313 relations: Aboriginal title, Abraham Lincoln, Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians, Acre, African Americans, Agriculture, Alabama people, Algonquian languages, American bison, American Civil War, American Indians of Iowa, American Revolutionary War, Anadarko, Oklahoma, Andrew Jackson, Apache, Appalachian Mountains, Arapaho, Ardmore, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Arkansas River, Arkansas Territory, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Binger, Oklahoma, British colonization of the Americas, British Empire, Caddo, Caddoan languages, Caddoan Mississippian culture, California, Canada, Canadian River, Carnegie, Oklahoma, Cayuga people, Central United States, Cherokee, Cherokee Commission, Cherokee Nation, Cherokee Nation (1794–1907), Cherokee Outlet, Cherokee removal, Cheyenne, Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Chicago, Chickasaw, Chickasaw Nation, Choctaw, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Choctaw Trail of Tears, Cholera, ..., Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Colorado, Comanche, Concho, Oklahoma, Confederate States of America, Council of Three Fires, Coushatta, Cultural area, Dakota Territory, Dawes Act, Detroit, District of Louisiana, Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Drought, Drum Creek Treaty, Durant, Oklahoma, East Texas, Federal government of the United States, Federal lands, Fee simple, Five Civilized Tribes, Former Indian reservations in Oklahoma, Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, Fort Sill, Fort Smith, Arkansas, Fort Washita, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Freehold (law), French First Republic, General Land Office, General Survey Act, Glacier National Park (U.S.), Grand River (Missouri), Great Lakes region, Great Plains, Great Sioux Reservation, Hectare, Historic regions of the United States, Ho-Chunk, Homestead Acts, Horse culture, Humid subtropical climate, Hunter-gatherer, Illinois, Independence, Kansas, Indian Appropriations Act, Indian country, Indian removal, Indian Removal Act, Indian Reserve (1763), Indian Territory in the American Civil War, Indiana, Indigenous land rights, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau, Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Iowa people, Iowa Territory, Iroquois, Johnson v. M'Intosh, Kansas, Kansas Territory, Kansas–Nebraska Act, Kaskaskia, Kaw City, Oklahoma, Kaw people, Kay County, Oklahoma, Kichai people, Kickapoo people, Kiowa, Knox County, Nebraska, Lakota people, Land grant, Land patent, Land run, Language isolate, Lawton, Oklahoma, Lenape, List of Choctaw treaties, List of federally recognized tribes, List of federally recognized tribes by state, Louisiana, Louisiana (New France), Louisiana (New Spain), Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Maize, Measles, Medicine Lodge Treaty, Medicine Lodge, Kansas, Miami people, Michigan, Midwestern United States, Mineral rights, Minnesota, Minnesota Territory, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Missouri, Missouri Compromise, Missouri River, Missouri Territory, Missouria, Modoc people, Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, Modoc War, Mohawk people, Montana, Muscogee, Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Muskogee, Oklahoma, Nance County, Nebraska, Natchez people, National Archives and Records Administration, Native Americans in the United States, Nebraska, Nebraska Territory, Nez Perce people, Niobrara River, Noble County, Oklahoma, Nomad, Nonintercourse Act, North Dakota, Northern Cheyenne Exodus, Northwest Indian War, Northwest Territory, Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain, Numic languages, Odawa, Ohio Country, Ojibwe, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Enabling Act, Oklahoma Organic Act, Oklahoma Territory, Okmulgee, Oklahoma, Omaha, Nebraska, Oneida Indian Nation, Oneida people, Onondaga people, Oregon, Organic act, Organized incorporated territories of the United States, Osage County, Oklahoma, Osage Nation, Osage Treaty (1825), Osawatomie, Kansas, Otoe, Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Ottawa, Kansas, Ozarks, Parallel 36°30′ north, Pawhuska, Oklahoma, Pawnee County, Oklahoma, Pawnee people, Pawnee, Oklahoma, Peoria people, Petroleum, Piankeshaw, Plains Apache, Plains Indian Sign Language, Plains Indians, Platte Purchase, Platte River, Plenary power, Ponca, Ponca City, Oklahoma, Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Potawatomi, Potawatomi Trail of Death, Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation, President of the United States, Quanah Parker, Quapaw, Quapaw Indian Agency, Reconstruction era, Reconstruction Treaties, Recording (real estate), Red River of the South, Red Rock, Oklahoma, Robert R. Livingston (chancellor), Royal Proclamation of 1763, Sac and Fox Nation, Saskatchewan, Second Treaty of Prairie du Chien, Section (United States land surveying), Seminole, Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seneca people, Shawnee, Shawnee, Oklahoma, Shoshone, Siouan languages, Sioux, Slavery in the United States, Smallpox, South Dakota, Southeastern United States, Southern Athabaskan languages, Southern Plains villagers, Southern United States, Spain, Spanish Texas, Stand Watie, State of