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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. [1]

250 relations: Aden, Africa, African Plate, Agulhas Current, Agulhas Return Current, Alang, Alexandria, Americas, Ancient Egypt, Andaman Sea, Antarctic Plate, Antarctica, Arabian Peninsula, Arabian Sea, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Asia, Asphalt, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Australian Plate, Bab-el-Mandeb, Bahrain, Balochistan, Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal, Beira, Mozambique, Brahmaputra River, Cape Agulhas, Cape of Good Hope, Carlsberg Ridge, Central Indian Ridge, Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, Chennai Port, Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty, Colombo, Colombo Harbour, Common Era, Comoros, Culture of the Indian Ocean Islands, Deccan Traps, Diamantina Deep, Diamantina Fracture Zone, Diego Garcia, Dilmun, Dugong, Durban, Dutch East India Company, Earth, East Africa, ..., East Asia, East London, Eastern Cape, East Timor, Egypt, Egypt (Roman province), Eighty Five East Ridge, Elam, Ennore, Equator, Eudoxus of Cyzicus, Euphrates, Europe, Far East, Fishing, France, Fremantle, Galle, Ganges, Globigerina, Great Australian Bight, Greece, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Oman, Gwadar, Hambantota, Harappa, Hazira, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Hindi, Hippalus, HMS Cornwall (56), Hotspot (geology), India, Indian Monsoon Current, Indian Ocean garbage patch, Indian Ocean Gyre, Indian Ocean literature, Indian Plate, Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Indonesian Throughflow, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilization, International Hydrographic Organization, Iran, Irrawaddy River, Island country, Jakarta, Japan, Jubba River, Karachi, Kerguelen hotspot, Kerguelen Islands, Kerguelen Plateau, Kingdom of Funan, Kochi, Laccadive Sea, Land of Punt, Languages of India, List of islands by area, List of islands in the Indian Ocean, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Indian Ocean, Littoral zone, Lombok Strait, Madagascar, Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port, Maldives, Maldivians, Manila galleon, Marginal sea, Mascarene Plateau, Mauritius, Mayotte, Medan, Mediterranean Sea, Mesopotamia, Mid-ocean ridge, Middle East, Mineral, Ming dynasty, Mombasa, Monsoon, Mosylon, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel, Mumbai Port Trust, Mundra, Muscat, Oman, Myanmar, Nagapattinam, Narmada River, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nile, Ninety East Ridge, Ocean, Ocean current, Ocean gyre, Oman, Online Etymology Dictionary, Opone, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Palk Strait, Panambur, Pandyan dynasty, Paradip Port, Pelagic zone, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Persian Gulf, Perth, Petroleum, Philippines, Phoenicia, Pinniped, Piracy off the coast of Somalia, Plankton, Plastic pollution, Polynesians, Port Blair, Port Louis, Port of Chittagong, Port of Dar es Salaam, Port of Kolkata, Port of Singapore, Portugal, Prince Edward Islands, Rajmahal Traps, Réunion, Réunion hotspot, Red Sea, Reed boat, Richards Bay, Rodrigues Triple Point, Roman commerce, Russia, Salinity, Sanskrit, Saudi Arabia, Seamount, Seychelles, Shatt al-Arab, Shrimp, Sindh, Somalia, Sonadia Island, South Africa, South India, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Southeast Indian Ridge, Southern Ocean, Southwest Indian Ridge, Soviet Union, Spain, Spanish East Indies, Sri Lanka, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, Suez Canal, Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center, Sumer, Sunda Trench, Taiwan, Tamils, Tanzania, Tasmania, Terrigenous sediment, Thailand, Thoothukudi, Tigris, Treasure voyages, Treaty of Tordesillas, Tsunami, Tuna, Turtle, Ubaid period, United States, Vasco da Gama, Visakhapatnam, Water, Western Australia, Whale, World War II, Yangon, Yemen, Zambezi, Zanzibar, Zheng He, Zonal and meridional, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 20th meridian east, 20th parallel south, 30th parallel north, 40th parallel south, 45th parallel south, 50th parallel south, 65th parallel south. Expand index (200 more) »

Aden

Aden (عدن Yemeni pronunciation) is a seaport city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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African Plate

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.

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Agulhas Current

The Agulhas Current is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean.

