377 relations: A Passage to India, ABC-CLIO, Adjutant, Agra, Agra Fort, Ahl-i Hadith, Ajaigarh State, Alambagh, Allahabad, Alwar State, Ambala, An Advanced History of India, Anglo-Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore Wars, Anglo-Nepalese War, Anglo-Sikh wars, Anurag Kumar, Arrah, Arthur Conan Doyle, Astrology, Awadh, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bakht Khan, Baroda State, Barrackpore mutiny of 1824, Battle of Badli-ki-Serai, Battle of Buxar, Battle of Chillianwala, Battle of Ferozeshah, Battle of Plassey, Begum Hazrat Mahal, Bengal, Bengal Army, Bengal Brigade, Bengal Native Infantry, Bengal Presidency, Benjamin Disraeli, Berar Province, Bet Dwarka, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bharatpur State, Bhopal State, Bhumihar, Bihar, Bijawar State, Bijnor, Bikaner State, Birjis Qadr, Bite the cartridge, Blowing from a gun, ..., Bombay Army, Bombay Presidency, Brahmin, British Armed Forces, British Empire, British Indian Army, British Raj, Bulandshahr, Bulandshahr district, Bundelkhand, Bundi State, Bungalow, Cantonment, Captain Nemo, Caste, Caste system in India, Central India, Central Provinces, Charles Allen (writer), Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning, Chenab River, Chichawatni, China, Chittagong, Christina Rossetti, Christopher Bayly, Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, Commonwealth of Nations, Company rule in India, Court-martial, Crimean War, Danapur, Datia, Delhi, Dhaka, Dhan Singh Gurjar, Doctrine of lapse, Dogra, Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan), Duke University Press, Dum Dum, E. M. Forster, East India Company, Edward Vibart, Emperor of India, Eric Thomas Stokes, Evangelism, Factory (trading post), Faraizi movement, Fatehpur, Uttar Pradesh, Fatwa, Ficus religiosa, Firozpur, First Anglo-Sikh War, Flagstaff Tower, Flashman in the Great Game, Flora Annie Steel, Folio Society, Fort William, India, Frédéric Cathala, Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, G. A. Henty, Gaekwad dynasty, Ganges Basin, Garrison, George Anson (British Army officer, born 1797), George MacDonald Fraser, George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon, Ghazi (warrior), Government of India Act 1858, Governor-General of India, Gurjar, Gurkha, Gwalior, Gwalior State, H. Beam Piper, Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Haryana, Havildar, Henry Havelock, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Henry Marion Durand, Henry Montgomery Lawrence, Herbert Benjamin Edwardes, Hindu, Hindu–German Conspiracy, Hindustan, Historical fiction, Historiography, History of British newspapers, History of India, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, Hugh Wheeler (East India Company officer), Humayun's Tomb, Hyderabad State, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Ilbert Bill, India, India Office, Indian Mutiny Medal, Indian Order of Merit, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indore, Iran, J. G. 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A Passage to India (1924) is a novel by English author E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s.
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India.
Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith (اهل حدیث, اہل حدیث, people of hadith) is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century from the teachings of Syed Nazeer Husain and Siddiq Hasan Khan.
Ajaigarh State was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.
Alambagh (Hindi: आलमबाग़, Urdu: آلم باغ) is a settlement located in Lucknow near Kanpur road in India.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
Alwar State was a princely state with its capital at Alwar ruled by a Kachwaha Rajput dynasty during the period of the British Raj in India.
Ambala, is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border with the Indian state of Punjab and in proximity to both states capital Chandigarh.
An Advanced History of India is a book on Indian history written by R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhuri and Kalikinkar Datta, first published in 1946.
The Anglo–Maratha Wars were three wars fought in the Indian sub-continent betwen rajput.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
The Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16), also known as the Gurkha War, was fought between the Kingdom of Gorkha (present-day Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal) and the East India Company as a result of border disputes and ambitious expansionism of both the belligerent parties.
The Anglo-Sikh wars were a series of 1840s conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh Empire.
Anurag Kumar is the current Director of the Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore, India.
Arrah is a city and a municipal corporation in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor.
Bakht Khan (1797–13 May 1859) was commander-in-chief of Indian rebel forces in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the East India Company.
