250 relations: A. C. N. Nambiar, A. D. Loganathan, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, A. R. Rahman, Abid Hasan, Air commodore, All India Democratic Women's Association, All India Forward Bloc, All-India Muslim League, Allies of World War II, Amitav Ghosh, Anti-tank rifle, Arakan Campaign 1942–43, Archaeological Survey of India, Asaf Ali, Attock, Aung San, Ayesha Jalal, Azad Brigade, Azad Hind, Azad Hind Dal, Azad Hind Radio, Azad Hind stamps, Bahadur Group, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Battaglione Azad Hindoustan, Battle cry, Battle of Imphal, Battle of Kohima, Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay, Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations, Battle of Singapore, Battle of the Admin Box, BBC, Bengal Volunteers, Bharat Ratna, Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Bhulabhai Desai, Bidadari Resolutions, Bimal Roy, Bren light machine gun, British Indian Army, British Malaya, British Raj, Burhan-ud-Din (Indian National Army officer), Burma Campaign, Burma National Army, Burma Railway, Channel 4, Chennai, ..., Chiang Kai-shek, Chindwin River, Chitral (princely state), Chittagong, Christopher Bayly, Cinema of India, Claude Auchinleck, Clement Attlee, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Commander-in-Chief, India, Commonwealth of Nations, Communist Party of India (Marxist), CSDIC(I), Dalian, Death of Subhas Chandra Bose, Delhi, Dewan Negara, Dominion, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Ekla Chalo Re, Empire of Japan, Esplanade Park, F Kikan, Fifth column, First Indian National Army, First Nehru ministry, Flag of India, Former Indian National Army Monument, Fourteenth Army (United Kingdom), Frank Messervy, Gandhi Brigade (regiment), General officer, Germany, Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon, Gilgit, Government of India, Grenade, Guerrilla warfare, Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, Heitarō Kimura, Hideki Tojo, Hideo Iwakuro, Hindustan Field Force, Hindustan Times, Hiroshi Ōshima, Hisaichi Terauchi, Hugh Toye, I Kikan, Imperial Japanese Army, Imphal, INA Defence Committee, INA Martyr's Memorial, INA treasure controversy, Independence Day (India), India Post, Indian (1996 film), Indian Air Force, Indian annexation of Hyderabad, Indian Armed Forces, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian Independence League, Indian independence movement, Indian Legion, Indian National Army trials, Indian National Congress, Indian Railways, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Indonesia, Infantry, Irrawaddy Delta, ITV Granada, Iwaichi Fujiwara, Jaganath Rao Bhonsle, Jai Hind, Jai Hind postmark, Jana Gana Mana, Janaky Athi Nahappan, Japanese Burma Area Army, Japanese war crimes, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jiffs, John Thivy, Joyce Lebra, Kabir Khan (director), Kailash Nath Katju, Kohima, Kolkata, Lakshmi Sahgal, Languages of India, Lieutenant colonel, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Maha Vir Chakra, Mahatma Gandhi, Major, Major general, Malayan Campaign, Malaysia, Malaysian Indian Congress, Manchukuo, Manipur, Maratha Light Infantry, Masakazu Kawabe, Mohammed Zaman Kiani, Mohan Singh (general), Moirang, Mount Popa, Mukden Incident, Multan, Myanmar, Naga Hills, Narendra Modi, National Archives of Singapore, National Union of Plantation Workers, Nehru Brigade, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Nizam of Hyderabad, Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin, Northeast India, Operation U-Go, Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan, Pakistan Movement, Parachute Regiment (India), Parliament of Malaysia, Paul Scott (novelist), Peter W. Fay, Philip Mason, Postage stamps and postal history of India, Pratul Chandra Gupta, Prem Sahgal, President of India, Pune, Qadam Qadam Badaye Ja, Quit India Movement, Rabindranath Tagore, Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan, Rajya Sabha, Rakhine State, Ram Singh Thakuri, Ramesh Sakharam Benegal, Rani of Jhansi, Rani of Jhansi Regiment, Rasammah Bhupalan, Rash Behari Bose, Razakars (Hyderabad), Red Fort, Renya Mutaguchi, Resistance movement, Revolutionary movement for Indian independence, Royal Air Force, Royal Air Force mutiny, Royal Indian Navy, Royal Indian Navy mutiny, S. Shankar, Salimgarh Fort, Samar Guha, Sepoy, Shah Nawaz Khan (general), Shaukat Malik, Shyam Benegal, Sikh, South East Asia Command, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, Southeast Asia, Special operations, Subh Sukh Chain, Subhas Brigade, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sugata Bose, Sukarno, Sumit Sarkar, T. E. Lawrence, Tamil language, Tamils, Tamu, Myanmar, Thai-Bharat Cultural Lodge, Thailand, The Day of the Scorpion, The Glass Palace, The Jewel in the Crown (TV series), The Raj Quartet, The Springing Tiger, The Towers of Silence, Thirty Comrades, Tokyo Boys, Urdu, Vickers machine gun, Vietnam, War crime, William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, Women's rights, World War II, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, 81st (West Africa) Division. Expand index (200 more) » « Shrink index
Arathil Chandeth Narayanan Nambiar (1896–1986) was an Indian Nationalist and a friend and colleague of Subhas Chandra Bose.
