298 relations: Aboriginal title, Abraham Lincoln, Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians, Acre, African American, Agriculture, Algonquian languages, American Civil War, American Indians of Iowa, American Revolutionary War, Anadarko, Oklahoma, Andrew Jackson, Apache, Appalachian Mountains, Arapaho, Ardmore, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Arkansas River, Arkansas Territory, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Binger, Oklahoma, Bleeding Kansas, British colonization of the Americas, British Empire, Caddo, Caddoan languages, Caddoan Mississippian culture, Cahokia, Canada, Canadian River, Carnegie, Oklahoma, Cayuga people, Cherokee, Cherokee Commission, Cherokee Nation, Cherokee Nation (1794–1907), Cherokee Outlet, Cherokee removal, Cheyenne, Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Chicago, Chickasaw Nation, Chiefdom, Choctaw, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Choctaw Trail of Tears, Cholera, Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Colorado, ..., Comanche, Concho, Oklahoma, Confederate States of America, Council of Three Fires, Dakota Territory, Dawes Act, Delaware Tribe of Indians, Detroit, District of Louisiana, Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Drought, Drum Creek Treaty, Durant, Oklahoma, Dust storm, East Texas, Federal government of the United States, Federal lands, Fee simple, Five Civilized Tribes, Former Indian reservations in Oklahoma, Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, Fort Sill, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Fort Washita, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Freehold (law), French First Republic, General Land Office, General Survey Act, Glacier National Park (U.S.), Grand River (Missouri), Great Lakes region, Great Plains, Great Sioux Reservation, Gulf of Mexico, Hectare, Heredity, Historic regions of the United States, Ho-Chunk, Homestead Acts, Horse culture, Humid subtropical climate, Hunter-gatherer, Illinois, Independence, Kansas, Indian Appropriations Act, Indian country, Indian removal, Indian Removal Act, Indian Reserve (1763), Indian Territory in the American Civil War, Indiana, Indigenous land rights, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Iowa people, Iowa Territory, Iroquois, Johnson v. M'Intosh, Kansas, Kansas Territory, Kansas–Nebraska Act, Kaw City, Oklahoma, Kaw people, Kay County, Oklahoma, Kickapoo people, Kiowa, Knox County, Nebraska, Lakota people, Land grant, Land patent, Land run, Language isolate, Lawton, Oklahoma, Lenape, List of Choctaw treaties, List of federally recognized tribes, List of federally recognized tribes by state, Louisiana, Louisiana (New France), Louisiana (New Spain), Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Measles, Medicine Lodge Treaty, Medicine Lodge, Kansas, Miami people, Michigan, Midwestern United States, Mineral rights, Minnesota, Minnesota Territory, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Mississippian culture, Missouri, Missouri Compromise, Missouri River, Missouri Territory, Missouria, Mohawk people, Montana, Muscogee, Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Muskogee, Oklahoma, Nance County, Nebraska, Napoleon, National Archives and Records Administration, Native Americans in the United States, Nebraska, Nebraska Territory, Niobrara River, Noble County, Oklahoma, Nomad, Nonintercourse Act, North Dakota, Northwest Indian War, Northwest Territory, Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain, Numic languages, Ohio Country, Ojibwe, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Enabling Act, Oklahoma Organic Act, Oklahoma Territory, Okmulgee, Oklahoma, Omaha, Nebraska, Oneida Indian Nation, Oneida people, Onondaga people, Organic Act, Organized incorporated territories of the United States, Osage County, Oklahoma, Osage Nation, Osage Treaty (1825), Osawatomie, Kansas, Otoe tribe, Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, Ottawa, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Ottawa, Kansas, Ozarks, Parallel 36°30′ north, Pawhuska, Oklahoma, Pawnee County, Oklahoma, Pawnee people, Pawnee, Oklahoma, Petroleum, Plains Apache, Plains Indian Sign Language, Plains Indians, Platte Purchase, Platte River, Plenary power, Ponca, Ponca City, Oklahoma, Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Potawatomi, Potawatomi Trail of Death, Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, Pottawatomie massacre, Pow wow, Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation, President of the United States, Quanah Parker, Quapaw Indian Agency, Reconstruction Era, Reconstruction Treaties, Recording (real estate), Red River of the South, Red Rock, Oklahoma, Robert R. Livingston (chancellor), Royal Proclamation of 1763, Sac and Fox Nation, Saskatchewan, Section (United States land surveying), Seminole, Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seneca people, Shawnee, Shawnee, Oklahoma, Shoshone, Siouan languages, Sioux, Slavery in the United States, Smallpox, South Dakota, Southeastern United States, Southern Athabaskan languages, Southern United States, Spain, Spanish Texas, Stand Watie, State of Sequoyah, Suzerainty, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, Tanoan languages, Territorial evolution of the United States, Territories of the United States, Texas Ranger Division, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Tipi, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, Title (property), Tonkawa, Tonkawa Massacre, Tonkawa, Oklahoma, Trail of Tears, Travois, Treaties of Buffalo Creek, Treaty of Canandaigua, Treaty of Cusseta, Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, Treaty of Fort Clark, Treaty of Fort Jackson, Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), Treaty of Greenville, Treaty of New Echota, Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Payne's Landing, Treaty of Washington (1826), Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Tuscarora people, Tuskahoma, Oklahoma, U.S. state, Unincorporated territories of the United States, United States, United States Congress, United States House Committee on Territories, United States v. Kagama, Unorganized territory, Uto-Aztecan languages, Washita River, Western Confederacy, Wewoka, Oklahoma, Wichita people, Wigwam, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Territory, Woodland period, Working animal, Wyoming, 37th parallel north, 40th parallel north. Expand index (248 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