Baroda State was a princely state in present-day Gujarat, ruled by the Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha Confederacy from its formation in 1721 until 1949 when it acceded to the newly formed Union of India.
The Barrackpore mutiny was a rising of native Indian sepoys against their British officers in Barrackpore in November 1824.
The Battle of Badli-ki-Serai was fought early in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, or First War of Indian Independence as it has since been termed in Indian histories of the events.
The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1763; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
The Battle of Chillianwala was fought in January 1849 during the Second Anglo-Sikh War in the Chillianwala region of Punjab (Mandi Bahauddin), now part of modern-day Pakistan.
The Battle of Ferozeshah was fought on 21 December and 22 December 1845 between the British and the Sikhs, at the village of Ferozeshah in Punjab.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
Begum Hazrat Mahal (بیگم حضرت محل)(c. 18207 April 1879), also called as Begum of Awadh, (Oudh) was the second wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
Bengal Brigade (also known as Bengal Rifles) is a 1954 American adventure war film directed by Laslo Benedek and starring Rock Hudson, Arlene Dahl and Ursula Thiess.
The regiments of Bengal Native Infantry, alongside the regiments of Bengal European Infantry, were the regular infantry components of the East India Company's Bengal Army from the raising of the first Native battalion in 1757 to the passing into law of the Government of India Act 1858 (as a direct result of the Indian Mutiny).
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Berar Province (Marathi: Varhāḍa/वऱ्हाड), known also as the Hyderabad Assigned Districts, was a province of British India.
Bet Dwarka or Shankhodhar is an inhabited island at mouth of Gulf of Kutch situated off the coast of Okha, Gujarat, India.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bharatpur State, also known as Bharatpore State, was a Hindu princely state in India.
Bhopal State (pronounced) was a tributary state in 18th-century India, a princely salute state with 19-gun salute in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949.
Bhumihars are a Hindu caste mainly found in Bihar (including the Mithila region), the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh, and Nepal.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bijawar State was a princely state of colonial India, located in modern Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh.
Bijnor, is a city and a municipal board in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Bikaner State was a princely state in the Bikaner region from 1465 to 1947.
Berjis Qadr (बिरजिस क़द्र 20 August 1845 – 14 August 1893) was the son of Wajid Ali Shah, and was last Padshah-e Awadh, Shah-e Zaman Qadr and some of his subjects fought the British's military presence in India in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Refusing to "bite the cartridge" was a turn of phrase used by the British in India of native Indian soldiers (sepoys) who had mutinied in 1857.
Blowing from a gun was a method of execution in which the victim was typically tied to the mouth of a cannon which was then fired.
The Bombay Army was the army of the Bombay Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Bulandshahr is a city and a municipal board in Bulandshahr district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Bulandshahr district (also spelled Bulandshahar) is a district in the Meerut region in the North India state of Uttar Pradesh located between 28.4° and 28.0° north latitudes and between 77.0° and 78.0° east longitudes.
Bundelkhand is a geographical and cultural region and also a mountain range in central India.
Bundi State was ruled by Hada Chauhans.
A bungalow is a type of building, originally developed in the Bengal region in South Asia.
A cantonment is a military or police quarters.
Captain Nemo—also known as Prince Dakkar—is a fictional character created by the French science fiction author Jules Verne (1828–1905).
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
The Central Provinces was a province of British India.
Charles Allen (born 1940) is a British freelance writer and popular historian who lives in London.
Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning (14 December 1812 – 17 June 1862), known as The Viscount Canning from 1837 to 1859, was an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.
Chichawatni (چِيچہ وطنى) is a tehsil in the Sahiwal District of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Christina Georgina Rossetti (5 December 1830 – 29 December 1894) was an English poet who wrote a variety of romantic, devotional, and children's poems.
Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL (18 May 1945 – 18 April 2015) was a British historian specializing in British Imperial, Indian and global history.
Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, (20 October 1792– 14 August 1863), was a British Army officer.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Danapur (also known as Dinapur Nizamat or Dinapur) is a satellite town of Patna in Bihar state of India.