Major General Arcot Doraiswamy Loganadan (12 April 1888 – 9 March 1949) was an officer of the Indian National Army, and a minister in the Azad Hind Government as a representative of the Indian National Army.
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President," he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
Allahrakka Rahman (born A. S. Dileep Kumar, best known as A. R. Rahman, is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, and music producer. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Indian classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are six National Film Awards, two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, fifteen Filmfare Awards and seventeen Filmfare Awards South. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India. In 2009, Rahman was included on the ''Time'' 100 list of the world's most influential people. The UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011. South Indian fans of Rahman refer him with the nickname of "The Mozart of Madras", and "Isai Puyal" (the Musical Storm). With an in-house studio (Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai), Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, and theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated 200million units sold. In a notable two-decade career, he has been acclaimed for redefining contemporary Indian film music and contributing to the success of several films. Rahman has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for a number of causes and charities. In 2017, Rahman made his debut as a director and writer for the film Le Musk.
Abid Hasan Safrani, IFS,born Zain-al-Abdin Hasan, was an officer of the Indian National Army and later, after 1947, an Indian diplomat.
Air commodore (abbreviated as Air Cdre in the RAF, IAF and PAF; AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior general rank of the air-officer which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
The All India Democratic Women's Association (AIDWA) (in Hindi: अखिल भारतीय जनवादी महिला समिति) is the women's wing of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
The All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) is a left-wing nationalist political party in India.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amitav Ghosh (born 11 July 1956), Encyclopædia Britannica is an Indian writer best known for his work in English fiction.
An anti-tank rifle is a rifle designed to penetrate the armor of vehicles, particularly tanks.
The Arakan Campaign of 1942–43 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942, during the Second World War.
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a Government of India (Ministry of Culture) organisation responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
Asaf Ali (11 May 1888 – 1 April 1953) was an Indian independence fighter and noted Indian lawyer.
Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.
Bogyoke (Major General) Aung San (13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) served as the 5th Premier of the British Crown Colony of Burma from 1946 to 1947.
Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.
The Azad Brigade or the 3rd Guerrilla Regiment was a unit of the Indian National Army that formed a part of the First INA and later part of the 1st Division after the INA's revival under Subhas Chandra Bose.
Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943 and supported by the Empire of Japan, Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic, and their allies.
The Azad Hind Dal was a branch of the Indian Independence League that was formed during World War II to take administrative control of the Indian territories to fall to the Indian National Army starting with the latter's Imphal campaign.
Azad Hind Radio was a propaganda radio service that was started under the leadership of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose in Germany in 1942 to encourage Indians to fight for freedom.
The Azad Hind Stamps are a set of Cinderella stamps in six different designs produced in 1943 in Nazi Germany for Subhas Chandra Bose's Azad Hind (Indian National Army).
The Bahadur Group, or the Special Services Group as it was initially formed, was a Special Forces unit within the Indian National Army that was tasked with frontline intelligence as well as subversion and sabotage operations behind enemy lines.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
Battaglione Azad Hindoustan (in Italian: Battaglione India libera - "Free India Battalion") was a foreign legion unit formed in Fascist Italy under the Raggruppamento Centri Militari in July 1942.