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Agulhas Return Current

The Agulhas Return Current (ARC) is an ocean current in the South Indian Ocean.

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Alang

Alang is a census town in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Americas

The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.

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Andaman Sea

The Andaman Sea (আন্দামান সাগর; अंडमान सागर) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar (Burma), west of Thailand, north-west of Malay Peninsula, north of Sumatra and east of the Andaman Islands, India, from which it takes its name; it is part of the Indian Ocean.

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Antarctic Plate

The Antarctic Plate is a tectonic plate containing the continent of Antarctica and extending outward under the surrounding oceans.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Ashmore and Cartier Islands

The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Asphalt

Asphalt (or, occasionally), also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Plate

The Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the southern and eastern hemispheres.

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Bab-el-Mandeb

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Egyptian Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") or Mandeb Strait is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

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Bahrain

Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf.

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Balochistan

Balochistan or Baluchistan (بلوچستان, lit. Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region on the Iranian plateau in south-western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Sea.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

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Beira, Mozambique

Beira is the second largest city in Mozambique.

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Brahmaputra River

The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

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Cape Agulhas

Cape Agulhas (Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of the Needles") is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Carlsberg Ridge

The Carlsberg Ridge is the northern section of the Central Indian Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the African Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate, traversing the western regions of the Indian Ocean.

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Central Indian Ridge

The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the African Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate, traversing the western regions of the Indian Ocean.

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Chagos-Laccadive Ridge

The Chagos-Laccadive Ridge (CLR), also known as Chagos-Laccadive Plateau, is a prominent volcanic ridge and oceanic plateau extending between the Northern and the Central Indian Ocean.

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Chennai Port

Chennai Port, formerly known as Madras Port, is the second largest port of India, behind the Nhava Sheva Port, and the largest port in the Bay of Bengal.

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Chera dynasty

The Cheras were an ancient Dravidian royal dynasty of Tamil origin who ruled in regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty (also called Choda and Cholan) was an ancient dynasty of southern India.

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Colombo

Colombo (Sinhala: කොළඹ, pronounced; கொழும்பு) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.

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Colombo Harbour

The Port of Colombo (known as Port of Kolomtota during the early 14th Century Kotte Kingdom) is the largest and busiest port in Sri Lanka as well as in South Asia.

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Common Era

Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Comoros

The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.

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Culture of the Indian Ocean Islands

The culture of the Indian Ocean islands reflects the ethnic diversity, history, politics, music, dance, food, drink, arts, sports and international influences in that region.

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Deccan Traps

The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (between 17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.

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Diamantina Deep

The Diamantina Deep is located in the Diamantina Trench southwest of Perth, Western Australia.

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Diamantina Fracture Zone

The Diamantina Fracture Zone is an area of the south-eastern Indian Ocean seafloor.

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Diego Garcia

Diego Garcia is an atoll located south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean.

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Dilmun

Dilmun or Telmun was a civilization in Eastern Arabia.

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Dugong

The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.

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Durban

Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu–Natal.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East Indian Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.

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Earth

Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East London, Eastern Cape

East London (Afrikaans: Oos-Londen, eMonti) is a city on the southeast coast of South Africa in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality of the Eastern Cape province.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Eighty Five East Ridge

The Eighty Five East Ridge or 85°E Ridge is a near-linear, aseismic, age-progressive ridge in the northeastern Indian Ocean.

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Elam

Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranic civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Ennore

Ennore is a suburb in Chennai, India.

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Equator

An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between the poles.

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Eudoxus of Cyzicus

Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος, Eúdoxos; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (الفرات: al-Furāt, ̇ܦܪܬ: Pǝrāt, Եփրատ: Yeprat, פרת: Perat, Fırat, Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Far East

The Far East is an alternate geographical term in English (with equivalents in many other languages – see the infobox on the right for examples), that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Fishing

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Fremantle

Fremantle is a major Australian port city in Western Australia, located at the mouth of the Swan River.

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Galle

Galle (ගාල්ල;காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo.

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Ganges

The Ganges, also Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Globigerina

Globigerina is a genus of planktonic Foraminifera that have populated the world's oceans since the Late Eocene.

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Great Australian Bight

The Great Australian Bight is a large oceanic bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia.

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Greece

Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden (خليج عدن, Gacanka Cadmeed) is a gulf located in the Arabian Sea between Yemen, on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa.

