249 relations: Achyuta Pisharati, Algebra, Algebraic equation, Amoghavarsha, Apastamba Dharmasutra, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic numerals, Aramaic language, Aristarchus of Samos, Arithmetic, Arithmetic progression, Aryabhata, Aryabhata II, Aryabhatiya, Ashvamedha, Astrology, Āryabhaṭa's sine table, Śrīpati, Babylonian mathematics, Backus–Naur form, Bakhshali, Bakhshali manuscript, Barrel, Baudhayana sutras, Bengal, Bhadrabahu, Bhāskara I, Bhāskara II, Bhutasamkhya system, Bijaganita, Binary logarithm, Binomial coefficient, Binomial theorem, Bodleian Library, Boolean algebra, Brahmagupta, Brahmi script, Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, C. M. Whish, Calculus, Chakravala method, Chitrabhanu (mathematician), Circa, Circle, Combination, Combinatorics, Common Era, Cone, Context-free grammar, ..., Continued fraction, Convergence tests, Cross-multiplication, Cube (algebra), Cube root, Cyclic quadrilateral, Cylinder, David Bressoud, Decimal, Derivative, Dholavira, Differential calculus, Differential coefficient, Diophantine equation, Diophantus, Eclipse, Ellipse, Ellipsis, Ethnomathematics, Etymology, Eurocentrism, Exegesis, False position method, Fibonacci, Fibonacci number, First Babylonian dynasty, Florian Cajori, Floruit, Frustum, Fundamental theorem of calculus, Gandhara, Geometric series, Geometry, Gnomon, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Grammar, Guru–shishya tradition, Harappa, Harvard Oriental Series, Heron's formula, Hexahedron, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, Hipparchus, History of Hindu Mathematics: A Source Book, History of large numbers, History of mathematics, Ibn al-Haytham, Indian astronomy, Indian logic, Indian subcontinent, Indus Valley Civilisation, Infinity, Integer triangle, Integral, Inverse trigonometric functions, Isaac Newton, Iterative method, Jainism, Jyā, koti-jyā and utkrama-jyā, Jyeṣṭhadeva, Jyotisha, K. V. Sarma, Kalpa (aeon), Karanapaddhati, Karnataka, Kātyāyana, Kerala, Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics, Kharosthi, Latin, Līlāvatī, Leibniz formula for π, Linear equation, List of Indian mathematicians, List of numbers in Hindu scriptures, Longitude, Lothal, Lunar eclipse, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Madhava of Sangamagrama, Maghreb, Mahavira, Mahāvīra (mathematician), Malayalam, Malkheda, Manava, Mantra, Mathematical Association of America, Mathematical induction, Mīmāṃsā, Mean value theorem, Measurement, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Mesopotamia, Metaphysics, Metre (poetry), Mohenjo-daro, Mount Meru, Music theory, Narayana Pandit, Negative number, Nilakantha Somayaji, Nirukta, Nth root, Null function, Nyaya, P-adic order, Pakistan, Pandit, Parameshvara, Pascal's triangle, Paulisa Siddhanta, Pāṇini, Pell number, Pell's equation, Perimeter, Perpendicular, Peshawar, Phonetics, Pingala, Plimpton 322, Polynomial, Positional notation, Power of two, Power series, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Programming language, Ptolemy, Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean triple, Quadratic equation, Quadrilateral, Quintic function, Radiocarbon dating, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Rigveda, Ritual, Rolle's theorem, Romaka Siddhanta, Sanskrit, Sanskrit prosody, Science and technology in India, Scripta Mathematica, Semiperimeter, Series (mathematics), Severus Sebokht, Shadow, Shastra, Shatapatha Brahmana, Shatkhandagama, Shiksha, Shloka, Shulba Sutras, Sine, Society of Jesus, Solar eclipse, Solid geometry, South India, Sphere, Spherical trigonometry, Springer Science+Business Media, Square (algebra), Square root, Square root of 2, Squaring the circle, Sridhara, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Sthananga Sutra, Summation, Surya Siddhanta, Sutra, System of equations, Tattvartha Sutra, Taylor series, Taylor's theorem, Tiloya Panatti, Transit (astronomy), Trigonometric functions, Trigonometry, Twelvefold way, Umaswati, University of Oxford, University of St Andrews, Varāhamihira, Vasishtha Siddhanta, Vedanga, Vedas, Vedic period, Vedic Sanskrit, Versine, Virasena, Volume, Vyākaraṇa, Western world, Writing system, Yajurveda, Yavanajataka, Yuktibhāṣā, 0. Expand index (199 more) »

## Achyuta Pisharati

Achyutha Pisharodi (c. 1550 at Trikkandiyur (aka Kundapura), Tirur, Kerala, India – 7 July 1621 in Kerala) was a Sanskrit grammarian, astrologer, astronomer and mathematician who studied under Jyeṣṭhadeva and was a member of Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

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## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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## Algebraic equation

In mathematics, an algebraic equation or polynomial equation is an equation of the form where P and Q are polynomials with coefficients in some field, often the field of the rational numbers.

