warburg (9 March 1846 – 28 July 1931) was a German physicist who during his career was professor of physics at the Universities of Strassburg, Freiburg and Berlin.
Emil Johann Wiechert (26 December 1861 – 19 March 1928) was a German physicist and geophysicist who made many contributions to both fields, including presenting the first verifiable model of a layered structure of the Earth and being among the first to discover the electron.
Emil Wolf (July 30, 1922 – June 2, 2018) was a Czech-born American physicist who made advancements in physical optics, including diffraction, coherence properties of optical fields, spectroscopy of partially coherent radiation, and the theory of direct scattering and inverse scattering.
Emilio Oribe (Melo, 1893 - Montevideo, 1975), was a Uruguayan poet, essayist, philosopher, and doctor.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Emilio Zavattini (March 14, 1927 – January 9, 2007) was an Italian physicist.
Emilios T. Harlaftis (Αιμίλιος Χαρλαύτης; 29 March 1965, Kiato – 13 February 2005 Menalo) was an astrophysicist.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Emission theory, also called emitter theory or ballistic theory of light, was a competing theory for the special theory of relativity, explaining the results of the Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887.
Emission-aware programming is a design philosophy aiming to reduce the amount of electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices through proper design of the software executed by the device, rather than changing the hardware.
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
Emlyn Huw Rhoderick (29 September 1920 – 24 March 2007) was a Welsh physicist and academic, who spent 33 years as professor of solid-state electronics at the Manchester College of Science and Technology (later known as UMIST).
The Electron Machine with Many Applications or Electron Model for Many Applications (EMMA) is a linear non-scaling FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) particle accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory in the UK that can accelerate electrons from 10 to 20 MeV.
Emmanuel Maignan (Emanuel) (b. at Toulouse, 17 July 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October 1676) was a French physicist and Catholic Minimite theologian.
Emory Leon Chaffee (April 15, 1885 – March 8, 1975) was an American physicist and a former professor at Harvard University from 1911 to 1953.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
The empty lattice approximation is a theoretical electronic band structure model in which the potential is periodic and weak (close to constant).
EN207-compliant laser goggles. The user has added yellow stickers summarizing the complicated EN207 specifications shown in the inset. EN 207 is the European norm for laser safety eyewear.
The optics term encircled energy refers to a measure of concentration of energy in an optical image, or projected laser at a given range.
An acoustic pipe, such as an organ pipe, marimba, or flute resonates at a specific pitch or frequency.
Endel Aruja (5 July 1911 – 4 February 2008) was an Estonian physicist specialising in X-ray crystallography, encyclopedian, librarian, supporter of libraries and a long-term Estonian expatriate activist.
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
Endoreversible thermodynamics is a subset of irreversible thermodynamics aimed at making more realistic assumptions about heat transfer than are typically made in reversible thermodynamics.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Ene Ergma (born 29 February 1944, in Rakvere) is an Estonian politician, a member of the Riigikogu (Estonian parliament), and scientist.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In nuclear physics, an energy amplifier is a novel type of nuclear power reactor, a subcritical reactor, in which an energetic particle beam is used to stimulate a reaction, which in turn releases enough energy to power the particle accelerator and leave an energy profit for power generation.
Established in 2003, the Energy and Environmental Security Initiative (EESI) is an interdisciplinary Research & Policy Institute located at the University of Colorado Law School.
Over the past few decades, the fields of science and engineering have been seeking to develop new and improved types of energy technologies that have the capability of improving life all over the world.
An energy carrier is a substance (energy form) or sometimes a phenomenon (energy system) that contains energy that can be later converted to other forms such as mechanical work or heat or to operate chemical or physical processes.
The Energy Catalyzer (also called E-Cat) is a claimed cold fusion reactorPatent application.
The Energy Citations Database (ECD) was created in 2001 in order to make scientific literature citations, and electronic documents, publicly accessible from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and its predecessor agencies, at no cost to the user.
In relativistic classical field theories of gravitation, particularly general relativity, an energy condition is one of various alternative conditions which can be applied to the matter content of the theory, when it is either not possible or desirable to specify this content explicitly.
Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.
Energy current is a flow of energy defined by the Poynting vector, as opposed to normal current (flow of charge).
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
In computer simulations of mechanical systems, energy drift is the gradual change in the total energy of a closed system over time.
In physics, chemistry, and biochemistry, an energy landscape is a mapping of all possible conformations of a molecular entity, or the spatial positions of interacting molecules in a system, or parameters and their corresponding energy levels, typically Gibbs free energy.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
In quantum physics, energy level splitting of a quantum system occurs when a degenerate energy level of two or more states is split because corresponding Hamiltonian's eigenvalues become different.
Energy medicine, energy therapy, energy healing, psychic healing, spiritual medicine or spiritual healing are branches of alternative medicine based on a pseudo-scientific belief that healers can channel healing energy into a patient and effect positive results.
In quantum mechanics, energy is defined in terms of the energy operator, acting on the wave function of the system as a consequence of time translation symmetry.
An energy recovery linac (ERL) provides a beam of electrons used to produce x-rays by synchrotron radiation.
The Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) is a multidisciplinary file containing worldwide references to basic and applied scientific and technical research literature.