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The Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma (or Absentee Shawnee) is one of three federally recognized tribes of Shawnee people in Oklahoma.
The acre is a unit of land area used in the imperial and US customary systems.
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African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.
American Indians of Iowa include numerous Native American tribes which have lived in the state of Iowa historically and prehistorically.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.
Anadarko (Pawnee: Kirikuúrukstuʾ, Kírikurukstu) is a city in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837).
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Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native American tribes originally from the Southwestern United States.
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The Appalachian Mountains (or,There are at least eight possible pronunciations depending on three factors.
The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.
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Ardmore is a business, cultural and tourism city in and the county seat of Carter County, Oklahoma, United States.
Arkansas is a state located in the Southern region of the United States.
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The Arkansas River (Pawnee: Kícka) is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
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The Territory of Arkansas, initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw,The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy, including minor support from the British, against the United States for control of the Northwest Territory (an area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and southwest of the Great Lakes).
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to Lakota as the Battle of the Greasy Grass, and commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
Binger is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of the state of Missouri between 1854 and 1861.
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British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland before the Acts of Union, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes.
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The Caddoan languages are a family of Native American languages.
The Caddoan Mississippian culture was a prehistoric Native American culture considered by archaeologists as a variant of the Mississippian culture.
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (11 MS 2) is located on the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (600–1400 CE) situated directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The Canadian River (Pawnee: Kícpahat) is the longest tributary of the Arkansas River.
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Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Cayuga People (Cayuga: Guyohkohnyo or Gayogohó:no’, lit. "Canoe Carry Place") was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), a confederacy of American Indians in New York.
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The Cherokee (Cherokee Ani-Yunwiya (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ) are a Native American tribe indigenous to the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina and South Carolina). They speak Cherokee, an Iroquoian language. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States called the Cherokee one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had adopted numerous cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers. The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U.S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States. Note: Article 8 in the 1817 treaty as quoted, is mostly about certain land use rights (East of the Mississippi), which might be retained by certain "Indians" if they met certain conditions -- namely, if they "wish to become citizens of the United States". However, in so doing, Article 8 implies that such "Indians" (living East of the Mississippi) who "wish to become citizens of the United States", could (would be allowed to) become citizens of the United States. It seems to (be worded so as to) anticipate a future (after 1817) in which lands West of the Mississippi would remain (territories of, or) outside the boundaries of, the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the Cherokee Nation has more than 314,000 members, the largest of the 566 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claiming Cherokee lineage, some of which are state-recognized, have members who are among those 819,000-plus people claiming Cherokee ancestry on the US census. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (UKB) have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The UKB are mostly descendants of "Old Settlers," Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina, and are descendants of those who resisted or avoided relocation. In addition, there are numerous Cherokee heritage groups throughout the United states, such as the satellite communities sponsored by the Cherokee Nation.