A battle cry is a yell or chant taken up in battle, usually by members of the same combatant group.
The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944.
The Battle of Kohima was the turning point of the Japanese U Go offensive into India in 1944 during the Second World War.
The concurrent Battle of Meiktila and Battle of Mandalay were decisive engagements near the end of the Burma Campaign.
The Battle of Pakokku and Irrawaddy River operations were a series of battles fought between the British Indian Army and the Imperial Japanese Army and allied forces over the successful Allied Burma Campaign on the China Burma India Theater during World War II.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of the Admin Box (sometimes referred to as the Battle of Ngakyedauk or the Battle of Sinzweya) took place on the southern front of the Burma Campaign from 5 to 23 February 1944, in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bengal Volunteers was an underground revolutionary group against the British rule of India.The group was functional from its inception in 1928 to the Indian independence.
The Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India) is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.
Dr Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya (24 November 1880 – 17 December 1959) was born in Gundugolanu village, Krishna district (now part of West Godavari district) in Andhra Pradesh, was an Indian independence activist and political leader in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Bhulabhai Desai (13 October 1877 – 6 May 1946) was an Indian independence activist and acclaimed lawyer.
The Bidadari Resolutions were set of resolutions adopted by the nascent Indian National Army in April 1942 that declared the formation of the INA and its aim to launch an armed struggle for Indian independence.
Bimal Roy (বিমল রায়) (12 July 1909 – 8 January 1966) was an Indian film director.
The Bren gun, usually called simply the Bren, are a series of light machine guns (LMG) made by Britain in the 1930s and used in various roles until 1992.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Burhan-ud-Din (1914–1996) (برھان الدین) of Chitral, Pakistan was a veteran of the Indian National Army.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma National Army (also known as the Burma Independence Army) (ဗမာ့အမျိုးသားတပ်မတော်) served as the armed forces of the puppet Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign.
The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a railway between Ban Pong, Thailand, and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
The Chindwin River (ချင်းတွင်းမြစ်) is a river in Burma (Myanmar), and the largest tributary of the country's chief river the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy).
Chitral (or Chitrāl) (Urdu) was a princely state in alliance with British India until 1947, then a princely state of Pakistan until 1969.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL (18 May 1945 – 18 April 2015) was a British historian specializing in British Imperial, Indian and global history.
The Cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
The Combined Services Detailed Interrogation Centre (India), or CSDIC (I) for short, was the Indian branch of the CSDIC, established during World War II.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
Indian nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose died from third-degree burns on 18 August 1945 after his overloaded Japanese plane crashed in Japanese-occupied Formosa (now Taiwan).
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Dewan Negara (Malay for Senate, literally State Hall) is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), (Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India.
Jodi Tor Dak Shune Keu Na Ase Tobe Ekla Cholo Re ("If no one responds to your call, then go your own way alone"), commonly known as Ekla Chalo Re, is a Bengali patriotic song written by Rabindranath Tagore in 1905.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Esplanade Park (Chinese: 海滨公园) is a historic park located at the Esplanade within the Downtown Core of the Central Area of Singapore.
was a military intelligence operation established by the IGHQ in September 1941.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
The First Indian National Army (or the First INA) was the Indian National Army as it existed between February and December 1942.
After independence, on 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru assumed office as the first Prime Minister of India and chose fifteen ministers to form the First Nehru ministry.
The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.
The Former Indian National Army Monument (Chinese: 印度国民军纪念碑) is a historical site and a demolished war memorial at the Esplanade Park located at Connaught Drive within the downtown of Singapore.
The British Fourteenth Army was a multi-national force comprising units from Commonwealth countries during World War II.
General Sir Frank Walter Messervy & Bar (9 December 1893 – 2 February 1974) was a British Indian Army officer in both the First and Second World Wars. Following its independence, he was the first Commander of the Pakistan Army (15 August 1947 – 10 February 1948) Previously, he had become a Lieutenant-General in 1945; a General in 1947; General Officer Commanding in Chief or (GOC-in-C) Northern Command, India in 1946 and 1947.