Energy technology is an interdisciplinary engineering science having to do with the efficient, safe, environmentally friendly and economical extraction, conversion, transportation, storage and use of energy, targeted towards yielding high efficiency whilst skirting side effects on humans, nature and the environment.
The Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) was formed in 1987 and officially ended 30 June 2014.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, EDXS or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample.
In physics, the energy–momentum relation, or relativistic dispersion relation, is the relativistic equation relating any object's rest (intrinsic) mass, total energy, and momentum: holds for a system, such as a particle or macroscopic body, having intrinsic rest mass, total energy, and a momentum of magnitude, where the constant is the speed of light, assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime.
Engelbert Broda (29 August 1910 in Vienna – 26 October 1983 in Hainburg an der Donau) was an Austrian chemist and physicist suspected by some to have been a KGB spy code-named Eric, who could have been a main Soviet source of information on British and American nuclear research.
Engelbert Levin Schücking (May 23, 1926 – January 5, 2015), in English-language works often cited as E. L. Schucking, was a physics professor at New York University in New York City.
Engin Arık (October 4, 1948 – November 30, 2007) was a renowned Turkish particle physicist.
ENGIN-X is the dedicated materials engineering beamline at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Source in the UK.
Engineering diffraction refers to a sub-field of neutron scattering which investigates microstructural features that influence the mechanical properties of materials.
Engineering physics or engineering science refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics and engineering, particularly computer, nuclear, electrical, electronic, materials or mechanical engineering.
The Englert–Greenberger–Yasin duality relation, often called the Englert–Greenberger relation, relates the visibility, V, of interference fringes with the definiteness, or distinguishability, D, of the photons' paths in quantum optics.
The Enhanced Fujita scale (EF-Scale) rates the intensity of tornadoes in the United States and Canada based on the damage they cause.
In the field of solid-state physics, enhancement or quenching of the radiation of QDs, Q-wires, and QW are methods used to reduce the radiative emission of quantum dots, wires and wells.
Enid Anne Campbell MacRobbie, FRS (born 1931, Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Scottish plant scientist, and Senior Research Fellow at the University of Cambridge.
Ennio Candotti (born 1942 in Rome, Italy) is a Brazilian physicist and scientific leader.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is a particle physics experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon-136 at WIPP near Carlsbad, New Mexico, U.S. Neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) detection would prove the Majorana nature of neutrinos and impact the neutrino mass values and ordering.
Enrico Costa (born 1944 in Sassari, Sardinia) is an Italian astrophysicist, known for studies of gamma ray bursts (GRBs).
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
The Enrico Fermi Award is an award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy.
Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant was a nuclear power plant at Trino (often referred to as ‘Trino Vercellese’, meaning ‘Trino in the Province of Vercelli’), in north-west Italy.
Enrico Persico (August 9, 1900 – June 17, 1969) was an Italian physicist notable for propagating the field of quantum mechanics in Italy.
Ramón Enrique Gaviola (born 31 August 1900 in Mendoza – 7 August 1989 in Mendoza) was an Argentinian astrophysicist.
Enrique Loedel Palumbo (Montevideo Uruguay, June 29, 1901 – La Plata Argentina, July 31, 1962) was an Uruguayan physicist.
Enrique A. J. Marcatili (born July 22 in Villa María Córdoba, Argentina) is a retired Argentine-American physicist.
In continuum mechanics, an ensemble is an imaginary collection of notionally identical experiments.
In statistical mechanics, the ensemble average is defined as the mean of a quantity that is a function of the microstate of a system (the ensemble of possible states), according to the distribution of the system on its micro-states in this ensemble.
The ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics considers the quantum state description to apply only to an ensemble of similarly prepared systems, rather than supposing that it exhaustively represents an individual physical system.
In fluid dynamics, the enstrophy can be interpreted as another type of potential density; or, more concretely, the quantity directly related to the kinetic energy in the flow model that corresponds to dissipation effects in the fluid.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
The enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of dissolution, or heat of solution is the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a substance in a solvent at constant pressure resulting in infinite dilution.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
The enthalpy of neutralization (ΔHn) is the change in enthalpy that occurs when one equivalent of an acid and one equivalent of a base undergo a neutralization reaction to form water and a salt.
The enthalpy of sublimation, or heat of sublimation, is the heat required to change one mole of a substance from solid state to gaseous state at a given combination of temperature and pressure, usually standard temperature and pressure (STP).
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
An enthalpy–entropy chart, also known as the H–S chart or Mollier diagram, plots the total heat against entropy, describing the enthalpy of a thermodynamic system.
Entrainment is the transport of fluid across an interface between two bodies of fluid by a shear induced turbulent flux.
In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.
An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat.
In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a force resulting from the entire system's thermodynamical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.
Entropic gravity, also known as emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as an entropic force—a force with macro-scale homogeneity but which is subject to quantum-level disorder—and not a fundamental interaction.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Entropy is the only quantity in the physical sciences (apart from certain rare interactions in particle physics; see below) that requires a particular direction for time, sometimes called an arrow of time.
In astrophysics, what is referred to as "entropy" is actually the adiabatic constant derived as follows.
Entropy is a property of thermodynamical systems.