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## Amoghavarsha

Amoghavarsha I (also known as Amoghavarsha Nrupathunga I) (800–878 CE) was a Rashtrakuta emperor, the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great emperors of India.

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## Apastamba Dharmasutra

Āpastamba Dharmasūtra is a Sanskrit text and one of the oldest Dharma-related texts of Hinduism that have survived into the modern age from the 1st-millennium BCE.

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## Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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## Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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## Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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## Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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## Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).

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## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Arithmetic progression

In mathematics, an arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant.

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## Aryabhata

Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

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## Aryabhata II

Āryabhaṭa (c. 920 – c. 1000) was an ArIndian mathematician and astronomer, and the author of the Maha-Siddhanta.

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## Aryabhatiya

Aryabhatiya (IAST) or Aryabhatiyam, a Sanskrit astronomical treatise, is the magnum opus and only known surviving work of the 5th century Indian mathematician Aryabhata.

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## Ashvamedha

The Ashvamedha (Sanskrit: अश्वमेध aśvamedhá) is a horse sacrifice ritual followed by the Śrauta tradition of Vedic religion.

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## Astrology

Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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## Āryabhaṭa's sine table

Āryabhaṭa's sine table is a set of twenty-four numbers given in the astronomical treatise Āryabhaṭīya composed by the fifth century Indian mathematician and astronomer Āryabhaṭa (476–550 CE), for the computation of the half-chords of certain set of arcs of a circle.

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## Śrīpati

Śrīpati (1019–1066) was an Indian astronomer and mathematician, the author of Dhikotidakarana (written in 1039), a work of twenty verses on solar and lunar eclipses; Dhruvamanasa (written in 1056), a work of 105 verses on calculating planetary longitudes, eclipses and planetary transits; Siddhantasekhara a major work on astronomy in 19 chapters; and Ganitatilaka, an incomplete arithmetical treatise in 125 verses based on a work by Shridhara.

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## Babylonian mathematics

Babylonian mathematics (also known as Assyro-Babylonian mathematics) was any mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC.

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## Backus–Naur form

In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.

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## Bakhshali

Bakhshali (بخشالی) is a village and union council in Mardan District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.

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## Bakhshali manuscript

The Bakhshali manuscript is a mathematical text written on birch bark that was found in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, Mardan (near Peshawar in present-day Pakistan).

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## Barrel

A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops.

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## Baudhayana sutras

The Baudhayana sūtras are a group of Vedic Sanskrit texts which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc.

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## Bengal

Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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## Bhadrabahu

Bhadrabahu was, according to the Digambara sect of Jainism, the last Shruta Kevalin (all knowing by hearsay, that is indirectly) in Jainism (the other sect, Śvētāmbara, believes the last Shruta Kevalin was Acharya Sthulabhadra, but was forbade by Bhadrabahu from disclosing it).

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## Bhāskara I

Bhāskara (c. 600 – c. 680) (commonly called Bhaskara I to avoid confusion with the 12th century mathematician Bhāskara II) was a 7th-century mathematician, who was the first to write numbers in the Hindu decimal system with a circle for the zero, and who gave a unique and remarkable rational approximation of the sine function in his commentary on Aryabhata's work.

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## Bhāskara II

Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskarāchārya ("Bhāskara, the teacher"), and as Bhaskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

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## Bhutasamkhya system

Bhūtasaṃkhyā system is a method of recording numbers using ordinary words having connotations of numerical values.

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## Bijaganita

Bijaganita was Indian mathematician Bhāskara II's treatise on algebra.

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## Binary logarithm

In mathematics, the binary logarithm is the power to which the number must be raised to obtain the value.

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## Binomial coefficient

In mathematics, any of the positive integers that occurs as a coefficient in the binomial theorem is a binomial coefficient.

