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Indian rupee

Index Indian rupee

The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. [1]

203 relations: Alipore, Arbitrage, Arthashastra, Assam, Assamese language, Australian dollar, B. R. Ambedkar, Bahrain, Bahraini dinar, Bangladesh, Bangladeshi taka, Banknote, Bengal, Bengal Presidency, Bengal Sultanate, Bengali language, Bengalis, Bhutan, Bhutanese ngultrum, Bit (money), Bombay Presidency, Botswana pula, Brass, Bretton Woods system, Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, British Raj, Brunei dollar, Canadian dollar, Capital account convertibility, Capital control, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chandragupta Maurya, Chariot, Cherlapally, China, Chinese cash (currency unit), Coins of British India, Coins of the Indian rupee, Colony of Aden, Commemorative coin, Consumer price index, Cupronickel, Currency, Currency symbol, Customs, Danish Indian rupee, De facto, Decimalisation, Devanagari, Dewas, ..., Dinar, Dominion of India, Dubai, East India Company, Euro, European Currency Unit, Flag of India, Floating exchange rate, French Indian rupee, George VI, Gold standard, Government of India, Grain (unit), Gram, Great Depression in India, Great Recoinage of 1816, Gulf rupee, Hampi, Himalayas, History of India, Hoshangabad, Hyderabadi rupee, Ibn Battuta, India, India Government Mint, Indian 1-rupee note, Indian 10-rupee coin, Indian 10-rupee note, Indian 100-rupee note, Indian 2-rupee coin, Indian 2-rupee note, Indian 20-rupee note, Indian 200-rupee note, Indian 2000-rupee note, Indian 5-rupee coin, Indian 5-rupee note, Indian 50-rupee note, Indian 500-rupee note, Indian paisa, Indian pie, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian rupee sign, Instrument of Accession, ISO 4217, Israeli new shekel, Israeli pound, Japanese yen, Kenya, Kolkata, Konark Sun Temple, Kutch kori, Kuwait, Kuwaiti dinar, Latin alphabet, Legal tender, Madras fanam, Madras Presidency, Mahatma Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi New Series, Mahatma Gandhi Series, Malaya and British Borneo dollar, Malaysian ringgit, Maldivian rufiyaa, Managed float regime, Manmohan Singh, Maratha Empire, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mauritius, Maurya Empire, Mohur, Mount Harriet National Park, Mughal Empire, Mumbai, Mysore, Narendra Modi, Nashik, Nepal, Nepalese rupee, New South Wales, Noida, Odia language, Odisha, Oman, One rupee (Indian coin), P. Chidambaram, Pakistani rupee, Panic of 1873, Partition of India, Penny, Pillars of Ashoka, Port Blair, Portuguese Indian escudo, Pound sterling, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prime minister, Princely state, Qatar, Queen Victoria, R rotunda, Rabindranath Tagore, Red Fort, Relative value (economics), Remittance, Renminbi, Reserve Bank of India, Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Royal Mint, Rupee, Russian ruble, Saifabad, Salboni, Sanchi, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Saudi riyal, Seychelles, Sher Shah Suri, Shilling, Silver as an investment, Singapore dollar, South African rand, Sovereign (British coin), Soviet ruble, Spanish dollar, Sri Lankan rupee, Stainless steel, Stater, Straits dollar, Straits Settlements, Sultan, Swachh Bharat mission, Swiss franc, Sydney, Tanganyika, The Revised Standard Reference Guide to Indian Paper Money, Tractor, Trade coin, Trade-weighted effective exchange rate index, Travancore Rupee, Tripura, Trucial States, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates dirham, United States dollar, Warren Hastings, West Bengal, Wheat, Winston Churchill, Zero rupee note, Zimbabwe, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2016 Indian banknote demonetisation. Expand index (153 more) »


Alipore (Pron:ˌɑ:lɪˈpɔ) is a neighbourhood in South Kolkata in Kolkata district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices.

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The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

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Assamese language

Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.

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Australian dollar

The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

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B. R. Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.

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Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Bahraini dinar

The dinar (دينار) (sign:.د.ب or BD; code: BHD) is the currency of Bahrain.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Bangladeshi taka

The Bangladeshi taka (টাকা, sign: ৳ or Tk, code: BDT) is the currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bengal Presidency

The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).

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Bengal Sultanate

The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.

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Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.

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Bhutanese ngultrum

The ngultrum (དངུལ་ཀྲམ, symbol: Nu., code: BTN) is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan.

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Bit (money)

The word bit is a colloquial expression referring to specific coins in various coinages throughout the world.

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Bombay Presidency

The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.

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Botswana pula

The pula is the currency of Botswana.

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Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur

Brihadishvara Temple, also called Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Brunei dollar

The Brunei dollar (Malay: ringgit Brunei, currency code: BND), has been the currency of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1967.

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Canadian dollar

The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.

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Capital account convertibility

Capital account convertibility is a feature of a nation's financial regime that centers on the ability to conduct transactions of local financial assets into foreign financial assets freely or at country determined exchange rates.