In physics education, the concept of entropy is traditionally introduced as a quantitative measure of disorder.
Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.
Entropy is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of entropy and information theory.
In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system.
In classical statistical mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Rudolf Clausius is interpreted as statistical entropy using probability theory.
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century.
There are close parallels between the mathematical expressions for the thermodynamic entropy, usually denoted by S, of a physical system in the statistical thermodynamics established by Ludwig Boltzmann and J. Willard Gibbs in the 1870s, and the information-theoretic entropy, usually expressed as H, of Claude Shannon and Ralph Hartley developed in the 1940s.
The entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a substance.
In thermodynamics the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, are mixed without chemical reaction by the thermodynamic operation of removal of impermeable partition(s) between them, followed by a time for establishment of a new thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium in the new unpartitioned closed system.
The entropy of vaporization is the increase in entropy upon vaporization of a liquid.
In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system.
The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS) is an international, applied scientific organization (not-for-profit corporation) that has 700 members.
The environmental impact of wind power when compared to the environmental impacts of fossil fuels, is relatively minor.
The environmental isotopes are a subset of the isotopes, both stable and radioactive, which are the object of isotope geochemistry.
Environmental magnetism is the study of magnetism as it relates to the effects of climate, sediment transport, pollution and other environmental influences on magnetic minerals.
Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.
Environmental Research Letters is a quarterly, open-access, electronic-only, peer-reviewed, scientific journal covering research in all aspects of environmental science.
Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy (EFN) is a pro-nuclear power non-profit organization which aims at providing complete and straightforward information to the public on energy and the environment.
In physics, EP quantum mechanics is a theory of motion of point particles, partly included in the framework of quantum trajectory representation theories of quantum mechanics, based upon an equivalence postulate similar in content to the equivalence principle of general relativity, rather than on the traditional Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Ephraim Katzir (אפרים קציר Efrayim Katsir; 16 May 1916 – 30 May 2009) was an Israeli biophysicist and Israeli Labor Party politician.
The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software environment used to develop and implement distributed control systems to operate devices such as particle accelerators, telescopes and other large experiments.
Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.
EPOXI is a compilation of NASA Discovery program missions led by the University of Maryland and principal investigator Michael A'Hearn, with co-operation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Ball Aerospace.
The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox or the EPR paradox of 1935 is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics with which Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) claimed to demonstrate that the wave function does not provide a complete description of physical reality, and hence that the Copenhagen interpretation is unsatisfactory; resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Epsilon radiation is tertiary radiation caused by secondary radiation (e.g., delta radiation).
An equal-loudness contour is a measure of sound pressure (dB SPL), over the frequency spectrum, for which a listener perceives a constant loudness when presented with pure steady tones.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
In cosmology, the equation of state of a perfect fluid is characterized by a dimensionless number w, equal to the ratio of its pressure p to its energy density \rho: It is closely related to the thermodynamic equation of state and ideal gas law.
Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines is an article published by Nicholas Metropolis, Arianna W. Rosenbluth, Marshall N. Rosenbluth, Augusta H. Teller, and Edward Teller in the Journal of Chemical Physics in 1953.
In two-body, Keplerian orbital mechanics, the equation of the center is the angular difference between the actual position of a body in its elliptical orbit and the position it would occupy if its motion were uniform, in a circular orbit of the same period.
A set of equations describe the resultant trajectories when objects move owing to a constant gravitational force under normal Earth-bound conditions.
In physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.
Equatorial waves are ocean waves trapped close to the equator, meaning that they decay rapidly away from the equator, but can propagate in the longitudinal and vertical directions.
The equilibrium mode distribution of light travelling in an optical waveguide or fiber, is the distribution of light that is no longer changing with fibre length or with input modal excitation.
Equilibrium Thermodynamics is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems in terms of a concept called thermodynamic equilibrium.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
Equipotential or isopotential in mathematics and physics refers to a region in space where every point in it is at the same potential.
Equivalence of direct radiation (EDR) is a standardized comparison method for estimating the output ability of space-heating radiators and convectors.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
In electrical engineering and science, an equivalent circuit refers to a theoretical circuit that retains all of the electrical characteristics of a given circuit.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
An equivalent dumping coefficient is a mathematical coefficient used in the calculation of the energy dispersed when a structure moves.
In telecommunication, an equivalent noise resistance is a quantitative representation in resistance units of the spectral density of a noise-voltage generator, given by R_n.
Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as theta-e \left(\theta_e \right), is a quantity that is conserved during changes to an air parcel's pressure (that is, during vertical motions in the atmosphere), even if water vapor condenses during that pressure change.
The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient simplification of modeling the filters as rectangular band-pass filters.
In atmospheric science, equivalent temperature is the temperature of an air parcel from which all the water vapor has been extracted by an adiabatic process.
An Er:YAG laser (erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser, erbium YAG laser) is a solid-state laser whose active laser medium is erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:Y3Al5O12).
An erbium-doped waveguide amplifier (or EDWA) is a type of an optical amplifier.
Erdal İnönü (6 June 1926 – 30 October 2007) was a Turkish theoretical physicist and politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Turkey between 16 May and 25 June 1993.
An erect image, in optics, is one that appears right-side up.