The Gandhi Brigade or the 2nd Guerrilla Regiment of the Indian National Army formed a part of the First INA and later formed a part of the 1st Division after its revival under Subhas Chandra Bose.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon was an Indian freedom fighter and Sikh missionary who, as a member of the Ghadar Party, was instrumental in the planning of the failed 1915 Ghadar conspiracy in the British Indian Army.
Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (18 March 1914 – 6 February 2006) was an officer in the Indian National Army (INA) who was charged with "waging war against His Majesty the King Emperor".
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
was a major general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
The Hindustan Field Force was the first operational regiment of the Indian National Army that was formed in September 1942 under the first INA.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Baron was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Japanese ambassador to Germany before and during World War II — and unwittingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies.
Count was a Gensui (or Marshal) in the Imperial Japanese Army and Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II.
Colonel Claude Hugh Toye MBE (29 March 1917- 15 April 2012) was a British Army intelligence officer who worked in India and Burma during World War II.
The Iwakuro Kikan or the I Kikan was an intelligence mission and liaison office for the Japanese Army and the Indian National Army during the Second World War in the South-East Asian theatre.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
Imphal is the capital city of the Indian state of Manipur.
The INA Defence Committee, later the INA Defence and Relief Committee, was a committee established by the Indian National Congress in 1945 to defend those officers of the Indian National Army who were to be charged during the INA trials.
The INA Martyr's Memorial complex is a war memorial at Moirang, India, dedicated to the soldiers of the Indian National Army.
The INA treasure controversy relates to alleged misappropriation by men of Azad Hind of the Azad Hind fortune recovered from belongings of Subhas Chandra Bose in his last known journey.
Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly.
The Department of Posts (DoP), trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India.
Indian is a 1996 Indian Tamil vigilante film written and directed by Shankar and produced by A. M. Rathnam.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
Operation Polo is the code name of the Hyderabad "police action" in September 1948, by the newly independent India against the Hyderabad State.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian Independence League (also known as IIL) was a political organisation operated from the 1920s to the 1940s to organise those living outside India into seeking the removal of British colonial rule over India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Legion (Indische Legion), officially the Free India Legion (Legion Freies Indien) or Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian) (Infanterie-Regiment 950 (indisches), I.R. 950) and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany.
The Indian National Army trials (INA trials), which are also called the Red Fort trials, were the British Indian trial by courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) between November 1945 and May 1946, for charges variously for treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder during World War II.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Irrawaddy Delta or Ayeyarwady Delta lies in the Irrawaddy Division, the lowest expanse of land in Myanmar that fans out from the limit of tidal influence at Myan Aung to the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, 290 km to the south at the mouth of the Ayeyarwady River.
ITV Granada (formerly Granada Television; informally Granada) is the Channel 3 regional service for North West England and the Isle of Man.
was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II, and later a lieutenant general in the post-war Japan Ground Self Defense Force.
Major General Jaganath Rao Bhonsle also known as Jagannathrao Krishnarao BhonsleOctober 1939 Indian Army List (10 December 1906 – 1963) was an officer of the British Indian Army subsequently the Indian National Army, a minister for armed forces in the Azad Hind Government, and later a minister in the post-independence Nehru Government in India.
Jai Hind is a salutation, slogan, and battle cry most commonly used in India to indicate patriotism towards India (also known as Hind).
The Jai Hind postmark was the first commemorative postmark of Independent India, and was issued on the day of independence, 15 August 1947.
"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.
Puan Sri Datin Janaki Athi Nahappan, also known as Janaky Devar (25 February 1925 – 9 May 2014), was a founding member of the Malaysian Indian Congress and one of the earliest women involved in the fight for Malaysian (then Malaya) independence.
The was a field army of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jiffs was a pejorative term used by British Intelligence, and later the 14th Army, to denote soldiers of the Indian National Army after the failed First Arakan offensive of 1943.
John Aloysius Thivy (1904–1959) was a Malayan Indian politician and former lawyer who was the founding president of the Malayan Indian Congress.
Joyce Lebra (born December 21, 1925), also known as Joyce Chapman Lebra, is an American historian of Japan and India.
Kabir Khan is an Indian film director, screenwriter and cinematographer.
Kailash Nath Katju (17 June 1887 – 17 February 1968) was a prominent politician of India.