Sequoyah, Suzerainty, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, Tanoan languages, Territorial evolution of the United States, Territories of the United States, Texas Ranger Division, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Tipi, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, Title (property), Tonkawa, Tonkawa massacre, Tonkawa, Oklahoma, Trail of Tears, Travois, Treaties of Buffalo Creek, Treaty of Canandaigua, Treaty of Cusseta, Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, Treaty of Fort Clark, Treaty of Fort Jackson, Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), Treaty of Greenville, Treaty of New Echota, Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Payne's Landing, Treaty of Washington (1826), Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Tuscarora people, Tuskahoma, Oklahoma, U.S. state, Unincorporated territories of the United States, United Kingdom, United States, United States Congress, United States House Committee on Territories, United States v. Kagama, Unorganized territory, Uto-Aztecan languages, Washita River, Wea, Western Confederacy, Wewoka, Oklahoma, Wichita people, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Territory, Woodland period, Working animal, Wyoming, Yuchi, 37th parallel north, 40th parallel north. Expand index (263 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
The Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma (or Absentee Shawnee) is one of three federally recognized tribes of Shawnee people.
The acre is a unit of land area used in the imperial and US customary systems.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans, originally from Alabama.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Indians of Iowa include numerous Native American tribes and prehistoric cultures that have lived in this territory for thousands of years.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anadarko is a city in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.
Ardmore is a business, cultural, and tourism city in and the county seat of Carter County, Oklahoma, United States.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
The Territory of Arkansas, initially organized as the Territory of Arkansaw,The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy, including support from the British led by Captain Alexander McKillop, against the United States for control of the Northwest Territory (an area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and southwest of the Great Lakes).
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
Binger is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes.
The Caddoan languages are a family of languages native to the Great Plains.
The Caddoan Mississippian culture was a prehistoric Native American culture considered by archaeologists as a variant of the Mississippian culture.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian River is the longest tributary of the Arkansas River in the United States.
Carnegie is a town in Caddo County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Cayuga (Cayuga: Guyohkohnyo or Gayogohó:no’, literally "People of the Great Swamp") was one of the five original constituents of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), a confederacy of Native Americans in New York.
The Central United States is sometimes conceived as between the Eastern United States and Western United States as part of a three-region model, roughly coincident with the U.S. Census' definition of the Midwestern United States plus the western and central portions of the U.S. Census' definition of the Southern United States.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Cherokee Commission, was a three-person bi-partisan body created by President Benjamin Harrison to operate under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, as empowered by Section 14 of the Indian Appropriations Act of March 2, 1889.
The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.
The Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, pronounced Tsalagihi Ayeli) from 1794–1907 was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.
The Cherokee Outlet, often mistakenly referred to as the Cherokee Strip, was located in what is now the state of Oklahoma, in the United States.
Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of Tears, refers to the forced relocation between 1836 and 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Alabama to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the then Western United States, and the resultant deaths along the way and at the end of the movement of an estimated 4000 Cherokee.
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family.
The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes are a united, federally recognized tribe of Southern Arapaho and Southern Cheyenne people in western Oklahoma.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chickasaw Nation is a federally recognized Native American nation, located in Oklahoma.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
The Choctaw Nation (Chahta Yakni) (officially referred to as the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma) is a Native American territory and federally recognized Indian Tribe with a tribal jurisdictional area comprising 10.5 counties in Southeastern Oklahoma.