An ERF damper or electrorheological fluid damper, is a type of quick-response active non-linear damper used in high-sensitivity vibration control.
The erg is a unit of energy and work equal to 10−7 joules.
In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis says that, over long periods of time, the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proportional to the volume of this region, i.e., that all accessible microstates are equiprobable over a long period of time.
Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.
Eric Fawcett (23 August 1927 – 2 September 2000), was a professor of physics at the University of Toronto for 23 years.
Eric Isaacs is an American physicist and the University of Chicago's Executive Vice President for Research, Innovation, and National Laboratories.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Eric J. Lerner (born May 31, 1947) is an American popular science writer, and independent plasma researcher.
Eric M. Rogers (15 August 1902 – 1 July 1990) was a British author and physics educator.
Eric Mazur (born November 14, 1954) is a physicist and educator at Harvard University, and an entrepreneur in technology start-ups for the educational and technology markets.
Eric Poisson (born July 26, 1965) is a Canadian, award-winning physicist specializing in the theory of black holes.
Eric Van Stryland was president of the Optical Society of America in 2005.
Erich Rudolf Bagge (30 May 1912, Neustadt bei Coburg – 5 June 1996, Kiel) was a German scientist.
Erich Horst Fischer (3 July 1910, Allenstein, East Prussia – 1969) was a German experimental physicist.
Erich Armand Arthur Joseph Hückel (August 9, 1896, Berlin – February 16, 1980, Marburg) was a German physicist and physical chemist.
Erich Justus Kretschmann (14 July 1887 – 1973) was a German physicist.
Erich P. Ippen is a principal investigator in the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Erich Peter Wohlfarth (December 7, 1924, Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia – March, 1988, London) was a theoretical physicist.
Erich Rudolf Alexander Regener (12 November 1881 – 27 February 1955) was a German physicist known primarily for the design and construction of instruments to measure cosmic ray intensity at various altitudes.
Erich Sackmann (born 26 November 1934) is a German experimental physicist and a pioneer of biophysics in Europe.
Erich Schumann (5 January 1898 – 25 April 1985) was a German physicist who specialized in acoustics and explosives, and had a penchant for music.
Erich Wolfgang Vogt, (November 12, 1929 - February 19, 2014) was a Canadian physicist.
Erich Dagobert von Drygalski (February 9, 1865 – January 10, 1949) was a German geographer, geophysicist and polar scientist, born in Königsberg, Province of Prussia.
Erick J. Weinberg (born August 29, 1947) is a theoretical physicist and professor of physics at Columbia University.
The Ericsson cycle is named after inventor John Ericsson who designed and built many unique heat engines based on various thermodynamic cycles.
Erik Edlund (March 14, 1819 in Närke Province – August 19, 1888 in Stockholm) was a Swedish physicist.
Erik Peter Verlinde (born 21 January 1962) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and string theorist.
Ernest Charles "Ernie" Pollard (April 16, 1906 – February 24, 1997) was a professor of physics and biophysics and an author, who worked on the development of radar systems in World War II, worked on the physics of living cells, and who wrote textbooks and approximately 200 papers on nuclear physics and radiation biophysics.
Ernest Courant (born March 26, 1920) is an American accelerator physicist and a fundamental contributor to modern large-scale particle accelerator concepts.
Ernest Hanbury Hankin (4 February 1865 – 29 March 1939), was an English bacteriologist, aeronautical theorist and naturalist.
Ernest Harry Vestine (May 9, 1906 – July 18, 1968) was an American geophysicist and meteorologist.
Ernest Howard Griffiths (15 June 1851 – 3 March 1932) was a British physicist born in Brecon, Wales.
Ernest Joachim Sternglass (September 24, 1923 – February 12, 2015) was a professor emeritus at the University of Pittsburgh and director of the Radiation and Public Health Project.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
Colonel Ernest Lester Jones (April 14, 1876 – April 9, 1929) was born in East Orange, New Jersey and was commissioned a hydrographic and geodetic engineer.
Sir Ernest Marsden (19 February 1889 – 15 December 1970) was an English-New Zealand physicist.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Sir Ernest William Titterton (4 March 1916 – 8 February 1990) was a British nuclear physicist.
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.
Ernesto Sabato (June 24, 1911 – April 30, 2011) was an Argentine writer, painter and physicist.
Professor Ernest Oliver (Ernie) Tuck was an Australian applied mathematician, notable for his sustained work in ship hydrodynamics, and for Tuck's incompressibility function.
Ernst Karl Abbe HonFRMS (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer.
Ernst Carl Reinhold Brüche (28 March 1900 in Hamburg – 8 February 1985 in Mosbach) was a German physicist.
Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (30 November 1756 – 3 April 1827) was a German physicist and musician.
Ernst Emil Alexander Back (October 21, 1881 – June 20, 1959) was a German physicist, born in Freiburg.
Ernst G. Bauer (born 1928) is a German-American physicist.
Ernst J. L. Gehrcke (1 July 1878 in Berlin – 25 January 1960 in Hohen-Neuendorf) was a German experimental physicist.
Dr Ernst H. Krause (2 May 1913 in Milwaukee, WI – 23 August 1989 in Newport Beach, CA) was an American nuclear physicist and aerospace executive.