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Gulf of Khambhat

The Gulf of Khambhat (also known as the Gulf of Cambay) is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat.

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Gulf of Kutch

The Gulf of Kutch is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat, and renowned for extreme daily tides.

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Gulf of Mannar

The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean.

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Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان—Ḫalīdj ʾUmān; alternatively known as خليج مکران—, Ḫalīdj Makrān; in Persian: دریای عمان Daryā-ye Ommān, or دریای مکران Daryā-ye Makrān, or دریای پارسDaryā-ye Pārs; in خلیج عمان Khaleej Oman) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.

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Gwadar

Gwadar (Balochi: گوادر Gwadur) is a city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coastline of Pakistan, in Balochistan province.

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Hambantota

Hambantota (හම්බන්තොට, அம்பாந்தோட்டை) is the main town in Hambantota District, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.

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Harappa

Harappa (ਹੜੱਪਾ; ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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Hazira

Hazira is a town and a transshipment port in the Surat district in the Gujarat state in southwestern India.

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Heard Island and McDonald Islands

The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 2009.01.04.

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Hindi

Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hippalus

Hippalus (Ancient Greek: Ἵππαλος) was a Greek navigator and merchant who probably lived in the 1st century BCE.

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HMS Cornwall (56)

HMS Cornwall, pennant number 56, was a heavy cruiser of the Kent subclass built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1920s.

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Hotspot (geology)

In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Monsoon Current

The Indian Monsoon Current refers to the seasonally varying ocean current regime found in the tropical regions of the northern Indian Ocean.

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Indian Ocean garbage patch

The Indian Ocean garbage patch, discovered in 2010, is a gyre of marine litter suspended in the upper water column of the central Indian Ocean, specifically the Indian Ocean Gyre, one of the five major oceanic gyres.

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Indian Ocean Gyre

The Indian Ocean Gyre, located in the Indian Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres, large systems of rotating ocean currents, which together form the backbone of the global conveyer belt.

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Indian Ocean literature

The Indian Ocean is home to many literary texts, from Greco-Roman times to the Thousand and One nights, the matrix of many narratives, which portrays Sinbad the Merchant, through a fantastic and popular twist of the mind, however based on real details of navigation in this first ocean of globalisation.

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Indian Plate

The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Indonesian Throughflow

The Indonesian throughflow (ITF) is an ocean current with importance for global climate since it provides a low-latitude pathway for warm, fresh water to move from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean and this serves as the upper branch of the global heat conveyor belt.

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Indus River

The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Irrawaddy River

The Irrawaddy River or Ayeyarwady River (also spelt Ayeyarwaddy) is a river that flows from north to south through Myanmar.

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Island country

An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.

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Jakarta

Jakarta,Pronounced in Indonesian language:.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Jubba River

The Jubba River (Wabiga Jubba, Giuba) is a river in southern Somalia.

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Karachi

Karachi (ڪراچي, کراچی / ALA-LC) is the capital of the province of Sindh, as well as the largest and most populous metropolitan city of Pakistan.

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Kerguelen hotspot

The Kerguelen hotspot is a volcanic hotspot at the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Indian Ocean.

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Kerguelen Islands

The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen or Archipel de Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen or Archipel Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands, are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two emerged parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.

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Kerguelen Plateau

The Kerguelen Plateau is an oceanic plateau and a large igneous province (LIP) in the southern Indian Ocean.

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Kingdom of Funan

Kingdom of Funan (អាណាចក្រហ្វូណន) was the name given by the Chinese to an ancient kingdom located in southern Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.

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Kochi

Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south west coast of India by the Laccadive Sea and is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala.

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Laccadive Sea

The Laccadive Sea or Lakshadweep Sea is a body of water bordering India (including its Lakshadweep islands), the Maldives, and Sri Lanka.

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Land of Punt

The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet, or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an old kingdom.

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Languages of India

There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by most of the rest of Indians.

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List of islands by area

This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than 2,500 km2 and several other islands over 500 km2, sorted in descending order by area.

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List of islands in the Indian Ocean

This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Indian Ocean

This is a list of sovereign states and dependencies in the Indian Ocean.

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Littoral zone

The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.

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Lombok Strait

The Lombok Strait (Indonesian: Selat Lombok), is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean, and is located between the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia.