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Capital control

Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.

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A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.

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Cherlapally is a neighbourhood of Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese cash (currency unit)

The cash was a currency denomination used in China in imperial times.

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Coins of British India

British trading posts in India were first established by the East India Company (EIC) early in the seventeenth century, which quickly evolved into larger colonies covering a significant part of the subcontinent.

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Coins of the Indian rupee

Coins of the Indian rupee were first minted in 1950.

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Colony of Aden

The Colony of Aden or Aden Colony (مستعمرة عدن) was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen.

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Commemorative coin

Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue.

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Consumer price index

A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of of and purchased by households.

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Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Currency symbol

A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

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Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.

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Danish Indian rupee

The Danish Indian rupee was the currency of Danish India.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system (i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100).

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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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Dewas is a city on the Malwa plateau in the west-central part of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.

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Dominion of India

Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.

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Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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European Currency Unit

The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.

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Flag of India

The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.

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Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

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French Indian rupee

The roupie or rupee was the currency of French India.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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Government of India

The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.

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Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Great Depression in India

The Great Depression of 1929 had a very severe impact on India, which was then under the rule of the British Raj.

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Great Recoinage of 1816

The Great Recoinage of 1816 was an attempt by the British Government to re-stabilise the currency of Great Britain following economic difficulties precipitated by the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

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Gulf rupee

The Gulf rupee (Arabic: روبيه or روبيه خليجيه), also known as the Persian Gulf rupee, was a currency used in the countries of the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula between 1959 and 1966.

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Hampi, also referred to as the Group of Monuments at Hampi, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in east-central Karnataka, India.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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Hoshangabad also known as Narmadapuram is a city and a municipality in Hoshangabad district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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Hyderabadi rupee

The Hyderabadi Rupee was the currency of the Hyderabad State from 1918 to 1959.

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Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India Government Mint

The India Government Mint operates four mints in the country for the production of coins.The other mints are in.

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Indian 1-rupee note

One Indian rupee note is made up of hundred paisas.

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Indian 10-rupee coin

The Indian 10-rupee coin (10) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 10-rupee note

The Indian 10-rupee banknote (10) is a common denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 100-rupee note

The Indian 100-rupee banknote (100) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 2-rupee coin

Indian 2-rupee coin is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 2-rupee note

Two Indian rupee note is the second smallest Indian note.

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Indian 20-rupee note

The Indian 20-rupee banknote (20) is a common denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 200-rupee note

The Indian 200-rupee note (₹200) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 2000-rupee note

Indian currency notes The Indian 2000-rupee banknote (₹2000) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 5-rupee coin

The Indian 5 rupee coin is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 5-rupee note

Five Indian rupee note is the second smallest Indian note in circulation.

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Indian 50-rupee note

The (50) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian 500-rupee note

The Indian 500-rupee banknote (500) is a denomination of the Indian rupee.

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Indian paisa

Indian paisa (plural: paise) is (one-hundredth) subdivision of the Indian rupee.

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Indian pie

A pie (abbreviated as Ps) was a unit of currency in India, Burma and Pakistan until 1947.

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Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

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Indian rupee sign

The Indian rupee sign (sign:; code: INR) is the currency sign for the Indian rupee, the official currency of India.

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Instrument of Accession

The Instrument of Accession was a legal document first introduced by the Government of India Act 1935 and used in 1947 to enable each of the rulers of the princely states under British paramountcy to join one of the new dominions of India or Pakistan created by the Partition of British India.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Israeli new shekel

The Israeli new shekel (שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ; شيقل جديد; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel and formerly known as the New Israeli Sheqel (NIS), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

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Israeli pound

The Israeli pound (לירה ישראלית Lira Yisr'elit, ليرة إسرائيلية) or Israeli lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, which was again replaced with the New Shekel in 1985.

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Japanese yen

The is the official currency of Japan.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Konark Sun Temple

Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century CE sun temple at Konark about northeast from Puri on the coastline of Odisha, India.

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Kutch kori

The Kori was the currency of Kutch until 1948.

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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Kuwaiti dinar

The Kuwaiti dinar (دينار, code: KWD) is the currency of Kuwait.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

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Madras fanam

The fanam (or panam in the local language of Tamil) was a currency issued by the Madras Presidency until 1815.

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Madras Presidency

The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.

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Mahatma Gandhi New Series

The Mahatma Gandhi New Series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the legal tender of the Indian rupee, intended to replace the Mahatma Gandhi Series of banknotes.

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Mahatma Gandhi Series

The Gandhi Series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the legal tender of Indian rupee.

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Malaya and British Borneo dollar

The Malaya and British Borneo dollar (known as the ringgit in Malay, Jawi: رڠڬيت) was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo, Brunei and Riau archipelago from 1953 to 1967 and was the successor of the Malayan dollar and Sarawak dollar, replacing them at par.

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Malaysian ringgit

The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia.

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Maldivian rufiyaa

The Maldivian rufiyaa (ދިވެހި ރުފިޔާ; sign: Rf or.ރ; code: MVR) is the currency of the Maldives.