Ernst Ising (May 10, 1900 in Cologne, Rhine, Germany – May 11, 1998 in Peoria, Illinois, USA) was a German physicist, who is best remembered for the development of the Ising model.
Ernst Lecher (1 June 1856 – 19 July 1926) was an Austrian physicist who, from 1909, was head of the First Institute of Physics in Vienna.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Ernst Rudolph Georg Eckert (September 13, 1904 – July 8, 2004) was a scientist who advanced the film cooling technique for aeronautical engines.
Ernst Rexer (2 April 1902 – 14 May 1983) was a German nuclear physicist.
Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (25 December 1906 – 27 May 1988) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope.
Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg (full name after 1911: Baron Ernst Carl Gerlach Stueckelberg von Breidenbach zu Breidenstein und Melsbach; February 1, 1905 – September 4, 1984) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist, regarded as one of the most eminent physicists of the 20th century.
Ernst Stuhlinger (December 19, 1913 Niederrimbach, Germany – May 25, 2008) was a German-American atomic, electrical, and rocket scientist.
Ernst Wolfgang Hamburger is a German-born Brazilian physicist and popularizer of science.
The analysis of errors computed using the Global Positioning System is important for understanding how GPS works, and for knowing what magnitude of errors should be expected.
Erwin Richard Fues (January 17, 1893 in Stuttgart, Germany – 17 January 1970, Germany), was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to atomic physics and molecular physics, quantum wave mechanics, and solid-state physics.
Erwin Louis Hahn (June 9, 1921 – September 20, 2016) was an American physicist, best known for his work on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
Erwin Madelung (18 May 1881 – 1 August 1972) was a German physicist.
Erwin Marquit (August 21, 1926 – February 19, 2015) was an American physicist and Marxist philosopher.
Erwin Joseph Saxl (May 7, 1904 – January 28, 1981) was a physicist and inventor.
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics: he formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.
Erwin Wilhelm Müller (or Mueller) (June 13, 1911 – May 17, 1977) was a German physicist who invented the Field Emission Electron Microscope (FEEM), the Field Ion Microscope (FIM), and the Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Esteban Terrades i Illa (born Barcelona, 15 September 1883; died Madrid, 9 May 1950) also known as Esteve Terradas, was a Spanish mathematician, scientist and engineer.
Esther Marley Conwell (May 23, 1922 – November 16, 2014) was a pioneering American chemist and physicist who studied properties of semiconductors and organic conductors, especially electron transport.
Estia Joseph Eichten (born 1946), is an American theoretical physicist, of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab).
The Estonian Physical Society (Eesti Füüsika Selts, EFS) is a voluntary not-for-profit research society bringing together all those active in physics in Estonia.
The eta and eta prime meson are isosinglet mesons made of a mixture of up, down and strange quarks and their antiquarks.
Eternal inflation is a hypothetical inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory.
The ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) traces isotopes for archaeological applications such as radiocarbon dating, geology, and pharmaceutical applications The major focus is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and ion beam applications in materials sciences.
Etheric force is a term Thomas Edison coined to describe a phenomenon later understood as high frequency electromagnetic waves—effectively, radio.
The Ettingshausen Effect (named for Albert von Ettingshausen) is a thermoelectric (or thermomagnetic) phenomenon that affects the electric current in a conductor when a magnetic field is present.
Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.
The New Latin adjective electricus, originally meaning 'of amber', was first used to refer to amber's attractive properties by William Gilbert in his 1600 text De Magnete.
In theoretical physics, Euclidean quantum gravity is a version of quantum gravity.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
Eudemus of Rhodes (Εὔδημος) was an ancient Greek philosopher, considered the first historian of science, who lived from c. 370 BC until c. 300 BC.
A eudiometer is a laboratory device that measures the change in volume of a gas mixture following a physical or chemical change.
Eugène Cremmer (born 7 February 1942 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist.
Eugen Heinrich Eduad Ernst Brodhun (15 October 1860 – 19 September 1938) was a German physicist.
Eugen Goldstein (5 September 1850 – 25 December 1930) was a German physicist.
Eugen Merzbacher (April 9, 1921 – June 6, 2013) was an American physicist.
Eugen Cornelius Joseph von Lommel (19 March 1837, Edenkoben – 19 June 1899, Munich) was a German physicist.
Eugene Cook Bingham (8 December 1878 – 6 November 1945) was a professor and head of the department of chemistry at Lafayette College.
Eugene C. Crittenden was president of the Optical Society of America in 1932.
Eugene Feenberg (October 6, 1906 in Fort Smith, Arkansas – November 7, 1977) was an American physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.
Eugene Guth (August 21, 1905 – July 5, 1990) was an American physicist who made contributions to polymer physics and to nuclear and solid state physics.
Eugene Irving Gordon (September 14, 1930 – September 15, 2014) was an American physicist.
Levich was born in 1948 in Moscow, the son of Veniamin Levich.
Eugene Franklin Mallove (June 9, 1947 – May 14, 2004) was an American scientist, science writer, editor, and publisher of Infinite Energy magazine, and founder of the nonprofit organization New Energy Foundation.
Eugene McDermott (February 12, 1899 in Brooklyn, New York - August 23, 1973 in Dallas, Texas) was a geophysicist and co-founder first of Geophysical Service and later of Texas Instruments.