Datia is the district headquarters of the Datia District in north central Madhya Pradesh, a state of Central India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Dhan Singh Gurjar, also known as Dhunna Singh, was the Indian kotwal (police chief) of Meerut, who participated in the 1857 uprising and led initial actions against the British East India Company in Meerut.
The doctrine of lapse was an annexation policy applied by the Lord Dalhousie in India before 1858.
The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan that speaks the Dogri language.
Dost Mohammad Khan (دوست محمد خان, December 23, 1793June 9, 1863) was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Dum Dum is a city with a municipality in Barrackpore subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal.
Edward Morgan Forster (1 January 18797 June 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edward Daniel Hamilton Vibart was a British military officer of the British East India Company, best known as a witness and chronicler of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, called by the British the "Sepoy Mutiny".
Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.
Eric Thomas Stokes (1924–1981) was a historian of South Asia, especially early-modern and colonial India, and of the British Empire.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
The Faraizi movement was founded in 1818 by Haji Shariatullah to give up un-Islamic practices and act upon their duties as Muslims (fard).
Fatehpur is a city and a municipal board in Fatehpur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.
Firozpur, also known as Ferozepur, is a city on the banks of the Sutlej River in Firozpur District, Punjab, India.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.
Flagstaff Tower is a one-room, castellated tower, built around 1828 as a signal tower.
Flashman in the Great Game is a 1975 novel by George MacDonald Fraser.
Flora Annie Steel (2 April 1847 – 12 April 1929) was an English writer, who lived in British India for 22 years.
The Folio Society is a privately owned London-based publisher, founded by Charles Ede in 1947 and incorporated in 1971.
Fort William is a fort in Calcutta (Kolkata), built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India.
Frédéric Cathala (born 29 May 1962) is a French author.
Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century.
George Alfred Henty (8 December 1832 – 16 November 1902) was a prolific English novelist and war correspondent.
The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar, also given (incorrectly) as Gaekwar) (गायकवाड Gāyǎkǎvāḍǎ) are a Hindu Maratha clan.
The Ganges basin is a part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin draining 1,086,000 square kilometres in Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
Major-General George Anson CB (13 October 1797 – 27 May 1857) was a British military officer and Whig politician from the Anson family.
George MacDonald Fraser OBE FRSL (2 April 1925 – 2 January 2008) was a Scottish author who wrote historical novels, non-fiction books and several screenplays.
George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon, (24 October 1827 – 9 July 1909), styled Viscount Goderich from 1833 to 1859 and known as the Earl of Ripon in 1859 and as the Earl de Grey and Ripon from 1859 to 1871, was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until the year before his death, which took place forty-eight years later.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
Gwalior was an Indian kingdom and princely state during the British Raj.
Henry Beam Piper (March 23, 1904 –) was an American science fiction author.
Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman is well known for his contribution to Unani medicine.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
A havildar or havaldar (हविलदार (Devanagari) (Perso-Arabic)) is a rank in the Indian and Pakistani armies, equivalent to a sergeant.
Major General Sir Henry Havelock KCB (5 April 1795 – 24 November 1857) was a British general who is particularly associated with India and his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during the Indian Mutiny of 1857.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Major-General Sir Henry Marion Durand, (6 November 1812 – 1 January 1871) was a British Indian Army officer and colonial administrator.
Brigadier-General Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence KCB (28 June 18064 July 1857) was a British military officer, surveyor, administrator and statesman in British India.
Major-General Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes DCL (12 November 1819 – 23 December 1868) was a British administrator, soldier, and statesman active in the Punjab region of British India.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu–German Conspiracy(Note on the name) was a series of plans between 1914 and 1917 by Indian nationalist groups to attempt Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I, formulated between the Indian revolutionary underground and exiled or self-exiled nationalists who formed, in the United States, the Ghadar Party, and in Germany, the Indian independence committee, in the decade preceding the Great War.
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
During the 17th century there were many kinds of news publications and told both the news and rumours.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Field Marshal Hugh Henry Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, (6 April 1801 – 16 October 1885) was a senior British Army officer.
Sir Hugh Massy Wheeler KCB (30 June 1789 – 27 June 1857) was an officer in the army of the East India Company.