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The Cherokee Commission, was a three-person bi-partisan body created by President Benjamin Harrison to operate under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, as empowered by Section 14 of the Indian Appropriations Act of March 2, 1889.
The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli) is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.
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The Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, pronounced Tsalagihi Ayeli) from 1794–1907 was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.
The Cherokee Outlet, often mistakenly referred to as the Cherokee Strip, was located in what is now the state of Oklahoma, in the United States.
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Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of Tears, refers to the forced relocation between 1836 and 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Alabama to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the then Western United States, and the resultant deaths along the way and at the end of the movement of an estimated 4000 Cherokee.
The Cheyenne are one of the groups of indigenous people of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family.
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The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes are a united, federally recognized tribe of Southern Arapaho and Southern Cheyenne people in western Oklahoma.
Chicago is the third most populous city in the United States.
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The Chickasaw Nation is a federally recognized Native American nation, located in Oklahoma.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
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The Choctaw (alternatively spelled Chahta, Chactas, Tchakta, Chocktaw, and Chactaw) are Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States (modern-day Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana).
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The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (commonly referred to as the Choctaw Nation) is a federally recognized Native American tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area comprising twelve tribal districts.
The Choctaw Trail of Tears was the relocation of the Choctaw Nation from their country referred to now as the Deep South (Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana) to lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory in the 1830s.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
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Citizen Potawatomi Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Potawatomi people located in Oklahoma.
Colorado is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
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The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American tribe from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas.
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Concho is a rural unincorporated community in Canadian County, Oklahoma.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a confederation of secessionist American states existing from 1861 to 1865.
The Council of Three Fires (in Anishinaabe: Niswi-mishkodewin) are also known as the People of the Three Fires; the Three Fires Confederacy; or the United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians.
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
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The Delaware Tribe of Indians, sometimes called the Eastern Delaware, based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, is one of three federally recognized tribes of Delaware Indians in the United States, along with the Delaware Nation based in Anadarko, Oklahoma NewsOk. 4 Aug 2009 (retrieved 5 August 2009) and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community of Wisconsin.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the largest city on the United States–Canada border.
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The District of Louisiana, or Louisiana District, was an official, temporary, United States government designation for the portion of the Louisiana Purchase that had not been organized into the Orleans Territory.
Doaksville is a former settlement located in present day Choctaw County, Oklahoma.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water.
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The Drum Creek Treaty came about from the controversy over the Sturges Treaty of 1868.
Durant is a city inside Bryan County, Oklahoma, United States and serves as the capital of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
A dust storm or sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
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East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic and ecological area in the U.S. state of Texas.
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The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.
Federal lands are lands in the United States for which ownership is claimed by the U.S. federal government, pursuant to Article Four, section 3, clause 2 of the United States Constitution.
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In English law, a fee simple or fee simple absolute is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership.
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The term "Five 'Civilized' Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period.
Former Indian reservations in Oklahoma are the Indian reservations in the lands that are now the state of Oklahoma.
Fort Gibson is a town in Muskogee County which has expanded into Cherokee County as it grew in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Fort Sill is a United States Army post in Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City.
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Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.
Fort Washita is the former United States military post and National Historic Landmark located in Durant, Oklahoma on SH 199.
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Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer, who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
In certain jurisdictions, including the UK's England and Wales and Scotland, a freehold (also called frank-tenement and franktenement) is the ownership of real property, being land and all immovable structures attached to such land.
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In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The General Land Office (GLO) was an independent agency of the United States government responsible for public domain lands in the United States.