Eugene Podkletnov (Евгений Подклетнов, Yevgeny Podkletnov) is a Russian ceramics engineer known for his claims made in the 1990s of designing and demonstrating gravity shielding devices consisting of rotating discs constructed from ceramic superconducting materials.
Eugene Rabinowitch (1901–1973) was a Russian-born American biophysicist who is best known for his work in relation to nuclear weapons, especially as a co-author of the Franck Report and a co-founder in 1945 of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, a global security and public policy magazine, which he edited until his death.
Eugene Theodore Booth, Jr. (28 September 1912 – 6 March 2004) was an American nuclear physicist.
Eugene Paul "E.
Eugeniu Plohotniuc - Rector Balti State University "Alecu Russo", born 18 August 1953 s.Bagrineshty Floresti region of Moldova.
In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear hyperbolic equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow.
In classical mechanics, the Euler force is the fictitious tangential force that is felt in reaction to any angular acceleration.
The Euler number (Eu) is a dimensionless number used in fluid flow calculations.
Euler's Disk is a scientific educational toy, used to illustrate and study the dynamic system of a spinning disk on a flat surface (such as a spinning coin), and has been the subject of a number of scientific papers.
In classical mechanics, Euler's rotation equations are a vectorial quasilinear first-order ordinary differential equation describing the rotation of a rigid body, using a rotating reference frame with its axes fixed to the body and parallel to the body's principal axes of inertia.
In classical mechanics, Euler's laws of motion are equations of motion which extend Newton's laws of motion for point particle to rigid body motion.
In physics and astronomy, Euler's three-body problem is to solve for the motion of a particle that is acted upon by the gravitational field of two other point masses that are fixed in space.
Euler–Bernoulli beam theory (also known as engineer's beam theory or classical beam theory)Timoshenko, S., (1953), History of strength of materials, McGraw-Hill New York is a simplification of the linear theory of elasticity which provides a means of calculating the load-carrying and deflection characteristics of beams.
In physics, the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian describes the non-linear dynamics of electromagnetic fields in vacuum.
In the calculus of variations, the Euler–Lagrange equation, Euler's equation, or Lagrange's equation (although the latter name is ambiguous—see disambiguation page), is a second-order partial differential equation whose solutions are the functions for which a given functional is stationary.
In mathematics, the Euler–Tricomi equation is a linear partial differential equation useful in the study of transonic flow.
The EURISOL project is aimed at the design - and eventual construction - of a 'next-generation' European ISOL radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility capable of extending current research in atomic and nuclear physics by providing users with a wide variety of exotic ion beams at intensities far greater than those presently available.
The European Biophysics Journal is published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the European Biophysical Societies Association.
European Combined Geodetic Network (ECGN) is a research project aimed at high accuracy geoid determination.
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
The European Journal of Physics is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal dedicated to maintaining and improving the standard of physics education in higher education.
The European Muon Collaboration (EMC) was formed in 1973 to study the interactions of high energy muons at CERN.
Since being founded in 1975, the European Nuclear Society (ENS) has grown to become the largest society in Europe for science, engineering and research in support of the nuclear industry.
The European Optical Society (EOS), founded in 1991, is a European organisation for the development of the science of optics.
The European Physical Journal (or EPJ) is a joint publication of EDP Sciences, Springer Science+Business Media, and the Società Italiana di Fisica.
The European Physical Journal A: Hadrons and Nuclei is an academic journal, recognized by the European Physical Society, presenting new and original research results in a variety of formats, including Regular Articles, Reviews, Tools for Experiment and Theory/Scientific Notes and Letters.
The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers condensed matter physics, statistical and nonlinear physics, and complex systems.
The European Physical Journal C (EPJ C) is a biweekly peer-reviewed, open access scientific journal covering theoretical and experimental physics.
The European Physical Journal D: Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics is an academic journal recognized by the European Physical Society, presenting new and original research results.
The European Physical Journal E: Soft Matter and Biological Physics is a scientific journal focusing on the physics of soft matter and biophysics.
The European Physical Journal H: Historical Perspectives on Contemporary Physics (EPJ H) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on the history of modern physics.
The European Physical Society (EPS) is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote physics and physicists in Europe through methods such as physics outreach.
The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research facility based on what will be the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source.
The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 22 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 9 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, India and South Africa).
The European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array (EURECA) is a planned dark matter search experiment using cryogenic detectors and an absorber mass of up to 1 tonne.
The European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL) is an X-ray research laser facility commissioned during 2017.
Eva Ekeblad (née Eva De la Gardie; 10 July 1724 – 15 May 1786) was a Swedish countess who was a salon hostess, agronomist, and scientist.
Eva Nogales (b. Madrid, Spain) is a biophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Eva Silverstein (born October 24, 1970) is an American theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and string theorist. She is best known for her work on early universe cosmology, developing the structure of inflation and its range of signatures, as well as extensive contributions to string theory and gravitational physics. Her early work included control of tachyon condensation in string theory and resulting resolution of some spacetime singularities (with Joseph Polchinski and others). Other significant research contributions include the construction of the first models of dark energy in string theory, some basic extensions of the AdS/CFT correspondence to more realistic field theories (with Shamit Kachru), as well as the discovery of a predictive new mechanism for cosmic inflation involving D-brane dynamics (with David Tong) which helped motivate more systematic analyses of primordial non-Gaussianity. Silverstein is a professor of physics at Stanford University and director of the Modern Inflationary Cosmology collaboration within the Simons Foundation Origins of the Universe initiative.