Humayun's tomb (Maqbaera e Humayun) is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences (IAMMS) (ابن سینا اکاڈمی آف میڈیول میڈیسین اینڈ سائنسیز.) is a trust registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
The Ilbert Bill was a bill introduced in 1883 during the Viceroyship of the Marquess of Ripon, which was written by Sir Courtenay Peregrine Ilbert (The law member of the Viceroy's Council).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India Office was a British government department established in London in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India.
The Indian Mutiny Medal was a campaign medal approved in 1858, for issue to officers and men of British and Indian units who served in operations in suppression of the Indian Mutiny.
The Indian Order of Merit (IOM) was a military and civilian decoration of British India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 American action-adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg.
Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
James Gordon Farrell (25 January 1935 – 11 August 1979) was an English-born novelist of Irish descent who spent much of his adult life in Ireland.
Jagdispur (Commonly spelled: Jagdishpur, जगदीशपुर) is a subdivision of the district Bhojpur of the state of Bihar in eastern India.
Jaipur State was a princely state of India from 1128 to 1947.
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab.
Jalpaiguri (Pron: ˌʤælpaɪˈgʊəri) is a city in the Indian state of West Bengal.
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India.
James George Smith Neill (27 May 1810 – 25 September 1857)Dictionary of Indian Biography p314 was a Scottish military officer of the East India Company, who served during the Indian rebellion of 1857.
James Grant (1802, Elgin, Moray – 23 May 1879, London) was a British newspaper editor.
Lieutenant General James John McLeod Innes VC CB (5 February 1830 – 13 December 1907) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
James Leasor (20 December 1923 – 10 September 2007) was a prolific British author, who wrote historical books and thrillers.
Sir James Macnabb Campbell (1846–1903) was a Scottish administrator in India and ethnologist.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.
The Jantar Mantar is an equinoctial sundial, consisting a gigantic triangular gnomon with the hypotenuse parallel to the Earth's axis.
Jaora State was a 13 gun-salute princely state of the British Raj.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
Javed Siddiqi (جاوید صدیقی जावेद सिद्दीकी) (13 January 1942) is a Hindi and Urdu screenwriter, dialogue writer and playwright from India.
Jemadar or jamadar is a title used for various military and other official in the Indian subcontinent.
Jhansi is a historic city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Jhansi Fort or Jhansi ka Kila is a fortress situated on a large hilltop called Bangira, in Uttar Pradesh, Northern India.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Jodhpur State also historically known as the Kingdom of Marwar (Hindi:मारवाड़ राज्य), was a princely state in the Marwar region from 1226 to 1949.
Major General Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis (15 November 1814 – 27 September 1862) was a British Army officer, best known for his role in protecting the British compound for 87 days in the siege of Lucknow.
Lieutenant Colonel John Masters, DSO, OBE (26 October 1914 – 7 May 1983) was a British officer of the Indian Army and later a novelist.
Brigadier-General John Nicholson (11 December 1821 – 23 September 1857) was a Victorian era military officer known for his role in British India.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Julia Selina, Lady Inglis (19 April 1833 – 3 February 1904) was the daughter of Frederic Thesiger, 1st Baron Chelmsford, and wife of Major-General Sir John Eardley Inglis, who commanded the British troops at the Siege of Lucknow in 1857.
Julian Christopher Rathbone (10 February 1935 – 28 February 2008) was an English novelist.
Shree Teen Maharaja Sir Jung Bahadur Kunwar Ranaji, (born as Bir Narsingh Kunwar (वीर नरसिंह कुँवर.), 18 June 1817, Borlang, Gorkha – 25 February 1877, Patharghat, Rautahat; popularly known as Jung Bahadur Rana (जङ्ग बहादुर राणा)) was a Khas Rajput (Chhetri) ruler of Nepal and founder of the Rana Dynasty of Nepal.
Junoon (Hindi: जुनून, translation: The Obsession) is a 1978 Indian Hindi language film produced by Shashi Kapoor and directed by Shyam Benegal.
Kadam Singh was a leader of a minor group of Gurjars who fought against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Kalapani or Kala Pani (Nepali: कालापानी) (Hindi: कालापानी) meaning "Black Water", represents the proscription of the over reaching seas in Indian culture.
