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Adolphus Peter "A.
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA) is a national Australian institution for the culturally sensitive training of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.
Aboriginal History is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published as an open access journal by Aboriginal History Inc.
The Aboriginal Memorial is a work of contemporary Indigenous Australian art from the late 1980s, and comprises 200 decorated hollow log coffins.
Aboriginal sites of New South Wales consist of a large number of places in the Australian state of New South Wales where it is still possible to see visible signs of the activities and culture of the Australian Aboriginals who previously occupied these areas.
The Aboriginal Tasmanians (Tasmanian: Palawa) are the indigenous people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland.
The Aboriginal Tent Embassy is a semi-permanent assemblage where residing activists claim to represent the political rights of Aboriginal Australians.
Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism.
In the years following British settlement in Australia, aboriginal trackers or black trackers, as they became known, were enlisted by settlers to assist them in navigating their way through the Australian landscape.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Adam Graham Giles (born 10 April 1973) is an Australian former politician and former Chief Minister of the Northern Territory (2013-2016) as well as the former leader of the Country Liberal Party (CLP) in the unicameral Northern Territory Parliament.
Adam Roy Goodes (born 8 January 1980) is a former professional Australian rules footballer who played for the Sydney Swans team in the Australian Football League (AFL).
Aden Derek Ridgeway (born 18 September 1962), Australian politician, was a member of the Australian Senate for New South Wales, from 1999 to 2005, representing the Australian Democrats.
In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.
Albert Namatjira (28 July 1902 – 8 August 1959), born Elea Namatjira, was a Western Arrernte-speaking Aboriginal artist from the MacDonnell Ranges in Central Australia.
Alexis Wright (born 25 November 1950) is an Indigenous Australian writer best known for winning the Miles Franklin Award for her 2006 novel CarpentariaAAP via News Limited, 22 June 2007.
Alison Nampitjinpa Anderson (born 1958) is an Australian politician.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Anangu is the name used by members of several central Australian Aboriginal groups, roughly approximate to the Western Desert cultural bloc, to describe themselves.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Andrew Bolt (born 26 September 1959) is an Australian conservative social and political commentator.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Dr Anita Heiss (born 1968 in Sydney) is an Australian author, presenter and commentator.
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia.
The Arrernte people, sometimes referred to as the Aranda, Arunta, or Arrarnta are an Aboriginal Australian people who live in the Arrernte lands, at Mparntwe (Alice Springs) and surrounding areas of the Central Australia region of the Northern Territory. Some Aranda live in other areas far from their homeland, including the major Australian cities and overseas. Aranda mythology and spirituality focuses on the landscape and the Dreamtime. Altjira is the creator being of the Inapertwa that became all living creatures. Tjurunga are objects of religious significance. The Arrernte Council is the representative and administrative body for the Aranda Lands and is part of the Central Land Council. Tourism is important to the economy of Alice Springs and surrounding communities.
The Art Gallery of Ballarat is the oldest and largest regional art gallery in Australia.
Arthur Henry "Artie" Beetson OAM (21 January 1945 – 1 December 2011 article at dailytelegraph.com.au) was an Australian rugby league footballer and coach.
The Atherton Tableland is a fertile plateau which is part of the Great Dividing Range in Queensland, Australia.
AustLit: The Australian Literature Resource is an internet-based collaboration between researchers and librarians from Australian universities designed to comprehensively record the history of Australian literary and story making cultures.
The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) is an institution operated jointly by the Faculties of Law of the University of Technology Sydney and the University of New South Wales.
The Australian national rugby league team (or the Kangaroos) have represented Australia in senior men's rugby league football competition since the establishment of the 'Northern Union game' in Australia in 1908.
The Australia national rugby union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, is controlled by Rugby Australia.
In 1868, a cricket team composed of Aboriginal Australians toured England between May and October of that year, thus becoming the first organised group of Australian sportspeople to travel overseas.
Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) refers to a dialect of Australian English used by a large section of the Indigenous Australian population.
The Australian Aboriginal Flag is a flag that represents Aboriginal Australians.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology (also known as Dreamtime or Dreaming stories, songlines, or Aboriginal oral literature) are the stories traditionally performed by Aboriginal peoples within each of the language groups across Australia.