The Choctaw Trail of Tears was the relocation of the Choctaw Nation from their country referred to now as the Deep South (Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana) to lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory in the 1830s.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Citizen Potawatomi Nation is a federally recognized tribe of Potawatomi people located in Oklahoma.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Comanche (Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas and northern Chihuahua.
Concho is a rural unincorporated community in Canadian County, Oklahoma.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
The Council of Three Fires (in Anishinaabe: Niswi-mishkodewin) are also known as the People of the Three Fires; the Three Fires Confederacy; or the United Nations of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Indians.
---- The Coushatta (Koasati) are a Muskogean-speaking Native American people now living primarily in the U.S. states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).
The Territory of Dakota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1861, until November 2, 1889, when the final extent of the reduced territory was split and admitted to the Union as the states of North and South Dakota.
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The District of Louisiana, or Louisiana District, was an official, temporary, United States government designation for the portion of the Louisiana Purchase that had not been organized into the Orleans Territory.
Doaksville is a former settlement, now a ghost town, located in present-day Choctaw County, Oklahoma.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
The Drum Creek Treaty came about from the controversy over the Sturges Treaty of 1868.
Durant is a city in Bryan County, Oklahoma, United States and serves as the headquarters of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic and ecological area in the U.S. state of Texas.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Federal lands are lands in the United States owned by the federal government.
In English law, a fee simple or fee simple absolute is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Former Indian reservations in Oklahoma are the Indian reservations in the lands that are now the state of Oklahoma.
Fort Gibson is a town in Muskogee County which has expanded into Cherokee County as it grew in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City.
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.
Fort Washita is the former United States military post and National Historic Landmark located in Durant, Oklahoma on SH 199.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
In common law jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada and Ireland), a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land, as opposed to a leasehold, in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The General Land Office (GLO) was an independent agency of the United States government responsible for public domain lands in the United States.
The General Survey Act was a law passed by the United States Congress in April 1824, which authorized the president to have surveys made of routes for transport roads and canals "of national importance, in a commercial or military point of view, or necessary for the transportation of public mail." While such infrastructure of national scope had been discussed and shown wanting for years, its passage shortly followed the landmark Supreme Court ruling, Gibbons v. Ogden, which first established federal authority over interstate commerce including navigation by river.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
The Grand River is a river that stretches from northernmost tributary origins between Creston and Winterset in Iowa approximately U.S. Geological Survey.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
The Great Sioux Reservation was the original area encompassing what are today the various Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota and Nebraska.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
This is a list of historic regions of the United States that existed at some time during the territorial evolution of the United States and its overseas possessions, from the colonial era to the present day.
The Ho-Chunk, also known as Hoocąągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native American people whose historic territory includes parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois.
The Homestead Acts were several United States federal laws under which an applicant, upon the satisfaction of certain conditions, could acquire ownership of land, typically called a "homestead.” In all, more than 270 million acres of public land, or nearly 10% of the total area of the U.S., was transferred to 1.6 million homesteaders; most of the homesteads were west of the Mississippi River.
A horse culture is a tribal group or community whose day-to-day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Independence is a city in and the county seat of Montgomery County, Kansas, United States.
The Indian Appropriation Act is the name of several acts passed by the United States Congress.
Indian country is any of the many self-governing Native American communities throughout the United States.
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, specifically to a designated Indian Territory (roughly, modern Oklahoma).
The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
The Indian Reserve is a historical term for the largely uncolonized area in North America acquired by Great Britain from France through the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the end of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre), and set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, who already inhabited it.
During the American Civil War, most of what is now the U.S. state of Oklahoma was designated as the Indian Territory.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
Indigenous land rights are the rights of indigenous peoples to land, either individually or collectively.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau, also referred to by the phrase Indigenous peoples of the Plateau, and historically called the Plateau Indians (though comprising many groups) are indigenous peoples of the Interior of British Columbia, Canada, and the non-coastal regions of the United States Pacific Northwest states.
Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic classification for Native Americans who have traditionally inhabited the Southeastern United States and the northeastern border of Mexico, that share common cultural traits.
The Iowa or Ioway, known as the Báxoǰe in their own language, are a Native American Siouan people.