Kohima is the hilly capital city of India's north eastern state of Nagaland.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Lakshmi Sahgal (born Lakshmi Swaminathan) (24 October 1914 – 23 July 2012) was a revolutionary of the Indian independence movement, an officer of the Indian National Army, and the Minister of Women's Affairs in the Azad Hind government.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) (literally great warrior medal) is the second highest military decoration in India, after the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC; மலேசிய இந்திய காங்கிரஸ்; formerly known as Malayan Indian Congress) is a Malaysian political party and is one of the founding members of Barisan Nasional, previously known as the Alliance, that was in power from when the country achieved independence in 1957 until the recent 2018 elections.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
The Maratha Light Infantry is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
Major-General Mohammed Zaman Kiani (1 October 1910 – 4 June 1981) was an officer of the British Indian Army who later joined the Indian National Army and was appointed its Chief of General Staff.
Mohan Singh (Punjabi: ਮੋਹਨ ਸਿਂਘ (Gurmukhi); (Shahmukhi); 1909 – 1989) was an Indian military officer and member of the Indian Independence Movement best known for his role in organising and leading the First Indian National Army in South East Asia during World War II.
Moirang is a small town in the Indian state of Manipur.
Mount Popa is a volcano 1518 metres (4981 feet) above sea level, and located in central Myanmar (formerly Burma) in the region of Mandalay about southeast of Bagan (Pagan) in the Pegu Range.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Naga Hills, reaching a height of around, lie on the border of India and Burma (Myanmar).
Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.
The National Archives of Singapore (NAS) is the national archives of Singapore.
The National Union of Plantation Workers (NUPW) is the largest union in Malaysia and one of the largest in Asia.
The Nehru Brigade or 4th Guerrilla Regiment was a unit of the Indian National Army, that formed a part of the First INA and later part of the 1st Division after the INA's revival under Subhas Chandra Bose.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero is a 2004 Indian biographical war film, written and directed by Shyam Benegal.
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), formerly known as the Delhi Institute of Technology, is an engineering college located in Dwarka, New Delhi, India.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
The U Go offensive, or Operation C (ウ号作戦 U Gō sakusen), was the Japanese offensive launched in March 1944 against forces of the British Empire in the northeast Indian regions of Manipur and the Naga Hills (then administered as part of Assam).
The Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award in the Republic of India, preceded by the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan and followed by the Padma Shri.
The Padma Vibhushan is the second-highest civilian award of the Republic of India; Bharat Ratna is the highest, Padma Bhushan third-ranking.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Parachute Regiment is the airborne infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.
Paul Mark Scott (25 March 19201 March 1978) was an English novelist, playwright, and poet, best known for his monumental tetralogy The Raj Quartet. His novel Staying On won the Booker Prize for 1977.
Peter Ward Fay (3 December 1924 – 18 January 2004) was a noted historian and authority on India and China.
Philip Mason OBE CIE (19 March 1906 – 25 January 1999) was an English civil servant and author.
. --> --> This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of India.
Pratul Chandra Gupta (1910-1990) was an Indian historian, writer and the author of Nana Sahib and the Rising at Cawnpore, a historical account of the Siege of Cawnpore.
Colonel Prem Kumar Sahgal (25 March 1917 – 17 October 1992) was an officer of the British Indian Army.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
"Qadam Qadam Badhaye Ja" (Hindi: क़दम क़दम बढ़ाये जा) was the regimental quick march of the Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Raja Habib ur Rahman Khan (1913–1978) was an Indian nationalist during British colonial rule of India, an officer in the Indian National Army (INA) who was charged with "waging war against His Majesty the King Emperor".
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Rakhine State (Rakhine pronunciation;; formerly Arakan) is a state in Myanmar (Burma).
Captain Ram Singh Thakuri (कप्तान राम सिहँ ठकुरी 15 August 1914 – 15 April 2002) was an Indian Gorkha freedom fighter, musician and composer.
Air Commodre Ramesh Sakharam Benegal MVC AVSM (9 October 1926 – April 2003) was an ex-officer of the Indian Air Force and a recipient of Maha Vir Chakra, India's second highest gallantry Award.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (19 November 1828 – 18 June 1858Though the day of the month is regarded as certain historians disagree about the year: among those suggested are 1827 and 1835.), was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Rani of Jhansi Regiment was the Women's Regiment of the Indian National Army, the armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia with the aim of overthrowing the British Raj in colonial India, with Japanese assistance.