Aboriginal Australians believe that The Dreaming, cultural values, spiritual beliefs and kin-based relationships of the local people cause some areas or places to be sacred.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 24 November 2007.
A federal election was held on Saturday, 21 August 2010 for members of the 43rd Parliament of Australia.
The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period.
The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football in Australia and features only Australian teams.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet is an internet resource that collects, collates and interprets evidence-derived knowledge on Australian Indigenous health.
The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority.
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is Australia's national agency for information and statistics on Australia’s health and welfare.
Kriol is an English-based creole language that developed from a pidgin used initially in the region of Sydney and Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia in the early days of European colonisation. Later, it moved west and north. The pidgin died out in most parts of the country, except in the Northern Territory, where the contact between European settlers, Chinese and other Asians and the Indigenous Australians in the northern regions has maintained a vibrant use of the language, spoken by about 30,000 people. Despite its similarities to English in vocabulary, it has a distinct syntactic structure and grammar and is a language in its own right.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
Australian megafauna comprises a number of large animal species in Australia, often defined as species with body mass estimates of greater than or equal to or greater than 130% of the body mass of their closest living relatives.
The Australian of the Year is an award conferred on an Australian citizen by the National Australia Day Council, a not-for-profit Australian Governmentowned social enterprise.
This article refers to the works of poets and novelists and specialised writers (missionaries, anthropologists, historians etc.) who have written about the Australian outback from first-hand experience.
The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians.
The Australian republic referendum held on 6 November 1999 was a two-question referendum to amend the Constitution of Australia.
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field, often a modified cricket ground.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
Australoid (also Australasian, Australo-Melanesian, Veddoid,Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994),. R. P. Pathak, Education in the Emerging India (2007),.) is a broad racial classification introduced by Thomas Huxley in 1870 to refer to certain peoples indigenous to South and Southeast Asia and Oceania.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology Baiame (Baayami or Baayama or Byamee) was the Creator God and Sky Father in the dreaming of several language groups (e.g. Wonnarua, Kamilaroi, Eora, Darkinjung, and Wiradjuri), of Indigenous Australians of south-east Australia.
The banknotes of the Australian dollar were first issued by the Reserve Bank of Australia on 14 February 1966, when Australia adopted decimal currency.
Bark painting is an Australian Aboriginal art form, involving painting on the interior of a strip of tree bark.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Benjamin Sana Wyatt (born 1 April 1974) is an Australian politician who is the current Labor Party member for the seat of Victoria Park in the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia.
Woollarawarre Bennelong (c. 1764 – 3 January 1813) (also: "Baneelon") was a senior man of the Eora, an Aboriginal (Koori) people of the Port Jackson area, at the time of the first British settlement in Australia, in 1788.
Bess Nungarrayi Price (born October 1960) is an Aboriginal Australian activist and politician.
Blackfella (also blackfellah, black fella, or black fellah) is an informal term used in Australian English to refer to Indigenous Australians.
Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are those enacted in the United States and the former colonies to define qualification by ancestry as Native American, sometimes in relation to tribal membership.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
A boomerang is a thrown tool, typically constructed as a flat airfoil, that is designed to spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of its flight.
Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, south of the Sydney central business district.
Bradshaw rock paintings, Bradshaw rock art, Bradshaw figures or The Bradshaws, are terms used to describe one of the two major regional traditions of rock art found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.
Broome is a coastal, pearling and tourist town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, north of Perth.
The Charles Brownlow Trophy, better known as the Brownlow Medal (and informally as "Charlie"), is awarded to the "best and fairest" player in the Australian Football League (AFL) during the home-and-away season, as determined by votes cast by the officiating field umpires after each game.
Bryan Neathway Brown, AM (born 23 June 1947) is an Australian actor.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Bunjil is a creator deity, culture hero and ancestral being, often depicted as a wedge-tailed eagle (or eaglehawk).
Bushrangers were originally escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who had the survival skills necessary to use the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland, Australia.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carol Anne Martin (born 13 October 1957) is a former Australian politician who served as a Labor Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia between 2001 and 2013, representing the seat of Kimberley.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Catherine Astrid Salome "Cathy" Freeman, (born 16 February 1973) is an Australian former sprinter, who specialised in the 400 metres event.
In Australia, a cattle station is a large farm (station, the equivalent of an American ranch), whose main activity is the rearing of cattle; the owner of a cattle station is called a grazier.