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## Binomial theorem

In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem (or binomial expansion) describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial.

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## Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.

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## Boolean algebra

In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.

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## Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta (born, died) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.

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## Brahmi script

Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.

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## Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta

The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta ("Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma", abbreviated BSS) is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628.

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## C. M. Whish

Charles Matthew Whish (1794–1833) was an English civil servant in the Madras Establishment of the East India Company.

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## Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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## Chakravala method

The chakravala method (चक्रवाल विधि) is a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations, including Pell's equation.

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## Chitrabhanu (mathematician)

Chitrabhanu was a mathematician of the Kerala school and a student of Nilakantha Somayaji.

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## Circa

Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

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## Combination

In mathematics, a combination is a selection of items from a collection, such that (unlike permutations) the order of selection does not matter.

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## Combinatorics

Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.

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## Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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## Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.

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## Context-free grammar

In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a certain type of formal grammar: a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.

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## Continued fraction

In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number, then writing this other number as the sum of its integer part and another reciprocal, and so on.

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## Convergence tests

In mathematics, convergence tests are methods of testing for the convergence, conditional convergence, absolute convergence, interval of convergence or divergence of an infinite series \sum_^\infty a_n.

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## Cross-multiplication

In mathematics, specifically in elementary arithmetic and elementary algebra, given an equation between two fractions or rational expressions, one can cross-multiply to simplify the equation or determine the value of a variable.

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## Cube (algebra)

In arithmetic and algebra, the cube of a number is its third power: the result of the number multiplied by itself twice: It is also the number multiplied by its square: This is also the volume formula for a geometric cube with sides of length, giving rise to the name.

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## Cube root

In mathematics, a cube root of a number x is a number y such that y3.

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## Cyclic quadrilateral

In Euclidean geometry, a cyclic quadrilateral or inscribed quadrilateral is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a single circle.

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## Cylinder

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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## David Bressoud

David Marius Bressoud (born March 27, 1950 in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) is an American mathematician who works in number theory, combinatorics, and special functions.

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## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

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## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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## Dholavira

Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village south of it.

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## Differential calculus

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

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## Differential coefficient

In physics, the differential coefficient of a function f(x) is what is now called its derivative df(x)/dx, the (not necessarily constant) multiplicative factor or coefficient of the differential dx in the differential df(x).

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## Diophantine equation

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).

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## Diophantus

Diophantus of Alexandria (Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; born probably sometime between AD 201 and 215; died around 84 years old, probably sometime between AD 285 and 299) was an Alexandrian Hellenistic mathematician, who was the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost.

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## Eclipse

An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.

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## Ellipse

In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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## Ellipsis

An ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, 'omission' or 'falling short') is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.

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## Ethnomathematics

In mathematics education, ethnomathematics is the study of the relationship between mathematics and culture.

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## Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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## Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.

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## Exegesis

Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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## False position method

False position method and regula falsi method are two early, and still current, names for a very old method for solving an equation in one unknown.

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## Fibonacci

Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

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## Fibonacci number

In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.

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## First Babylonian dynasty

The chronology of the first dynasty of Babylonia (also First Babylonian Empire) is debated as there is a Babylonian King List A and a Babylonian King List B. In this chronology, the regnal years of List A are used due to their wide usage.

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## Florian Cajori

Florian Cajori (February 28, 1859 – August 14 or 15, 1930) was a Swiss-American historian of mathematics.

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## Floruit

Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.

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## Frustum

In geometry, a frustum (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it.

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## Fundamental theorem of calculus

The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of differentiating a function with the concept of integrating a function.

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## Gandhara

Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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## Geometric series

In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms.

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Gnomon

A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.

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## Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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## Grammar

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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## Guru–shishya tradition

The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara ("lineage"), denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism (Tibetan and Zen tradition).

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## Harappa

Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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## Harvard Oriental Series

The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.

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## Heron's formula

In geometry, Heron's formula (sometimes called Hero's formula), named after Hero of Alexandria, gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulae for the area of a triangle, such as half the base times the height or half the norm of a cross product of two sides.

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## Hexahedron

A hexahedron (plural: hexahedra) is any polyhedron with six faces.

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## Hindu–Arabic numeral system

The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.

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## Hipparchus

Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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## History of Hindu Mathematics: A Source Book

History of Hindu Mathematics: A Source Book is a treatise on the history of Indian mathematics authored by Bibhutibhushan Datta and Awadhesh Narayan Singh and originally published in two parts in 1930's.