The Territory of Iowa was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1838, until December 28, 1846, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Iowa.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Johnson v. M'Intosh,, is a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court that held that private citizens could not purchase lands from Native Americans.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and was drafted by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and President Franklin Pierce.
The Kaskaskia were one of the indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands.
Kaw City is a city in Kay County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Kaw Nation (or Kanza, or Kansa) are a federally recognized Native American tribe in Oklahoma and parts of Kansas.
Kay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Kichai tribe (also Keechi or Kitsai) was a Native American Southern Plains tribe that lived in Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains.
Knox County is a county in the U.S. state of Nebraska.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.
A land grant is a gift of real estate – land or its use privileges – made by a government or other authority as an incentive, means of enabling works, or as a reward for services to an individual, especially in return for military service.
A land patent is an exclusive land grant made by a sovereign entity with respect to a particular tract of land.
Land run (sometimes "land rush") usually refers to a historical event in which previously restricted land of the United States was opened to homestead on a first-arrival basis.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The city of Lawton is the county seat of Comanche County, in the State of Oklahoma.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
List of Choctaw Treaties is a comprehensive chronological list of historic agreements that directly or indirectly affected the Choctaw people, an American Indian tribe, with other nations.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
Federally recognized tribes are those Indian tribes recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs for certain federal government purposes.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the Federal government of the United States and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867, intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement.
Medicine Lodge is the most populous city in and the county seat of Barber County, Kansas, United States.
The Miami (Miami-Illinois: Myaamiaki) are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
Mineral rights are property rights to exploit an area for the minerals it harbors.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Territory of Minnesota was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 3, 1849, until May 11, 1858, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.
The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821.
The Missouria or Missouri (in their own language, Niúachi, also spelled Niutachi) are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact.
The Modoc are a Native American people who originally lived in the area which is now northeastern California and central Southern Oregon.
The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe of Modoc people, the smallest tribe in Oklahoma and located in Ottawa County in the northeast corner of the state.
The Modoc War, or the Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc people and the United States Army in northeastern California and southeastern Oregon from 1872 to 1873.
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Muscogee (Creek) Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Muskogee is a town in and the county seat of Muskogee County, Oklahoma, United States.
Nance County is a county in the U.S. state of Nebraska.
The Natchez (Natchez pronunciation) are a Native American people who originally lived in the Natchez Bluffs area in the Lower Mississippi Valley, near the present-day city of Natchez, Mississippi in the United States.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
The Territory of Nebraska was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until March 1, 1867, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Nebraska.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Nez Perce (autonym: Niimíipuu in their own language, meaning "the walking people" or "we, the people") are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time.
The Niobrara River (from the Ponca Ní Ubthátha khe pronounced, meaning "water spread-out horizontal-the") is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
Noble County is located in the north central part of Oklahoma.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Nonintercourse Act (also known as the Indian Intercourse Act or the Indian Nonintercourse Act) is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834 to set Amerindian boundaries of reservations.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The Northern Cheyenne Exodus, also known as Dull Knife's Raid, the Cheyenne War, or the Cheyenne Campaign, was the attempt of the Northern Cheyenne to return to the north, after being placed on the Southern Cheyenne reservation in the Indian Territory, and the United States Army operations to stop them.
The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Nueva Vizcaya (New Biscay, Bizkai Berria) was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish.
Numic is a branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Enabling Act of 1906, in its first part, empowered the people residing in Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory to elect delegates to a state constitutional convention and subsequently to be admitted to the union as a single union.
An Organic Act is a generic name for a statute used by the United States Congress to describe a territory, in anticipation of being admitted to the Union as a state.
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma.
Okmulgee is a city in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, United States.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
The Oneida Nation or Oneida Indian Nation (OIN) is a federally recognized tribe of Oneida people in the United States.
The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.
The Onondaga (Onöñda’gaga’ or "Hill Place") people are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy in northeast North America.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
In United States law, an organic act is an act of the United States Congress that establishes a territory of the United States and specifies how it is to be governed, or an agency to manage certain federal lands.