The Cave of Altamira (Cueva de Altamira) located near the historic town Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, is renowned for its numerous parietal cave paintings featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands, created during the Upper Paleolithic.
Charles Lawrence (16 December 1828 – 20 December 1916) was a Surrey cricketer, represented England but is most notable as the captain-coach of the Aborigine cricket team that toured England in 1868, the first ever tour of England by an Australian team.
Charles Nelson Perkins, AO, commonly known as Charlie Perkins (16 June 1936 – 19 October 2000), was an Australian Aboriginal activist, soccer player and administrator.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
The Chief Minister of the Northern Territory is the head of government of the Northern Territory.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Christianity is the largest Australian religion according to the national census.
Christine Anu (born 15 March 1970) is an Australian pop singer and actress.
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
The Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which defined a uniform national criteria of who was entitled to vote in Australian federal elections.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth Law Reports (CLR) are the authorised reports of decisions of the High Court of Australia.
Commonwealth v Tasmania (popularly known as the Tasmanian Dam Case) was a significant Australian court case, decided in the High Court of Australia on 1 July 1983.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
Coranderrk was a government reserve for Australian Aborigines in the state of Victoria between 1863 and 1924, located 50 km north-east of Melbourne.
Cosmos (styled COSMOS) is a science magazine produced in Australia with a global outlook and literary ambitions.
The Country Liberal Party (CLP), officially the Country Liberals (Northern Territory), is a conservative political party in Australia founded in 1974, which operates solely in the Northern Territory.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Customary law in Australia relates to the systems and practices amongst Aboriginal Australians which have developed over time from accepted moral norms in Aboriginal societies, and which regulate human behaviour, mandate specific sanctions for non-compliance, and connect people with the land and with each other, through a system of relationships.
The Darug are a group descending from an indigenous Australian people of that name, which shares strong ties of kinship and, in pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans scattered throughout much of what is modern-day Sydney.
David Gulpilil Ridjimiraril Dalaithngu AM (born 1 July 1953), is an Australian traditional dancer and actor.
David George Joseph Malouf (born 20 March 1934) is an Australian writer.
The Day of Mourning was a protest held by Aboriginal Australians on 26 January 1938, the 150th anniversary of British colonisation of Australia.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Dead Heart is a 1996 Australian film.
Deborah Jane Mailman, (born 14 July 1972) is an Australian television film actress, and singer.
The demography of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion.
The Denisovans or Denisova hominins) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
The didgeridoo (also known as a didjeridu) is a wind instrument developed by Indigenous Australians of northern Australia potentially within the last 1,500 years and still in widespread use today both in Australia and around the world.
The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology of the Bundjalung Nation, the Dirawong, an unseen spiritual creature also known as the goanna spirit, is one of the Creator Beings of the Bundjalung Nation, that 1) Protects 2) Guards, 3) Battled the Rainbow Snake, and 4) Helps the people with; 'Aboriginal astronomy, body designs, bullroarers, bush cosmetics, bush foods, bush medicines, cave paintings and designs cut into trees, ceremonial headgear, ceremonial poles, cultural lore, dances, dreaming's, games, geographical locations, how people are required to behave in their communities, initiations, laws of community, paintings, rock art, rock engravings, rules for social behaviour, sacred chants, sacred earth mounds, sacred ground paintings, songlines, songs, stone artifacts, stone objects, stories, structures of society, symbols, technologies, the ceremonies performed in order to ensure continuity of life and land, values, wooden articles, wooden sacred objects, and also the beliefs, values, rules and practices concerning the peoples relationship to the land and water of Widje tribal territory within Bundjalung country. The Dirawong is known as a benevolent protector of its people (in the Bundjalung Nation) from the Rainbow Snake (also known as the 'Snake' or 'Rainbow Serpent'). The Dirawong (goanna) is also associated with rain and there is a rain cave on Goanna Headland where the Elders of the Bundjalung Nation people went in the old days to organise ceremonies for rain.
The Djab wurrung, also Tjapwurrung, people are Indigenous Australians who occupy the volcanic plains of central Victoria from the Mount William Range of Gariwerd in the west to the Pyrenees range in the east encompassing the Wimmera River flowing north and the headwaters of the Hopkins River flowing south.