The General Survey Act was a law passed by the United States Congress in April 1824, which authorized the president to have surveys made of routes for transport roads and canals "of national importance, in a commercial or military point of view, or necessary for the transportation of public mail." While such infrastructure of national scope had been discussed and shown wanting for years, its passage shortly followed the landmark Supreme Court ruling, Gibbons v. Ogden, which first established federal authority over interstate commerce including navigation by river.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
The Grand River is a river that stretches from northernmost tributary origins between Creston and Winterset in Iowa approximately U.S. Geological Survey.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canadian-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Great Plains is the broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie states and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada.
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The Great Sioux Reservation was the original area encompassing what are today the various Indian reservations in South Dakota and Nebraska.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent.
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The hectare (or; symbol ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to and primarily used in the measurement of land.
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Heredity is the passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction.
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This is a list of historic regions of the United States.
The Ho-Chunk, sometimes called Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking tribe of Native Americans, native to the present-day states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and parts of Iowa and Illinois.
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The Homestead Acts were several United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost.
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A horse culture is a tribal group or community whose day-to-day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses.
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A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters.
A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern United States.
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Independence is a city in and the county seat of Montgomery County, Kansas, United States.
The Indian Appropriations Act is the name of several acts passed by the United States Congress.
Indian country is any of the many self-governing Native American communities throughout the United States.
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Indian removal was a policy of the United States government in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, thereafter known as Indian Territory.
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The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson.
The Indian Reserve is a historical term for a largely uncolonized area in North America ceded by France to Britain following the French and Indian War, set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, who already inhabited it.
During the American Civil War, Indian Territory occupied most of what is now the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
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Indigenous land rights are the rights of indigenous peoples to land, either individually or collectively.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Quebec and The Guianas but not commonly in other countries. Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Asia (in particular North Asia) to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of experts agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago. These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of creation myths. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies. The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean sea. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" often does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many Indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Iowa (also spelled Ioway), also known as the Báxoǰe, are a Native American Siouan people.
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The Territory of Iowa was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1838, until December 28, 1846, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Iowa.
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The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee, are a historically powerful and important northeast Native American confederacy.
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Johnson v. M'Intosh, 21 U.S. (8 Wheat.) 543 (1823), is a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that held that private citizens could not purchase lands from Native Americans.
Kansas is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States.
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The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
Kaw City (Pawnee: Arahuuruʾ, Arahuúsiriʾ) is a city in Kay County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Kaw Nation (or Kanza, or Kansa) are a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma.
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Kay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American tribe.
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The Kiowas are a tribe of Native Americans.
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Knox County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nebraska.
The Lakȟóta people (pronounced; also known as Teton, Thítȟuŋwaŋ ("prairie dwellers"), and Teton Sioux ("snake, or enemy") are an indigenous people of the Great Plains of North America. They are part of a confederation of seven related Sioux tribes, the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ or seven council fires, and speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three Siouan language groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. The seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are.
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A land grant is a gift of real estate – land or its privileges – made by a government or other authority as a reward for services to an individual, especially in return for military service.
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A land patent is an exclusive land grant made by a sovereign entity with respect to a particular tract of land.
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Land run (sometimes "land rush") usually refers to a historical event in which previously restricted land of the United States was opened to homestead on a first arrival basis.
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A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The city of Lawton (Pawnee: Raaríhtaaruʾ) is the county seat of Comanche County, in the State of Oklahoma.
The Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government.
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List of Choctaw Treaties is a comprehensive chronological list of historic agreements that directly or indirectly affected the Choctaw people, an American Indian tribe, with other nations.
, 567 Native American tribes were legally recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the United States.
Federally recognized tribes are those Indian tribes recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs for certain federal government purposes.
Louisiana (or; État de Louisiane,; Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States.
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Louisiana (La Louisiane; by 1879, La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana (Luisiana, La Louisiane) was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.
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The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867, intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement.
Medicine Lodge is the most populous city in and the county seat of Barber County, Kansas, United States.
The Miami (Miami-Illinois: Myaamiaki) are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages.
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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes region of the Midwestern United States.
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The Midwestern United States, or the Midwest, is one of the four geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, occupying the northern central part of the country.