Kalpi is a town and a municipal board in Jalaun district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Kanpur (formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow.
Kapurthala State, with its capital at Kapurthala, was a former Princely state of Punjab, spread across.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Karnal (or the Rice Bowl of India) is a city located in National Capital Region and the headquarters of Karnal District in the Indian state of Haryana.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kashmere Gate or Kashmiri Gate is a gate located in Delhi, it is the northern gate to the historic walled city of Delhi.
Kathiawar (also written Kathiawad or Kattywar) is a peninsula in western India and part of the Saurashtra region.
Kendujhar is a town with municipality in Kendujhar District in the Indian state of Odisha.
Ketan Mehta (born 1952) is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials since 1975.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
Khooni Darwaza (खूनी दरवाज़ा, خونی دروازہ literally The Gate of Blood), also referred to as Lal Darwaza (Hindi:लाल दरवाज़ा, Red Gate), is located near Delhi Gate, on the Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in Delhi, India.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
The Hindu Kingdom of Nepal (नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha (गोर्खा अधिराज्य), was a Hindu kingdom formed in 1768 by the unification of Nepal.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kotwals was a title used in medieval India for the leader of a Kot or fort.
Kunwar Singh (1777 – 26 April 1858) (also known as Babu Kunwar Singh and Kuer Singh) was a notable leader during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lalbagh or Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, meaning The Red Garden in English, is a well-known botanical garden in southern Bengaluru, India.
A lectern (from the Latin lectus, past participle of legere, "to read") is a reading desk, with a slanted top, usually placed on a stand or affixed to some other form of support, on which documents or books are placed as support for reading aloud, as in a scripture reading, lecture, or sermon.
Lippincott's Monthly Magazine was a 19th-century literary magazine published in Philadelphia from 1868 to 1915, when it relocated to New York to become McBride's Magazine.
The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 182 members of the British Armed Forces, British Indian Army and civilians under their command, during the Indian Mutiny (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857).
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Mary Margaret ('Mollie') Kaye (21 August 1908 – 29 January 2004) was a British writer.
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Mangal Pandey was an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857.
Mangal Pandey: The Rising (internationally known as The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey) is a 2005 Indian historical biographical drama film based on the life of Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier known for helping to spark the Indian rebellion of 1857 (also known as "The First War of Indian Independence").
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
Martial race was a designation created by Army officials of British India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, where they classified each caste into one of two categories, 'martial' and 'non-martial'.
Meerut (IAST: Meraṭha), is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
Sultan Muhammad Zahir ud-din, better known as well Mirza Mughal (1817 – 22 September 1857), was a Mughal prince.
General Sir Mowbray Thomson KCIE (1832 – 25 February 1917) was a British Indian Army officer.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi (1833-1880) was an Islamic Scholar and the main person responsible for establishing Deoband Movement.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Muzaffarnagar is a city and a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is a part of National Capital Region.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore State was a separate state within the Union of India from 1948 until 1956 with Mysore as its capital.
Nabha State, with its capital at Nabha, was one of the Phulkian princely states of Punjab during the British Raj in India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 has been variously termed as a war of independence, a rebellion, and a mutiny.
Nana Sahib (19 May 1824 – 1859), born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of Maratha empire, aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore (Kanpur) during the 1857 uprising.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Neeli Bar is a geographical region in Punjab, Pakistan.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The New-York Tribune was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley (1811–1872).
Nightrunners of Bengal is the title of the first novel by John Masters.
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Old Delhi or Purani Dilli was founded as a walled city of Delhi, India, founded as Shahjahanabad in 1638, when Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor at the time, decided to shift the Mughal capital from Agra.
Orchha (or Urchha) is a town in Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh state, India.
The Oudh State (also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until 1858.
This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms).
Parikshitgarh is a town and a nagar panchayat in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Patiala State was a self-governing princely state outside British India during the British Raj period in the Indian sub-continent.
Field Marshal Sir Patrick Grant, (11 September 1804 – 28 March 1895) was a senior Indian Army officer.
The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a.577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider–Enfield rifle.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A political system is a system of politics and government.