Donald Finlay Fergusson Thomson, OBE (26 June 1901 – 12 May 1970) was an Australian anthropologist and ornithologist who was largely responsible for turning the Caledon Bay crisis into a "decisive moment in the history of Aboriginal-European relations".
Sir Douglas Ralph Nicholls, (9 December 19064 June 1988) was a prominent Aboriginal Australian from the Yorta Yorta people.
Dreamtime (also dream time, dream-time) is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs.
Eddie Mabo (c. 29 June 1936 – 21 January 1992) was an Indigenous Australian man from the Torres Strait Islands known for his role in campaigning for Indigenous land rights and for his role in a landmark decision of the High Court of Australia which overturned the legal doctrine of terra nullius ("nobody's land") which characterised Australian law with regard to land and title.
Elizabeth Durack Clancy CMG, OBE (6 July 1915 – 25 May 2000) was a Western Australian artist and writer.
Enindhilyagwa (also Anindilyakwa and several other names; see below) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by the Warnindhilyagwa people on Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Ernest Francis Bridge, AM (15 December 193631 March 2013) was an Australian parliamentarian and country music singer.
Ernest Ashley Dingo AM (born 31 July 1956) as Ernie Dingo, is an Indigenous Australian actor, television presenter, comedian, teacher and promoter originating from the Yamatji people of the Murchison region of Western Australia.
Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley, (born 31 July 1951) is an Australian former world No.
Fanny Cochrane Smith (December 1834 – 24 February 1905) was an Aboriginal Tasmanian, born in December 1834.
First Australians is an Australian historical documentary series produced by Blackfella Films over the course of six years, and first aired in October 2008.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.
The Flying Boomerangs are the underage Indigenous Australian Australian rules football team.
Frederic Alan Schepisi, AO (Kael, Pauline (1984). Taking It All In. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 55. born 26 December 1939) is an Australian film director, producer and screenwriter.
The Freedom Ride of 1965 was a significant event in the history of civil rights for Indigenous Australians.
"From Little Things Big Things Grow" is a protest song recorded by Australian artists Paul Kelly & The Messengers on their 1991 album Comedy, and by Kev Carmody (with Kelly) on his 1993 album Bloodlines.
Gary Edward Foley (born 11 May 1950) is an Australian Aboriginal Gumbainggir activist, academic, writer and actor (he eschews Australian nationality).
Gary Sweet is an Australian film and television actor known for his roles in Alexandra's Project (as Steve), Police Rescue (as Sergeant "Mickey" McClintock), Cody (as Cody), Big Sky (as Chris Manning), Bodyline (as Donald Bradman), Stingers (as DI Luke Harris) and House Husbands (as Lewis Crabb).
Gavin Adrian Wanganeen (born 18 June 1973) is a former Australian rules footballer who played for in the Australian Football League (AFL) and Port Adelaide in both the AFL and the South Australian National Football League (SANFL).
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu (22 January 1971 – 25 July 2017), also referred to since his death as Dr G Yunupingu, was an Indigenous Australian musician.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
The Gibson Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a large desert that covers a large dry area in the state of Western Australia and is still largely in an almost "pristine" state.
The Gillard Government was the Government of Australia led by the 27th Prime Minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, of the Australian Labor Party.
Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, Australia, located in the south-eastern part of that state.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Gorden James Tallis (born 27 July 1973) is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer of the 1990s and 2000s.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Graham Vivian "Polly" Farmer, MBE (born 10 March 1935) is a retired Australian rules football player and coach.
Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria and the fourth largest island in Australia.
The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by northern Australia and bounded on the north by the Arafura Sea (the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea).
The Gunai or Kurnai, often now referred to as the Gunaikurnai, is an Indigenous Australian nation of south-east Australia whose territory occupies most of present-day Gippsland and much of the southern slopes of the Victorian Alps.
Haplogroup C-B477 also known as Haplogroup C1b2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup K2, also known as K-M526 and formerly known as K(xLT) and MNOPS, is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup.
Haplogroup K2b1, known sometimes as haplogroup MS, is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by SNPs P397 and P399.
Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup M, also known as M-P256 and Haplogroup K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup S also known as S-B254 is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by the SNPs B254 and Z33355.
Harold Edward Holt, (5 August 190817 December 1967), was an Australian politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1966 until his presumed drowning death in 1967.