Organized incorporated territories are territories of the United States that are both incorporated (part of the United States proper) and organized (having an organized government authorized by an Organic Act passed by the U.S. Congress, usually consisting of a territorial legislature, territorial governor, and a basic judicial system).
Osage County is the largest county by area in Oklahoma in the United States.
The Osage Nation (Osage: Ni-u-kon-ska, "People of the Middle Waters") is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who historically dominated much of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
The Osage Treaty (also known as the Treaty with the Osage) was signed in what became Council Grove, Kansas, on June 2, 1825 between William Clark on behalf of the United States and members of the Osage Nation.
Osawatomie is a city in Miami County, Kansas, United States, southwest of Kansas City.
The Otoe are a Native American people of the Midwestern United States.
The Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians is a single, federally recognized tribe, located in Oklahoma.
Ottawa County is a county located in the northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma is one of four federally-recognized Native American tribes of Odawa people in the United States.
Ottawa is a city in, and the county seat of, Franklin County, Kansas, United States.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
The parallel 36°30′ north is a circle of latitude that is 36 and one-half degrees north of the equator of the Earth.
Pawhuska is a city in and the county seat of Osage County, Oklahoma, United States.
Pawnee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma.
Pawnee (Pawnee: Paári) is a city and county seat of Pawnee County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Peoria (or Peouaroua) are a Native American people.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Piankeshaw (or Piankashaw) Indians were Native Americans and members of the Miami Indians who lived apart from the rest of the Miami nation.
The Plains Apache are a small Southern Athabaskan group who traditionally live on the Southern Plains of North America, in close association with the linguistically unrelated Kiowa nation, and today are centered in Southwestern Oklahoma.
Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.
The Platte Purchase was a land acquisition in 1836 by the United States government from American Indian tribes.
The Platte River is a major river in the state of Nebraska and is about long.
A plenary power or plenary authority is a complete and absolute power to take action on a particular issue, with no limitations.
The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced) are a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan language group.
Ponca City is a city in Kay County and in Osage County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, which was named after the Ponca Tribe.
The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people.
ThePottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
The Potawatomi Trail of Death was the forced removal by militia in 1838 of some 859 members of the Potawatomi nation from Indiana to reservation lands in what is now eastern Kansas.
Pottawatomie County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation (formerly the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians) is a federally recognized tribe of Neshnabé (Potawatomi people), headquartered near Mayetta, Kansas.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Quanah Parker (Comanche kwana, "smell, odor") (– February 20, 1911) was a Comanche war leader of the Quahadi ("Antelope") band of the Comanche people.
The Quapaw (or Arkansas and Ugahxpa) people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley.
The Quapaw Indian Agency was a territory that included parts of the present-day Oklahoma counties of Ottawa and Delaware.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi.
The vast majority of states in the United States employ a system of recording legal instruments (otherwise known as deeds registration) that affect the title of real estate as the exclusive means for publicly documenting land titles and interests.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Red Rock (Otoe: Íno Súje pronounced, meaning "Rock Red") is a town in northern Noble County, Oklahoma, United States.
Robert Robert Livingston (November 27, 1746 (Old Style November 16) – February 26, 1813) was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
The Sac and Fox Nation is the largest of three federally recognized tribes of Sauk and Meskwaki (Fox) Native Americans.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
The Treaty of Prairie du Chien may refer to any of several treaties made and signed in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin between the United States, representatives from the Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ioway, Winnebago and the Anishinaabeg (Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomi) Native American peoples.
In U.S. land surveying under the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), a section is an area nominally, containing, with 36 sections making up one survey township on a rectangular grid.
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.
The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.
Shawnee is a city in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions.
Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains, Ohio and Mississippi valleys and southeastern North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
The Sioux also known as Očhéthi Šakówiŋ, are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah) and the Mexican state of Sonora, with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.
The Southern Plains villagers were semi-sedentary Indians who lived on the Great Plains in western Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and southeastern Colorado from about AD 800 until AD 1500.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.
Stand Watie (lit) (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871) — also known as Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, and Isaac S. Watie — was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, and the only Native American to attain a general's rank in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
The State of Sequoyah was a proposed state to be established from the Indian Territory in the eastern part of present-day Oklahoma.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Tahlequah (''Cherokee'': ᏓᎵᏆ) is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains.