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Madagascar

Madagascar (or; Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa.

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Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port

The Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port (also known as the Port of Hambantota) is a maritime port in Hambantota, Sri Lanka.

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Maldives

The Maldives (or;, officially the Republic of Maldives; ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya) is a sovereign island country and archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

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Maldivians

Maldivians (ދިވެހިން, divehin), also called Maldive Islanders are a nation and ethnic group native to the historic region of the Maldive Islands comprising what is now the Republic of Maldives and the island of Minicoy in Union territory of Lakshadweep, India.

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Manila galleon

The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila, Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships that made round-trip sailing voyages once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean from the port of Acapulco in New Spain (present-day Mexico) to Manila in the Spanish East Indies, now the Philippines.

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Marginal sea

In oceanography, a marginal sea is a sea partially enclosed by islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas, adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean at the surface, and/or bounded by submarine ridges on the sea floor.

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Mascarene Plateau

The Mascarene Plateau is a submarine plateau in the Indian Ocean, north and east of Madagascar.

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Mauritius

Mauritius (Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Mayotte

Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an overseas department and region of France officially named Département de Mayotte.

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Medan

Medan (Kota Medan) is the capital of the North Sumatra province in Indonesia.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Mid-ocean ridge

A mid-ocean ridge is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mombasa

Mombasa is the second-largest.

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Monsoon

Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Mosylon

Mosylon (Μοσυλλόν), also known as Mosullon, was an ancient Somali trading center on or near the site that later became the city of Bosaso.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique), is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Mozambique Channel

The Mozambique Channel (French: Canal du Mozambique, Malagasy: Lakandranon'i Mozambika, Portuguese: Canal de Moçambique) is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between Madagascar and Mozambique.

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Mumbai Port Trust

Mumbai Port Trust lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbour of Mumbai.

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Mundra

Mundra is a census town in Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Muscat, Oman

Muscat (Arabic: مسقط) is the capital of Oman.

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Myanmar

Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Nagapattinam

Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.

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Narmada River

The Narmada also called the Rewa, is a river in central India and the fifth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere.

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Nile

The Nile (النيل, Eg. en-Nīl, Std. an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Iteru) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.

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Ninety East Ridge

The Ninety East Ridge (also rendered as Ninetyeast Ridge, 90E Ridge or 90°E Ridge) is a linear, age-progressive seamount chain in the Indian Ocean and is named for its near-parallel strike along the 90th meridian.

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Ocean

An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, and temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Ocean gyre

A gyre in oceanography is any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Opone

Opone (Ωπώνη) was an ancient Somali city situated in the Horn of Africa.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Palk Strait

The Palk Strait (பாக்கு சலசந்தி / பாக்கு நீரிணை) is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Mannar district of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka.

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Panambur

Panambur (Tulu, Kannada: ಪಣಂಬೂರು) is the site of sea port called New Mangalore Port.

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Pandyan dynasty

The Pandyan or Pandiyan or Pandian dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.

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Paradip Port

Paradip Port is an artificial, deep-water port on the East coast of India in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha.

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Pelagic zone

Any water in a sea or lake that is neither close to the bottom nor near the shore can be said to be in the pelagic zone.

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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Perth

Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.

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Pinniped

Pinnipeds, (from Latin pinna fin and pes, pedis foot) commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Piracy off the coast of Somalia

Piracy off the coast of Somalia has been a threat to international shipping since the second phase of the Somali Civil War in the early 21st century.

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Plankton

Plankton (singular plankter) are a diverse group of organisms that live in the water column of large bodies of water and that cannot swim against a current.

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Plastic pollution

Plastic pollution involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans.

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Polynesians

The Polynesian people consists of various ethnic groups that speak Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic languages, and inhabit Polynesia.

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Port Blair

Port Blair is the largest town and a municipal council in Andaman district in the Andaman Islands and the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India.

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Port Louis

Port Louis (Port-Louis) is the capital city of Mauritius, located in the Port Louis District, the western part also lies in the Black River District.

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Port of Chittagong

The Port of Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম বন্দর) is the largest seaport in Bangladesh, located by the estuary of the Karnaphuli River in Patenga, near the city of Chittagong.

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Port of Dar es Salaam

The Port of Dar es Salaam is the principal port serving Tanzania.