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## History of large numbers

Different cultures used different traditional numeral systems for naming large numbers.

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## History of mathematics

The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.

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## Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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## Indian astronomy

Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.

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## Indian logic

The development of Indian logic dates back to the anviksiki of Medhatithi Gautama (c. 6th century BCE) the Sanskrit grammar rules of Pāṇini (c. 5th century BCE); the Vaisheshika school's analysis of atomism (c. 6th century BCE to 2nd century BCE); the analysis of inference by Gotama (c. 6th century BC to 2nd century CE), founder of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy; and the tetralemma of Nagarjuna (c. 2nd century CE).

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## Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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## Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

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## Integer triangle

An integer triangle or integral triangle is a triangle all of whose sides have lengths that are integers.

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## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

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## Inverse trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).

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## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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## Iterative method

In computational mathematics, an iterative method is a mathematical procedure that uses an initial guess to generate a sequence of improving approximate solutions for a class of problems, in which the n-th approximation is derived from the previous ones.

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## Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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## Jyā, koti-jyā and utkrama-jyā

Jyā, koti-jyā and utkrama-jyā are three trigonometric functions introduced by Indian mathematicians and astronomers.

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## Jyeṣṭhadeva

Jyeṣṭhadeva (Malayalam: ജ്യേഷ്ഠദേവന്) was an astronomer-mathematician of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics founded by Sangamagrama Madhava.

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## Jyotisha

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, IAST: Jyotiṣa) is the science of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time.

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## K. V. Sarma

K.

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## Kalpa (aeon)

Kalpa (कल्प kalpa) is a Sanskrit word meaning a relatively long period of time (by human calculation) in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology.

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## Karanapaddhati

Karanapaddhati is an astronomical treatise in Sanskrit attributed to Puthumana Somayaji, an astronomer-mathematician of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

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## Karnataka

Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.

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## Kātyāyana

Kātyāyana (कात्यायन) (c. 300 BC) was a Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest who lived in ancient India.

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## Kerala

Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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## Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics

The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar.

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## Kharosthi

The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.

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## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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## Līlāvatī

The Līlāvatī is Indian mathematician Bhāskara II's treatise on mathematics, written in 1150.

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## Leibniz formula for π

In mathematics, the Leibniz formula for pi, named after Gottfried Leibniz, states that It is also called Madhava–Leibniz series as it is a special case of a more general series expansion for the inverse tangent function, first discovered by the Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama in the 14th century, the specific case first published by Leibniz around 1676.

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## Linear equation

In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form where x_1, \ldots, x_n are the variables or unknowns, and c, a_1, \ldots, a_n are coefficients, which are often real numbers, but may be parameters, or even any expression that does not contain the unknowns.

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## List of Indian mathematicians

The chronology of Indian mathematicians spans from the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedas to Modern India.

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## List of numbers in Hindu scriptures

The Hindu scriptures contain many numerical descriptions concerning distances, durations and numbers of items in the universe as seen from the perspective of Hindu cosmology.

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## Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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## Lothal

Lothal is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited 3700 BCE.

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## Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.

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## MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews in Scotland.

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## Madhava of Sangamagrama

Mādhava of Sangamagrāma, was a mathematician and astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama (believed to be present-day Aloor, Irinjalakuda in Thrissur District), Kerala, India.

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## Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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## Mahavira

Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.

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## Mahāvīra (mathematician)

Mahāvīra (or Mahaviracharya, "Mahavira the Teacher") was a 9th-century Jain mathematician from Karnataka, India.

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## Malayalam

Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.

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## Malkheda

Malkheda, also known as Malkhed,Village code.

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## Manava

Manava (c. 750 BC – 690 BC) is an author of the Hindu geometric text of Sulba Sutras. The Manava Sulbasutra is not the oldest (the one by Baudhayana is older), nor is it one of the most important, there being at least three Sulbasutras which are considered more important.

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## Mantra

A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.

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## Mathematical Association of America

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.

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## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.

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## Mīmāṃsā

Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".

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## Mean value theorem

In mathematics, the mean value theorem states, roughly, that for a given planar arc between two endpoints, there is at least one point at which the tangent to the arc is parallel to the secant through its endpoints.

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## Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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## Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri

Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri (മേല്പത്തൂർ നാരായണ ഭട്ടതിരി; 1560–1646/1666), third student of Achyuta Pisharati, was a member of Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

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## Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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## Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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## Metre (poetry)

In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.