Political warfare in British colonial India aided a British minority in maintaining control over large parts of present-day India, Pakistan, and Burma.
Pran Sukh Yadav (1802–1888) was a military commander.
The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India, later the forces of the British Crown in India, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Purana Qila (Old Fort) is one of the oldest forts in Delhi.
Purbiya (or Purbia) was a common term used in medieval India for Rajput soldiers from the eastern Gangetic Plain - areas corresponding to present-day western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
The quarter guard is a small detachment of troops that can be used as a ceremonial guard which may be mounted at the entrance of a military unit to pay compliments as required.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (known as R. C. Majumdar; 4 December 1884 – 11 February 1980) was a historian and professor of Indian history.
Raja Hindu Rao was a Maratha nobleman, the brother-in-law of Maharaja Daulat Rao Scindia of Gwalior, and the brother of the female regent of the Indian princely state of Gwalior.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/राजपूताना), (راجپُوتانہ), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”, was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan rajput are 10 percent in rajasthan mostly mp and mla of rajasthan are of rajput community after gurjar and meena it is the 3rd largest populated community in rajasthan arat and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.
Rampur State was a 15 gun-salute princely state of British India.
Rampur is a city and a municipality headquarter of Rampur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi (19 November 1828 – 18 June 1858Though the day of the month is regarded as certain historians disagree about the year: among those suggested are 1827 and 1835.), was the queen of the princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
Rao Tularam Singh (circa 9 December 1825 – 23 September 1863) was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857 in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero.
Rashīd Aḥmad ibn Hidāyat Aḥmad Ayyūbī Anṣārī Gangohī (18261905) was an Indian Deobandi Islamic scholar, a leading figure of the Deobandi movement, a Hanafi jurist and scholar of hadith.
The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
Rewa State, also known as Rewah, was a princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa.
Edward Richard Holmes, CBE, TD, VR, JP (29 March 1946 – 30 April 2011), known as Richard Holmes, was a British soldier and military historian, known for his many television appearances.
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.
Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India, named after the Rohilla Afghan tribes.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Small Arms Factory (RSAF) was a UK government-owned rifle factory in the London Borough of Enfield in an area generally known as the Lea Valley.
Ruskin Bond (born 19 May 1934) is an Indian author of British descent.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sagar (Saugor), is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India.
Samuel Bourne (30 October 1834 – 24 April 1912) was a British photographer known for his prolific seven years' work in India, from 1863 to 1870.
Santa Barbara (Spanish for "Saint Barbara") is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Satyajit Ray (2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, graphic artist, music composer and author, widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.
Scindia (anglicized from Shinde and also spelled as Scindhia, Sindhia, Sindia) is a Hindu Maratha dynasty that ruled the Gwalior State.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
The Second Battle of Cawnpore was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857.
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.
Shahzada Muhammad Hideyat Afza (1809-21 March 1878), the 23rd head of the Mughal Dynasty, was born in Delhi in the reign of Akbar Shah II, the son of Mirza Muhammad Shuja'at Afza Bahadur(c.1750-1833).
Shaikh Paltu (शैख़ पलटू) was a soldier (sepoy) with the British East India Company who serving in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry in March 1857, shortly before widespread discontent broke out in the Bengal Army.
Shatranj Ke Khilari (English: The Chess Players) is a 1977 Indian film written and directed by Satyajit Ray, based on Munshi Premchand's short story of the same name.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Shyam Benegal (born 14 December 1934) is an Indian director and screenwriter.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Siege of Cawnpore was a key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857.
The Siege of Delhi was one of the decisive conflicts of the Indian rebellion of 1857.
The Siege of Lucknow (Hindi: लखनऊ की घेराबंदी) was the prolonged defence of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet, GCB, KCSI (29 January 1803 – 11 March 1863) was an English general who fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Sirmur (also spelled as Sirmor, Sirmaur, Sirmour,or Sirmoor) was an independent kingdom in India, founded in 1616, located in the region that is now the Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh.
Sirohi was an Indian princely state in pre-independence India with its capital at Sirohi.