Evan Harris Walker (1935 – August 17, 2006), was an American physicist and parapsychologist.
In electromagnetics, an evanescent field, or evanescent wave, is an oscillating electric and/or magnetic field that does not propagate as an electromagnetic wave but whose energy is spatially concentrated in the vicinity of the source (oscillating charges and currents).
An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.
Evelyn L. Hu is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Harvard University.
In particle physics, an event refers to the results just after a fundamental interaction took place between subatomic particles, occurring in a very short time span, at a well-localized region of space.
Event generators are software libraries that generate simulated high-energy particle physics events.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
In a particle detector experiment, event reconstruction is the process of interpreting the electronic signals produced by the detector to determine the original particles that passed through, their momenta, directions, and the primary vertex of the event.
In physics, event symmetry includes invariance principles that have been used in some discrete approaches to quantum gravity where the diffeomorphism invariance of general relativity can be extended to a covariance under every permutation of spacetime events.
Everette Lee DeGolyer (October 9, 1886 – December 14, 1956), was a prominent oilman, geophysicist and philanthropist in Dallas.
The Evershed effect, named after the British astronomer John Evershed, is the radial flow of gas across the photospheric surface of the penumbra of sunspots from the inner border with the umbra towards the outer edge.
Everything (or every thing), is all that exists; the opposite of nothing, or its complement.
Evgenii Fedorovich Gross (1897 – 1972) was a Soviet physicist working in optics and spectroscopy of condensed matter.
Evgenii L'vovich Feinberg (27 June 1912 – 10 December 2005) was a Soviet physicist, well known for his contributions to theoretical physics.
Evgeny Aramovich Abramyan (Евге́ний Ара́мович Абрамя́н; August 3, 1930 – December 23, 2014) was a Soviet/Russian physicist, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Winner of USSR State Prize, one of the founders of several research directions in the Soviet and Russian nuclear technology.
Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Евге́ний Миха́йлович Ли́фшиц; February 21, 1915, Kharkov, Russian Empire – October 29, 1985, Moscow, Russian SFSR) was a leading Soviet physicist and the brother of physicist Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz.
Evgeny Pavlovich Velikhov (born on February 2, 1935; in Russian: Евгений Велихов) is a physicist and scientific leader in the Russian Federation.
Ewald Georg von Kleist (10 June 1700 – 11 December 1748) was a German jurist, Lutheran cleric, and physicist.
Ewald summation, named after Paul Peter Ewald, is a method for computing long-range interactions (e.g., electrostatic interactions) in periodic systems.
Martin Ewald Wollny (March 20, 1846, Berlin – January 8, 1901, München) was a German founder of agrophysics (Agrikulturphysiker).
The Ewald sphere is a geometric construction used in electron, neutron, and X-ray crystallography which demonstrates the relationship between: It was conceived by Paul Peter Ewald, a German physicist and crystallographer.
Exa Corporation is a developer and distributor of computer-aided engineering (CAE) software.
In general relativity, an exact solution is a Lorentzian manifold equipped with tensor fields modeling states of ordinary matter, such as a fluid, or classical nongravitational fields such as the electromagnetic field.
In the classical central-force problem of classical mechanics, some potential energy functions V(r) produce motions or orbits that can be expressed in terms of well-known functions, such as the trigonometric functions and elliptic functions.
Exchange bias or exchange anisotropy occurs in bilayers (or multilayers) of magnetic materials where the hard magnetization behavior of an antiferromagnetic thin film causes a shift in the soft magnetization curve of a ferromagnetic film.
In electrochemistry, exchange current density is a parameter used in the Tafel equation, Butler-Volmer equation and other expressions.
In physics the term exchange force has been used to describe two distinct concepts which should not be confused.
In physics, the exchange interaction (with an exchange energy, and exchange term) is a quantum mechanical effect that only occurs between identical particles.
An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.
An excitable medium is a nonlinear dynamical system which has the capacity to propagate a wave of some description, and which cannot support the passing of another wave until a certain amount of time has passed (known as the refractory time).
An electric generator or electric motor consists of a rotor spinning in a magnetic field.
Excitation function is a term used in nuclear physics to describe a graphical plot of the yield of a radionuclide or reaction channel as a function of the bombarding projectile energy or the calculated excitation energy of the compound nucleus.
The Excitation Temperature (T_) is defined for a population of particles via the Boltzmann factor.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.
An exclusion zone is a territorial division established for various case specific purposes.
Exclusive correlation spectroscopy (ECOSY) is an NMR correlation experiment introduced by O. W. Sørensen, Christian Griesinger, Richard R. Ernst and coworkers for the accurate measurement of small J-couplings.
An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.
In thermodynamics, the exergy (in older usage, available work or availability) of a system is the maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with a heat reservoir.