Rasammah Bhupalan (born 1 May 1927), also known as Rasammah Naomi Navarednam or Mrs F.R. Bhupalan, is a Malaysian freedom fighter and social activist.
Rash Behari Bose (রাসবিহারী বসু Rashbihari Boshu; 25 May 188621 January 1945) was an Indian revolutionary leader against the British Raj and was one of the key organisers of the Ghadar Mutiny and later the Indian National Army.
The Razakars were a private militia organised by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Nizam Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and resist the integration of Hyderabad State into the Dominion of India.
Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.
was a Japanese military officer, lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian independence movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Air Force Mutiny of 1946 were a series of demonstrations and strikes at several dozen Royal Air Force stations in India and South Asia in January 1946.
The Royal Indian Navy (RIN) was the naval force of British India and the Dominion of India.
The Royal Indian Navy revolt (also called the Royal Indian Navy mutiny or Bombay mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour on 18 February 1946.
Shankar Shanmugam (born 17 August 1963), credited mononymously as Shankar, is an Indian film director and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema.
Salimgarh Fort (सलीमगढ़ किला, سلیم گڑھ،literally "Salim’s Fort") was built in 1546 AD, in Delhi, in a former island of the Yamuna River, by Salim Shah Suri, son of Sher Shah Suri.
Samar Guha (সমর গুহ) was a noted Indian politician, and an Indian independence movement activist.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Shah Nawaz Khan (شاہ نواز خان; 24 January 1914 – 9 December 1983) was an Indian politician who served as an officer in the Indian National Army during World War II.
Colonel Shaukat Ali Malik was an officer of the Indian National Army notable for having led a unit of the Bahadur Group in the capture of Moirang during the initial phases of the INA's Imphal Campaign during World War II.
Shyam Benegal (born 14 December 1934) is an Indian director and screenwriter.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
South East Asia Command (SEAC) was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II.
The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in Burma, Ceylon, India, Thailand, Philippines, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Special operations (S.O.) are military operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources.
Subh Sukh Chain was the national anthem (Qaumi Tarana) of the Provisional Government of Free India (Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind).
The Subhas Brigade, or the 1st Guerrilla Regiment was a unit of the Indian National Army (INA).
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sugata Bose (born 7 September 1956) is an Indian historian and politician who has taught and worked in the United States since the mid-1980s.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Sumit Sarkar (Bengali সুমিত সরকার) (born 1939) is an Indian historian of modern India.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tamu or Tat Mu is a town in Sagaing Region in north-west Burma near the border with the eastern Indian state of Manipur.
The Thai-Bharat Cultural Lodge (อาศรมวัฒนธรรมไทย-ภารต) is one of the most prestigious Indian cultural organisation in Thailand that seeks to promote comparative studies and exchange between Thai and Indian history and culture.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Day of the Scorpion is the 1968 novel by Paul Scott, the second in his Raj Quartet.
The Glass Palace is a 2000 historical novel by Indian writer Amitav Ghosh.
The Jewel in the Crown is a 1984 British television serial about the final days of the British Raj in India during and after World War II, based upon the Raj Quartet novels (1965–75) by British author Paul Scott.
The Raj Quartet is a four-volume novel sequence, written by Paul Scott, about the concluding years of the British Raj in India.
The Springing Tiger is a historical account of the Indian National Army published in 1959 by Col Hugh Toye.
The Towers of Silence is the 1971 novel by Paul Scott that continues his Raj Quartet.
The Thirty Comrades (ရဲဘော်သုံးကျိပ်) constituted the embryo of the modern Burmese army called the Burma Independence Army (BIA) which was formed to fight for independence from Britain.
The Tokyo Cadets or the Tokyo Boys, was the name given to the group of forty five youth recruits of the Indian National Army who were sent to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy or Imperial Japanese Army Air Force Academy to train as fighter pilots in 1944 by Subhas Chandra Bose.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
The 81st (West Africa) Division was formed under British control during World War II.