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Port of Kolkata

The Port of Kolkata (কলকাতা বন্দর) is a riverine port in the city of Kolkata, India, located around from the sea.

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Port of Singapore

The Port of Singapore refers to the collective facilities and terminals that conduct maritime trade handling functions in harbours and which handle Singapore's shipping.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Prince Edward Islands

The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa.

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Rajmahal Traps

The Rajamal Traps is a volcanic igneous province in Eastern India, covering the parts of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Meghalaya.

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Réunion

Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is a French island located in the Indian Ocean.

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Réunion hotspot

The Réunion hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which currently lies under the Island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea, (also the Erythraean Sea), is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Reed boat

Reed boats and rafts, along with dugout canoes and other rafts, are among the oldest known types of boats.

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Richards Bay

Richards Bay (Richardsbaai) is a town in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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Rodrigues Triple Point

The Rodrigues Triple Point (also, Rodrigues Triple Junction) is a geologic triple junction in the southern Indian Ocean where three tectonic plates meet: the African Plate, the Indo-Australian Plate, and the Antarctic Plate.

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Roman commerce

The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Salinity

Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Seamount

A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island.

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Seychelles

Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

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Shatt al-Arab

Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, "Stream of the Arabs") or Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, "Swift River") is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

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Shrimp

The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Sindh

Sindh سندھ; (سنڌ (Perso- Arabic); Indus; Ἰνδός; Sindhu) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the south east of the country.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Sonadia Island

Sonadia Island is a small island of about 9 km2 offshore of the Cox's Bazaar coast in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South India

South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southeast Indian Ridge

The Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) is a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the seafloor of the southern Indian Ocean.

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Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

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Southwest Indian Ridge

The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the southwest Indian Ocean.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Spanish East Indies

The Spanish East Indies (nocat) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1898.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz تنگه هرمز Tangeh-ye Hormoz, مَضيق هُرمُز Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. It is the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. On the north coast is Iran, and on the south coast is the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. At its narrowest, the strait is wide. About 20% of the world's petroleum, and about 35% of the petroleum traded by sea, passes through the strait making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.

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Strait of Malacca

The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

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Suez Canal

The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

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Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center

The Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center (SQCC) is an organization based in Washington, DC, that seeks to promote understanding of the culture and heritage of Oman and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sunda Trench

The Sunda Trench, earlier known as, and sometimes still indicated as the Java Trench, is located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of.

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Taiwan

Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Tamils

The Tamils, also known as the Tamilans, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and native to Indian State of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry, Northern and Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tasmania

Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as "Tassie") is an island state that is part of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Terrigenous sediment

In oceanography, terrigenous sediments are those derived from the erosion of rocks on land; that is, they are derived from terrestrial (as opposed to marine) environments.

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Thailand

Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.

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Thoothukudi

This article is about the city in Tamil Nadu, India.

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Treasure voyages

In Chinese history, the treasure voyages were the seven Ming-era maritime voyages of the treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

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Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

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Tsunami

A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from 津波, lit. "harbor wave"; English pronunciation), also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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Tuna

A tuna is a saltwater finfish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae) – which together with the tunas, also includes the bonitos, mackerels, and Spanish mackerels.

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Turtle

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Ubaid period

The Ubaid period (ca. 6500 to 3800 BCE) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, (c. 1460s – 23 December 1524) was a Portuguese explorer.

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Visakhapatnam

Visakhapatnam (nicknamed Vizag) is the largest city, both in terms of area and population in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Water

Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Whale

Whale is the common name for a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Yangon

Yangon (ရန်ကုန်, MLCTS rankun mrui,; also known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") is a former capital of Myanmar (Burma) and the capital of Yangon Region.

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Yemen

Yemen (اليَمَن), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية), is an Arab country in Southwest Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zambezi

The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.

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Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania in East Africa.

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Zheng He

Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.

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Zonal and meridional

The terms zonal and meridional are used to describe directions on a globe.

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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

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20th meridian east

The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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20th parallel south

The 20th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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30th parallel north

The 30th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 30 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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40th parallel south

The 40th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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45th parallel south

The 45th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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50th parallel south

The 50th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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65th parallel south

The 65th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 65 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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Redirects here:

Asian Ocean, India Ocean, Indian Sea, Indian ocean, North Indian Ocean, Southern Indian Ocean, The Indian Ocean.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean

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