Exergy efficiency (also known as the second-law efficiency or rational efficiency) computes the efficiency of a process taking the second law of thermodynamics into account.
In atomic physics, exoelectron emission (EE) is a weak electron emission, appearing only from pretreated (irradiated, deformed etc.) objects.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same charge.
Exotic baryons are a type of hadron (bound states of quarks and gluons) with half-integer spin, but have a quark content different to the three quarks (qqq) present in conventional baryons.
Exotic hadrons are subatomic particles composed of quarks and gluons, but which do not have the same quark content as ordinary hadrons: exotic baryons differ from the three-quark (qqq) content of ordinary baryons, and exotic mesons differ from the quark-antiquark (q) content of ordinary mesons.
In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties.
Non-quark model mesons include.
An exotic star is a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, neutrons, or muons, and balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties.
The expander cycle is a power cycle of a bipropellant rocket engine.
The expansion-deflection nozzle is an advanced rocket nozzle which achieves altitude compensation through interaction of the exhaust gas with the atmosphere, much like the plug and aerospike nozzles.
In quantum mechanics, the expectation value is the probabilistic expected value of the result (measurement) of an experiment.
The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), internal designation HT-7U) is an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, China. The Hefei-based Institute of Plasma Physics is conducting the experiment for the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It has operated since 2006. It was later put under control of Hefei Institutes of Physical Science. It is the first tokamak to employ superconducting toroidal and poloidal magnets. It aims for plasma pulses of up to 1000 seconds.
Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments.
Experiments in Fluids is a scientific, peer-reviewed scientific journal published monthly by Springer Science+Business Media.
The experiments of Rayleigh and Brace (1902, 1904) were aimed to show whether length contraction leads to birefringence or not.
In theoretical physics, explicit symmetry breaking is the breaking of a symmetry of a theory by terms in its defining equations of motion (most typically, to the Lagrangian or the Hamiltonian) that do not respect the symmetry.
Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
In the mathematical theory of dynamical systems, an exponential dichotomy is a property of an equilibrium point that extends the idea of hyperbolicity to non-autonomous systems.
Exposure assessment is a branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene that focuses on the processes that take place at the interface between the environment containing the contaminant(s) of interest and the organism(s) being considered.
An extended periodic table theorizes about elements beyond oganesson (beyond period 7, or row 7).
In theoretical physics, extended supersymmetry is supersymmetry whose infinitesimal generators Q_i^\alpha carry not only a spinor index \alpha, but also an additional index i.
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) includes both Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES).
Extensional viscosity (also known as elongational viscosity) is a viscosity coefficient when applied stress is extensional stress.
In mathematics, the exterior covariant derivative is an analog of an exterior derivative that takes into account the presence of a connection.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.
In fluid mechanics, external flow is such a flow that boundary layers develop freely, without constraints imposed by adjacent surfaces.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
The extinction cross is an optical phenomenon that is seen when trying to extinguish a laser beam or non-planar white light using crossed polarizers.
Extragalactic cosmic rays are very-high-energy particles that flow into the Solar System from beyond the Milky Way galaxy.
In theoretical physics, an extremal black hole is a black hole with the minimal possible mass that can be compatible with a given charge and angular momentum.
The Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is a new Research Infrastructure (RI) of pan-European interest and part of the European ESFRI Roadmap.
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively.
The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones.
Ezer Griffiths OBE, FRS (27 November 1888 – 14 February 1962) was a Welsh physicist most noted for his work on the insulation properties of metals, heat transference, evaporation and refrigeration.
Ezra Theodore Newman (born October 17, 1929) is an American physicist, known for his many contributions to general relativity theory.
Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorometry or spectrofluorometry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyzes fluorescence from a sample.
George V. Eleftheriades does pioneering research in the field of metamaterials.
The gridded ion thruster is a common design for ion thrusters, a highly efficient low-thrust spacecraft propulsion running on electrical power.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
Injection locking and injection pulling are the frequency effects that can occur when a harmonic oscillator is disturbed by a second oscillator operating at a nearby frequency.
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
An ionocraft or ion-propelled aircraft (commonly known as a lifter or hexalifter) is a device that uses an electrical electrohydrodynamic (EHD) phenomenon to produce thrust in the air without requiring any combustion or moving parts.
The Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) is the first space mission concept devoted to the investigation of cosmic rays and neutrinos of extreme energy.
In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order of magnitude.
Linear elasticity is the mathematical study of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading conditions.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
Magnetic anisotropy is the directional dependence of a material's magnetic properties.
A metamaterial (from the Greek word μετά meta, meaning "beyond") is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
Metamaterial cloaking is the usage of metamaterials in an invisibility cloak.
The negentropy has different meanings in information theory and theoretical biology.
The three primary objectives of nuclear reactor safety systems as defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are to shut down the reactor, maintain it in a shutdown condition and prevent the release of radioactive material.
The Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor (OPAL) is a 20 megawatt (MW) pool-type nuclear research reactor.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1.
A radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity thruster, also known as an EmDrive, is a proposed design for a propellant-free drive which would have to violate both conservation of momentum and conservation of energy in order to work.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
A stationary state is a quantum state with all observables independent of time.
In particle physics, a three-jet event is an event with many particles in final state that appear to be clustered in three jets.