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## Mohenjo-daro

Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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## Mount Meru

Mount Meru (Sanskrit: मेरु, Tibetan: ཪི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་རབ་, Sumeru, Sineru or Mahameru) is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.

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## Music theory

Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.

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## Narayana Pandit

Narayana Pandita (নারায়ণ পণ্ডিত; नारायण पण्डित) (1340–1400) was a major mathematician of India.

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## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

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## Nilakantha Somayaji

Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji (also referred to as Kelallur Comatiri; 14 June 1444 – 1544) was a major mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics in India.

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## Nirukta

Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.

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## Nth root

In mathematics, an nth root of a number x, where n is usually assumed to be a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x: where n is the degree of the root.

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## Null function

In computer science, a null function (or null operator) is subroutine that returns no data values and leaves the program state unchanged.

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## Nyaya

(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".

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## P-adic order

In number theory, for a given prime number, the -adic order or -adic valuation of a non-zero integer is the highest exponent such that divides.

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## Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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## Pandit

A pandit (paṇḍita; also spelled pundit, pronounced; abbreviated as Pt. or Pdt.; Panditain or Punditain can refer to a female pundit or the wife of a pundit) is a Brahmin scholar or a teacher of any field of knowledge in Hinduism, particularly the Vedic scriptures, dharma, Hindu philosophy, or secular subjects such as music.

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## Parameshvara

Vatasseri Parameshvara Nambudiri (1380–1460) was a major Indian mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama.

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## Pascal's triangle

In mathematics, Pascal's triangle is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients.

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## Paulisa Siddhanta

The Pauliśa Siddhānta (literally, "The scientific-treatise of Pauliśa Muni") refers to multiple Indian astronomical treatises, at least one of which is based on a Western source.

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## Pāṇini

(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.

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## Pell number

In mathematics, the Pell numbers are an infinite sequence of integers, known since ancient times, that comprise the denominators of the closest rational approximations to the square root of 2.

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## Pell's equation

Pell's equation (also called the Pell–Fermat equation) is any Diophantine equation of the form where n is a given positive nonsquare integer and integer solutions are sought for x and y. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation has the form of a hyperbola; solutions occur wherever the curve passes through a point whose x and y coordinates are both integers, such as the trivial solution with x.

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## Perimeter

A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.

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## Perpendicular

In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).

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## Peshawar

Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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## Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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## Pingala

Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) (c. 3rd/2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian mathematician who authored the (also called Pingala-sutras), the earliest known treatise on Sanskrit prosody.

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## Plimpton 322

Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet, notable as containing an example of Babylonian mathematics.

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## Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

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## Positional notation

Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.

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## Power of two

In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.

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## Power series

In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where an represents the coefficient of the nth term and c is a constant.

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## Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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## Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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## Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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## Pythagorean triple

A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers,, and, such that.

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## Quadratic equation

In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form where represents an unknown, and,, and represent known numbers such that is not equal to.

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## Quadrilateral

In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four edges (or sides) and four vertices or corners.

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## Quintic function

In algebra, a quintic function is a function of the form where,,,, and are members of a field, typically the rational numbers, the real numbers or the complex numbers, and is nonzero.

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## Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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## Rashtrakuta dynasty

Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.

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## Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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## Ritual

A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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## Rolle's theorem

In calculus, Rolle's theorem essentially states that any real-valued differentiable function that attains equal values at two distinct points must have at least one stationary point somewhere between them—that is, a point where the first derivative (the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function) is zero.

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## Romaka Siddhanta

The Romaka Siddhanta (literally "Doctrine of the Romans") is one of the five siddhantas mentioned in Varaha Mihira's Panchasidhantika which is an Indian astronomical treatise.

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## Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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## Sanskrit prosody

Sanskrit prosody or Chandas refers to one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies.

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## Science and technology in India

After independence, Jawaharlal Nehru initiated reforms to promote higher education, science, and technology in India.

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## Scripta Mathematica

Scripta Mathematica was a quarterly journal published by Yeshiva University devoted to the philosophy, history, and expository treatment of mathematics.

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## Semiperimeter

In geometry, the semiperimeter of a polygon is half its perimeter.

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## Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

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## Severus Sebokht

Severus Sebokht (ܣܘܪܘܣ ܣܝܒܘܟܬ), also Seboukt of Nisibis, was a Syrian scholar and bishop who was born in Nisibis, Syria in 575 and died in 667.

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## Shadow

A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.