Sitaram Yechury (born 12 August 1952) is an Indian politician and a leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
A subsidiary alliance, in South Asian history, describes a tributary alliance between a Native state and either French India, or later the British East India Company.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
Syed Nazeer Husain Dehlawi (1805-1902) was a leading scholar of the reformist Ahl-i Hadith movement and one of its major proponents in India.
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides.
The Taluqdars or Talukders (تعلقدار, तालुक़दार, তালুকদার, তালুকদাৰ) (from Arabic ta'alluq, "attachment " + dar "land owner"), were aristocrats who formed the ruling class during the Mughal Empire and British times.
Tatya Tope (1814 – 18 April 1859) was a general in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its notable leaders.
"The Adventure of the Crooked Man", one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 12 stories in the cycle collected as The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X and journalist Alex Haley.
The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1936 American historical adventure film made by Warner Bros. It was directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Samuel Bischoff, with Hal B. Wallis as executive producer, from a screenplay by Michael Jacoby and Rowland Leigh, from a story by Michael Jacoby based on the poem The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Far Pavilions is an epic novel of British-Indian history by M. M. Kaye, published in 1978, which tells the story of an English officer during the British Raj.
The Great Train Robbery is a bestselling 1975 historical novel written by Michael Crichton.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Imperial Gazetteer of India was a gazetteer of the British Indian Empire, and is now a historical reference work.
The Last Mughal: The Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857 is a 2006 historical book by William Dalrymple.
The Mysterious Island (L'Île mystérieuse) is a novel by Jules Verne, published in 1874.
The Siege of Krishnapur is a novel by J. G. Farrell, first published in 1973.
The Sign of the Four (1890), also called The Sign of Four, is the second novel featuring Sherlock Holmes written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
The Steam House (La maison à vapeur) is an 1880 Jules Verne novel recounting the travels of a group of British colonists in the Raj in a wheeled house pulled by a steam-powered mechanical elephant.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
General Sir Thomas Reed, (1796 – 24 July 1883) was a British Army officer and the 20th General Officer Commanding, Ceylon.
Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912.
Tijara(Hindi: तिजारा) is a city and a municipality in Alwar district of the Indian state of Rajasthan.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
The Treaty of Amritsar, signed on 16 March 1846, formalised the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Gulab Singh Dogra after the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Tripura State, also known as Hill Tipperah, was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British.
The Udaipur State, also known as Mewar State, was a princely state in northwestern India prior to the formation of the Indian Republic.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Major-General Sir Vincent Eyre (1811–1881) was an officer in the Indian Army, who saw active service in India and Afghanistan.
Vivian Stuart, née Violet Vivian Finlay (2 January 1914 in Berkshire, England – August 1986 in Yorkshire), was a British writer from 1953 to 1986.
The Wagher caste is found in the state of Gujarat in India.
Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first de facto Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1785.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
The White Mutiny was the unrest that occurred at the dissolution of the "European Forces" of the British East India Company in India during the mid-19th century in the wake of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
William Carey (17 August 1761 – 9 June 1834) was a British Christian missionary, Particular Baptist minister, translator, social reformer and cultural anthropologist who founded the Serampore College and the Serampore University, the first degree-awarding university in India.
William Dalrymple FRSL, FRGS, FRAS, FRSE (born William Hamilton-Dalrymple on 20 March 1965) is a Scottish historian and writer, art historian and curator, as well as a prominent broadcaster and critic.
Lieutenant-Colonel William Collis Spring (1769 – c.1839) was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer of the Napoleonic Wars.
William Stephen Raikes Hodson (19 March 1821 – 11 March 1858) was a British leader of irregular light cavalry during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, commonly referred to as the Indian Mutiny or the Sepoy Mutiny.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
Hindu texts present diverse and conflicting views on the position of women, ranging from feminine leadership as the highest goddess, to limiting her role to an obedient daughter, housewife and mother.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Begum Sahiba Zeenat Mahal (زینت محل), also spelled Zinat Mahal,(1823 - 17 July 1886) was the de facto Empress who ruled the Mughal Empire on behalf of the Emperor Bahadur Shah II Zafar.
The 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, also known as the 3rd Bengal Native Cavalry, was a locally recruited regiment of the East India Company's Bengal Army.
The 45th Rattray's Sikhs was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army.
The 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1693.
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