Mineral rights are property rights to exploit an area for the minerals it harbors.
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Minnesota (locally) is a state in the Midwestern United States.
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The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi is a state located in the Southern United States.
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The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1600, varying regionally.
Missouri (see pronunciations) is a state located in the Midwestern United States.
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The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.
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The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri.
The Missouria or Missouri (in their own language, Niúachi, also spelled Niutachi) are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact.
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The Kanien'kehá:ka (or Mohawk people) are the most easterly tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy.
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Montana is a state in the Western United States.
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The Muscogee (or Muskogee), also known as the Creek, are a Native American people traditionally from the southeastern woodlands.
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The Muscogee (Creek) Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Muscogee people, also known as the Creek, based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Muskogee is a city inside Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States.
Nance County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nebraska.
Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
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The Territory of Nebraska was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.
The Niobrara River (from the Ponca Ní Ubthátha khe pronounced, meaning "water spread-out horizontal-the") is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
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Noble County is located in the north central part of Oklahoma.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another.
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The Nonintercourse Act (also known as the Indian Intercourse Act or the Indian Nonintercourse Act) is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834.
North Dakota (locally) is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.
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The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as Little Turtle's War and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native tribes, with minor support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory.
The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States spanning most or large parts of six eventual U.S. States.
Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay) was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish.
Numic is a branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
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The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
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The Ojibwe (also Ojibwa), or Chippewa are a large group of Native Americans and First Nations in North America.
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Oklahoma (Cherokee: Asgaya gigageyi / ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎩᎦᎨᏱ; or translated ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ (òɡàlàhoma), Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state located in the South Central United States.
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Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the state of Oklahoma.
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The Enabling Act of 1906, in its first part, empowered the people residing in Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory to elect delegates to a state constitutional convention and subsequently to be admitted to the union as a single state.
An Organic Act is a generic name for a statute used by the United States Congress to describe a territory, in anticipation of being admitted to the Union as a state.
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. The 1890 Oklahoma organic act organized the western half of Indian Territory and a strip of country known as No Man's Land into Oklahoma Territory. Reservations in the new territory were then opened to settlement in land runs later that year and in 1891 and 1893. Seven counties were defined upon the creation of the territory. Although they were designated by number, they would eventually become Logan County, Cleveland County, Oklahoma County, Canadian County, Kingfisher County, Payne County and Beaver County. The Land Run of 1893 led to the addition of Kay County, Grant County, Woods County, Garfield County, Noble County, and Pawnee County. The territory acquired an additional county through the resolution of a boundary dispute with the U.S. state of Texas, which today is split into Greer County, Jackson County, Harmon County, and part of Beckham County.
Okmulgee is a city in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, United States.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County.
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The Oneida Nation or Oneida Indian Nation (hereinafter referred to as OIN) is a federally recognized tribe of Oneida people.
The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.
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The Onondaga (Onöñda’gega’ or "Hill Place") people are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy.
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An Organic Act, in United States law, is an Act of the United States Congress that establishes a territory of the United States or an agency to manage certain federal lands.
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Organized incorporated territories are territories of the United States that are both incorporated (part of the United States proper) and organized (having an organized government authorized by an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress usually consisting of a territorial legislature, territorial governor, and a basic judicial system).
Osage County is a county in the northern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Osage are a Midwestern Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States who originated in the Ohio River valley in the area of present-day Kentucky.
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The Osage Treaty (also known as the Treaty with the Osage) was signed in what became Council Grove, Kansas, on June 2, 1825 between William Clark on behalf of the United States and members of the Osage Nation.
Osawatomie is a city in Miami County, Kansas, United States, southwest of Kansas City.
The Otoe are a Midwestern Native American tribe.
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The Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians is a single, federally recognized tribe, located in Oklahoma.
Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
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Ottawa County is a county located in the northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma is one of four federally recognized Native American tribes of Odawa Indians.
Ottawa is a city in, and the county seat of, Franklin County, Kansas, United States.
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The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains, Ozarks Mountain Country, and the Ozark Plateau, are a physiographic and geologic highland region of the central United States.