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## Shastra

Shastra (शास्त्र, IAST) is a Sanskrit word that means "precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise" in a general sense.

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## Shatapatha Brahmana

The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.

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## Shatkhandagama

(Devanagari: षटखंडागम), literally the "Scripture in Six Parts", is the foremost and oldest Digambara Jain sacred text.

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## Shiksha

Shiksha (शिक्षा IAST) is a Sanskrit word, which means "instruction, lesson, learning, study of skill".

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## Shloka

Shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक śloka; meaning "song", from the root śru, "hear"Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students, Appendix II, p. 232 (Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927).) is a category of verse line developed from the Vedic Anustubh poetic meter.

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## Shulba Sutras

The Shulba Sutras or Śulbasūtras (Sanskrit: "string, cord, rope") are sutra texts belonging to the Śrauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire-altar construction.

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## Sine

In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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## Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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## Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.

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## Solid geometry

In mathematics, solid geometry is the traditional name for the geometry of three-dimensional Euclidean space.

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## South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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## Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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## Spherical trigonometry

Spherical trigonometry is the branch of spherical geometry that deals with the relationships between trigonometric functions of the sides and angles of the spherical polygons (especially spherical triangles) defined by a number of intersecting great circles on the sphere.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Square (algebra)

In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplying a number by itself.

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## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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## Square root of 2

The square root of 2, or the (1/2)th power of 2, written in mathematics as or, is the positive algebraic number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 2.

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## Squaring the circle

Squaring the circle is a problem proposed by ancient geometers.

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## Sridhara

Sridharacharya (শ্রীধর আচার্য; c. 750 CE – c. 930 CE) was an Indian mathematician, Sanskrit pandit and philosopher.

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## Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan (22 December 188726 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India. Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems considered to be unsolvable.

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## Sthananga Sutra

Sthananga Sutra (Sanskrit: Sthānāṅgasūtra Prakrit: Ṭhāṇaṃgasutta) (c. 3rd-4th century CE) forms part of the first eleven Angas of the Jaina Canon which have survived despite the bad effects of this Hundavasarpini kala as per the Śvetāmbara belief.

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## Summation

In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.

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## Surya Siddhanta

The Surya Siddhanta is the name of a Sanskrit treatise in Indian astronomy from 6th Century BCE.

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## Sutra

A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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## System of equations

In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.

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## Tattvartha Sutra

Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.

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## Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

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## Taylor's theorem

In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a k-times differentiable function around a given point by a k-th order Taylor polynomial.

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## Tiloya Panatti

Tiloya Panatti or Trilokaprajnapati is one of the earlier Prakrit texts on Jain cosmology composed by Acharya Yativrshabha.

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## Transit (astronomy)

In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.

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## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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## Trigonometry

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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## Twelvefold way

In combinatorics, the twelvefold way is a systematic classification of 12 related enumerative problems concerning two finite sets, which include the classical problems of counting permutations, combinations, multisets, and partitions either of a set or of a number.

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## Umaswati

Umaswami, also known as Umaswati, was an early 1st-millennium Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism.

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## University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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## University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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## Varāhamihira

Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.

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## Vasishtha Siddhanta

Vasishtha Siddhanta is one of the earliest astronomical systems in use in India, which is summarized in Varahamihira's Pancha-Siddhantika (6th century).

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## Vedanga

The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, "limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas.

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## Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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## Vedic period

The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.

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## Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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## Versine

The versine or versed sine is a trigonometric function already appearing in some of the earliest trigonometric tables.

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## Virasena

Acharya Virasena (792-853) was a Digambara monk and belonged to the lineage of Acharya Kundakunda.

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## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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## Vyākaraṇa

Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.

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## Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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## Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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## Yajurveda

The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.

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## Yavanajataka

The Yavanajātaka (Sanskrit: yavana 'Greek' + jātaka 'nativity'.

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## Yuktibhāṣā

Yuktibhāṣā (യുക്തിഭാഷ; "Rationale in the Malayalam/Sanskrit language") also known as Gaṇitanyāyasaṅgraha ("Compendium of astronomical rationale"), is a major treatise on mathematics and astronomy, written by Indian astronomer Jyesthadeva of the Kerala school of mathematics in about AD 1530.

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## 0

0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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## Redirects here:

Hindu mathematics, History of South Asian mathematics, Indian Mathematic, Indian Mathematics, Indian Maths, Indian mathematician, Indian maths, Vaishali Ganit, Vedic Mathematics.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_mathematics