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Managed float regime

Managed float regime is the current international financial environment in which exchange rates fluctuate from day to day, but central banks attempt to influence their countries' exchange rates by buying and selling currencies.

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Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.

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Maratha Empire

The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.

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Mars Orbiter Mission

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.

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Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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A mohur is a gold coin that was formerly minted by several governments, including British India and some of the princely states which existed alongside it, the Mughal Empire, Kingdom of Nepal, and Afghanistan.

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Mount Harriet National Park

Mount Harriet National Park is a national park located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory of India.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.

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Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.

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Nashik is an ancient city in the northwest region of Maharashtra in India. Situated on the banks of Godavari river Nashik is best known for being one of Hindu pilgrimage sites, that of Kumbh Mela which is held every 12 years. The city located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai, is called the "Wine Capital of India" as half of India’s vineyards and wineries are located in Nashik.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nepalese rupee

The Nepalese rupee (रुपैयाँ, symbol: रु, Rs.; code: NPR) is the official currency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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Noida, short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority, is a systematically planned Indian city under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (also called NOIDA).

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Odia language

Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.

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Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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One rupee (Indian coin)

One rupee coin is an Indian coin worth one Indian rupee and is made up of hundred paisas.

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P. Chidambaram

Palaniappan Chidambaram (born 16 September 1945) is an Indian politician and attorney who currently serves as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha and formerly served as the Union Minister of Finance of India.

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Pakistani rupee

The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.

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Panic of 1873

The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879, and even longer in some countries (France and Britain).

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.

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Pillars of Ashoka

The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign from c. 268 to 232 BC.

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Port Blair

Port Blair is the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India situated in the Bay of Bengal.

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Portuguese Indian escudo

The escudo was the currency of Portuguese India between 1958 and 1961.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Prime minister

A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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Princely state

A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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R rotunda

The r rotunda (ꝛ), "rounded r", is a historical calligraphic variant of the minuscule (lowercase) letter Latin r used in full script-like typefaces, especially blackletters.

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Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Red Fort

Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India.

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Relative value (economics)

In finance, relative value is the attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one financial instrument relative to another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

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A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.

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The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934

Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 is the legislative act under which the Reserve Bank of India was formed.

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Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool

Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British statesman and Prime Minister (1812–27).

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.

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The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Bhutan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and formerly those of Afghanistan, Tibet, Burma and British East Africa, German East Africa and Trucial States.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Saifabad is one of the major suburbs in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

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Salboni (also written as Salbani) is a village in the Salboni CD Block, situated in the Medinipur Sadar subdivision of the Paschim Medinipur district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Sanchi Stupa, also written Sanci, is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan


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Saudi riyal

The Saudi riyal (ريال); is the currency of Saudi Arabia. It is abbreviated as ر.س or SR (Saudi riyal). It is subdivided into 100 halalas (هللة).

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Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Sher Shah Suri

Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.

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The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Silver as an investment

Silver may be used as an investment like other precious metals.

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Singapore dollar

The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.

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South African rand

The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.

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Sovereign (British coin)

The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.

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Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.

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Spanish dollar

The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.

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Sri Lankan rupee

The rupee (රුපියල්, ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, ரூ, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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The stater (or; στατήρ, literally "weight") was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece.

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Straits dollar

The Straits dollar was the currency of the Straits Settlements from 1898 until 1939.

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Straits Settlements

The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.

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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Swachh Bharat mission

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) (or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) or Clean India Mission in English) is a campaign in India that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India's cities, smaller towns, and rural areas.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.

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The Revised Standard Reference Guide to Indian Paper Money

The Revised Standard Reference Guide to Indian Paper Money is a 2012 book by Rezwan Razack and Kishore Jhunjhunwalla.

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A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver at a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.

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Trade coin

Trade coins are coins minted by a government, but not necessarily legal tender within the territory of the issuing country.

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Trade-weighted effective exchange rate index

The trade-weighted effective exchange rate index, a common form of the effective exchange rate index, is a multilateral exchange rate index.

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Travancore Rupee

The Travancore rupee was a type of currency issued by the State of Travancore, now mainly a part of Kerala in South India.

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Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.

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Trucial States

The Trucial Coast (or أو المتصالح; also known as Trucial States, Trucial Oman, Trucial States of the Coast of Oman, and Trucial Sheikhdoms) were a group of tribal confederations in the south-eastern Persian Gulf, previously known to the British as the "Pirate Coast", which were signatories to treaties (hence 'trucial') with the British government.

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Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Arab Emirates dirham

The United Arab Emirates dirham (درهم, sign: د.إ; code: AED), also known as simply the Emirati dirham, is the currency of the United Arab Emirates.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Warren Hastings

Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first de facto Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1785.

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West Bengal

West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Zero rupee note

A zero-rupee note is a banknote imitation issued in India as a means of helping to fight systemic political corruption.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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2016 Indian banknote demonetisation

On 8 November 2016, the Government of India announced the demonetisation of all 500 and 1000 banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi Series.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupee

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