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The parallel 36°30′ north is a circle of latitude that is 36 and one-half degrees north of the equator of the Earth.
Pawhuska is a city in and the county seat of Osage County, Oklahoma, United States, and the capital of the federally recognized Osage Nation.
Pawnee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Pawnee are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who speak the Caddoan Language and have 5 confederated bands: the Chaui, Kitkehakhi, Kawarikis, Pitahawiratawa and Skidi.
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Pawnee (Pawnee: Paári) is a city and county seat of Pawnee County, Oklahoma, United States.
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group that traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America in close association with the linguistically unrelated Kiowa nation, and today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma.
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The Plains Indian sign languages (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, are various manually coded languages used, or formerly used, by various Plains Indians of the United States and Canada.
Plains Indians are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies in North America.
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The Platte Purchase was a land acquisition in 1836 by the United States government from American Indian tribes.
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The Platte River (Pawnee: Kíckatusʾ) is a major river in the state of Nebraska and is about long.
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A plenary power or plenary authority is the separate identification, definition, and complete vesting of a power or powers or authority in a governing body or individual, to choose to act (or not to act) on a particular subject matter or area.
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The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced) are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan language group.
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Ponca City (Pawnee: Riihitawiruʾ, Riíhitawiru, Riihitáwiru) is a city in Kay and is partly in Osage counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, which was named after the Ponca Tribe.
The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people.
The Pottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River and Western Great Lakes region.
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The Potawatomi Trail of Death was the forced removal of 859 members of the Potawatomi nation from Indiana to reservation lands in what is now eastern Kansas in 1838.
Pottawatomie County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Pottawatomie massacre occurred during the night of May 24 and the morning of May 25, 1856.
A pow wow (also powwow or pow-wow) is a social gathering held by many different Native American communities.
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Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation (formerly the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians) is a federally recognized tribe of Neshnabé (Potawatomi people), headquartered near Mayetta, Kansas.
The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Quanah Parker (Comanche kwana "smell, odor") (ca. 1845 or 1852 – February 23, 1911) was Comanche/English-American from the Comanche band Quahadi ("Antelope-eaters"), strictly related also to the Nokoni band ("Wanderers" or "Travellers"), his mother's people, and emerged as a dominant figure, particularly after the Comanches' final defeat.
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The Quapaw Indian Agency was a territory that included parts of the present-day Oklahoma counties of Ottawa and Delaware.
The term Reconstruction Era, in the context of the history of the United States, has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society.
On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi.
The vast majority of states in the United States employ a system of recording legal instruments that affect the title of real estate as the exclusive means for publicly documenting land titles and interests.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major tributary of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. "The Mexicans and Indians on the borders of Mexico are in the habit of calling any river, the waters of which have a red appearance, 'Rio Colorado', or Red river", observed R.B. Marcy in 1853. The Red River formed part of the US-Mexico border from the Adams-Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches (forks) in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Red Rock (Otoe: Íno Súje pronounced, meaning "Rock Red") (Pawnee: Pásuuhararu) is a town in northern Noble County, Oklahoma, United States.
Robert R(obert) Livingston (November 27, 1746 (Old style November 16) – February 26, 1813) was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, which forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.
The Sac and Fox Nation is the largest of three federally recognized tribes of Sauk and Meskwaki (Fox) Native Americans.
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of and a land area of, the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers).
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In U.S. land surveying under the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a section is an area nominally, containing, with 36 sections making up one survey township on a rectangular grid.
The Seminole are a Native American tribe originally from Florida.
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The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America.
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The Shawnee or Shawnee nation (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking tribe indigenous to North America.
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Shawnee is a city in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions.
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Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains of North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
The Sioux are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America.
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Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries after it gained independence and before the end of the American Civil War.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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South Dakota (locally) is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States.
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The Southeastern United States is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Sonora) with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—is a region of the United States of America.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.
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Stand Watie (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871) — known as Standhope Uwatie, Degataga (ᏕᎦᏔᎦ, "stand firm"), and Isaac S. Watie — was a leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
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The State of Sequoyah was a proposed state to be established from the Indian Territory in the eastern part of present-day Oklahoma.