Tanoan, also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
The United States of America was created on July 4, 1776, with the declaration of independence of thirteen British colonies.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction in Texas, based in the capital city of Austin.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
A tipi (also teepee) is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles.
Tishomingo is the largest city and the county seat of Johnston County, Oklahoma, United States.
In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest.
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
The Tonkawa massacre (October 23–24, 1862) occurred after an attack at the Confederate held Wichita Agency, located at Fort Sill near Anadarko in Oklahoma, when a force of pro-Union tribes attacked the agency, home to 300 members of the Tonkawa, a tribe sympathetic to the Confederacy.
Tonkawa is a city in Kay County, Oklahoma, United States, along the Salt Fork Arkansas River.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
A travois (Canadian French, from French travail, a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structure that was used by indigenous peoples, notably the Plains Indians of North America, to drag loads over land.
The Treaties of Buffalo Creek are a series of treaties, named for the Buffalo River in New York, between the United States and Native American peoples: These include the following.
The Treaty of Canandaigua (or Konondaigua, as spelled in the treaty itself) is a treaty signed after the American Revolutionary War between the Grand Council of the Six Nations and President George Washington representing the United States of America.
The Treaty of Cusseta was a treaty between the government of the United States and the Creek Nation signed March 24, 1832.
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830, and proclaimed on February 24, 1831, between the Choctaw American Indian tribe and the United States Government.
The Treaty of Fort Clark (also known as the Treaty with the Osage or the Osage Treaty) was signed at Fort Osage (then called Fort Clark) on November 10, 1808 (ratified on April 28, 1810) in which the Osage Nation ceded all the land east of the fort in Missouri and Arkansas north of the Arkansas River to the United States.
The Treaty of Fort Jackson (also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814) was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick (Upper Creek) resistance by United States allied forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Treaty of Fort Laramie (also the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota and Arapaho Nation, following the failure of the first Fort Laramie treaty, signed in 1851.
The Treaty of Greenville was signed on August 3, 1795, at Fort Greenville, now Greenville, Ohio; it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier.
The Treaty of New Echota (7 Stat. 488) was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority Cherokee political faction, the Treaty Party.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Payne's Landing (Treaty with the Seminole, 1832) was an agreement signed on 9 May 1832 between the government of the United States and several chiefs of the Seminole Indians in the Territory of Florida, before it acquired statehood.
The 1826 Treaty of Washington was a settlement between the United States government and the Creek National Council of Native Americans, led by their spokesman Opothleyahola.
The Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws was a treaty signed on July 12, 1861 between the Choctaw and Chickasaw (American Indian) and the Confederate States of America.
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 47th-most populous city in the United States.
The Tuscarora (in Tuscarora Skarù:ręˀ, "hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Ontario.
Tuskahoma is an unincorporated community in northern Pushmataha County, Oklahoma, four miles east of Clayton.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Under United States law, an unincorporated territory is an area controlled by the United States government which is not part of (i.e., "incorporated" in) the United States.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States House Committee on Territories was a committee of the United States House of Representatives from 1825 to 1946 (19th to 79th Congresses).
United States v. Kagama, 118 U.S. 375 (1886), was a United States Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of the Major Crimes Act of 1885.
In the United States, an unorganized territory is a region of land without a "normally" constituted system of government.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.
The Washita River is a river in the states of Texas and Oklahoma in the United States.
The Wea were a Miami-Illinois-speaking Native American tribe originally located in western Indiana, closely related to the Miami Tribe.
The Western Confederacy, or Western Indian Confederacy, was a loose confederacy of Native Americans in the Great Lakes region of the United States following the American Revolutionary War.
Wewoka is a city in Seminole County, Oklahoma, United States.
The Wichita people are a confederation of Midwestern Native Americans.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
The Territory of Wisconsin was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 3, 1836, until May 29, 1848, when an eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Wisconsin.
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
The Yuchi people, spelled Euchee and Uchee, are people of a Native American tribe who historically lived in the eastern Tennessee River valley in Tennessee in the 16th century.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 37th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.