Suzerainty is a situation in which a powerful region or people controls the foreign affairs of a tributary vassal state while allowing the subservient nation internal autonomy.
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Tahlequah (''Cherokee'': ᏓᎵᏆ) is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains.
Tanoan, also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken in New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
This is a list of the evolution of the borders of the United States.
The territories of the United States are directly overseen by the United States federal government, in contrast to the states, which share sovereignty with the federal government.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
A tipi (also tepee or teepee) is a conical tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.
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Tishomingo is the largest city and the county seat of Johnston County, Oklahoma, United States.
In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest.
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
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The Tonkawa Massacre (October 23–24, 1862) occurred after an attack at the Confederate held Wichita Agency, located at Fort Sill near Anadarko in Oklahoma, when a force of pro-Union tribes attacked the agency, home to 300 members of the Tonkawa, a tribe sympathetic to the Confederacy.
Tonkawa (Pawnee: Taríkawiruʾ) is a city in Kay County, Oklahoma, United States, along the Salt Fork Arkansas River.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American nations in the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
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A travois (Canadian French, from French travail, a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structure that was used by indigenous peoples, notably the Plains Indians of North America, to drag loads over land.
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There are four treaties of Buffalo Creek, named for the Buffalo River in New York.
The Treaty of Canandaigua (or Konondaigua, as spelled in the treaty itself) is a treaty signed after the American Revolutionary War between the Grand Council of the Six Nations and President George Washington representing the United States of America.
The Treaty of Cusseta was a treaty between the government of the United States and the Creek Nation signed March 24, 1832.
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 (and proclaimed on February 24, 1831) between the Choctaw (an American Indian tribe) and the United States Government.
The Treaty of Fort Clark (also known as the Treaty with the Osage or the Osage Treaty) was signed at Fort Osage (then called Fort Clark) on November 10, 1808 (ratified on April 28, 1810) in which the Osage Nation ceded all the land east of the fort in Missouri and Arkansas north of the Arkansas River to the United States.
The Treaty of Fort Jackson (also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814) was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick (Upper Creek) resistance by United States allied forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota, and Arapaho Nation signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana.
The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier.
The Treaty of New Echota (7 Stat. 488) was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority Cherokee political faction, the Treaty Party.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Payne's Landing (Treaty with the Seminole, 1832) was an agreement signed on 9 May 1832 between the government of the United States and several chiefs of the Seminole Indians in the present-day state of Florida.
The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola.
The Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws was a treaty signed on July 12, 1861 between the Choctaw and Chickasaw (American Indian) and the Confederate States of America.
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 47th-most populous city in the United States.
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The Tuscarora ("hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Canada.
Tuskahoma is an unincorporated community in northern Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, four miles east of Clayton.
A state of the United States of America is one of the 50 constituent political entities that shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government.
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An unincorporated territory in American law is an area controlled by the United States government "where fundamental rights apply as a matter of law, but other constitutional rights are not available".
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The United States House Committee on Territories was a committee of the United States House of Representatives from 1825 to 1946 (19th to 79th Congresses).
United States v. Kagama,, was a United States Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of the Major Crimes Act of 1885.
An unorganized territory is a region of land without a "normally" constituted system of government.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a Native American language family consisting of over 30 languages.
The Washita River (Pawnee: Awaastatkiicuʾ) is a river in Texas and Oklahoma, United States.
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The Western Confederacy, also known as Western Indian Confederacy, was a loose confederacy of North American Natives in the Great Lakes region following the American Revolutionary War.
Wewoka is a city in Seminole County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Wichita people are a confederation of Midwestern Native Americans.
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A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a domed dwelling formerly used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, and still used for ceremonial purposes.
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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
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The Territory of Wisconsin was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 3, 1836, until May 29, 1848, when an eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Wisconsin.
The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures was from roughly 1000 BCE to 1000 CE in the eastern part of North America.
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A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
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Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States.
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The 37th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.