Henry Reynolds (born 1 March 1938) is an eminent Australian historian whose primary work has focused on the frontier conflict between European settlers in Australia and indigenous Australians.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55–65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae.
The Hermannsburg School is an art movement, or art style, which began at the Hermannsburg Mission in the 1930s.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
The history of anthropometry includes the use of anthropometry as an early tool of physical anthropology, use for identification, use for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology, and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits.
The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
A humpy (or gunyah) is a small, temporary shelter, traditionally used by Australian Aboriginals, with a standing tree usually used as the main support.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Ian Potter Centre: NGV Australia is an art gallery that houses the Australian part of the art collection of the National Gallery of Victoria (NGV).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indigenous Australian rugby league team (also known as the Indigenous All Stars or Indigenous Dreamtime team) is a rugby league football team that represents Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.
The Indigenous All-Stars (known as for sponsorship reasons Qantas Kickstart Indigenous All-Stars and formerly known as the Aboriginal All-Stars) is an Australian rules football team composed purely of Indigenous Australians.
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
An Indigenous Protected Area is a class of protected area used in Australia formed by agreement with Indigenous Australians, declared by Indigenous Australians, and formally recognised by the Australian Government as being part of its National Reserve System.
Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples.
The Indigenous Team of the Century (Australian rules football) was selected to recognise the role of Indigenous Australians in the sport.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Jack Davis (11 March 1917 – 17 March 2000) was a notable Australian 20th-century playwright and poet, and an Indigenous rights campaigner.
Jacquiline Louise Lambie (born 26 February 1971) is an Australian politician who is the leader and founder of the Jacqui Lambie Network (JLN).
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
The Jardwadjali (also known as the Jaadwa) are Indigenous Australians of the State of Victoria, whose traditional lands occupy the lands in the upper Wimmera River watershed east to Gariwerd (Grampians) and west to Lake Bringalbert.
Jarijari were an indigenous Australian people whose traditional territory was located in the Mallee region of Victoria.
Jean Aileen Little OAM, née Ling (also known as Jean Jans from her first marriage) is an Australian Aboriginal leader and community advocate from Mapoon in the Far North Queensland.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jedda (released in the UK as Jedda the Uncivilized) is a 1955 Australian film written, produced and directed by Charles Chauvel.
Jennifer Louise Macklin (born 29 December 1953) is an Australian politician who has been a member of the House of Representatives since 1996, representing the Division of Jagajaga for the Labor Party.
Jessica Hilda Mauboy (born 4 August 1989) is an Australian R&B and pop singer, songwriter and actress.
John Winston Howard, (born 26 July 1939) is a former Australian politician who served as the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1996 to 2007.
Johnny Mullagh (born Unaarrimin; 13 August 1841 – 14 August 1891) was a leading Victorian cricketer who led the famous 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England.
Judith Arundell Wright (31 May 191525 June 2000) was an Australian poet, environmentalist and campaigner for Aboriginal land rights.
Kakadu National Park is a protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km southeast of Darwin.
Kalkarindji (formerly Wave Hill, also spelt Kalkiringi) is a small township in Northern Territory of Australia, located on the Buntine Highway.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Keith Windschuttle (born 1942) is an Australian writer, historian, and former ABC board member.
Kenneth George Wyatt (born 4 August 1952) is a member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the electoral division of Hasluck in Western Australia for the Liberal Party of Australia.
Kevin Gilbert (10 July 1933 – 1 April 1993) was a 20th-century Indigenous Australian author, activist, artist, poet, playwright and printmaker.
Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957) is a former Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from December 2007 to June 2010 and again from June to September 2013.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kim Scott (born 18 February 1957) is an Australian novelist of Indigenous Australian ancestry.
The Kimberley is the northernmost of the nine regions of Western Australia.
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria.
The Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is a protected national park that is located in New South Wales, Australia.
The Lake Mungo remains are three prominent sets of Aboriginal Australian human remains: Lake Mungo 1 (also called Mungo Woman, LM1, and ANU-618), Lake Mungo 3 (also called Mungo Man, Lake Mungo III, and LM3), and Lake Mungo 2 (LM2).
Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Laurie William Daley AM (born 20 October 1969) is an Australian professional rugby league football coach and a former player.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP).
Linda Jean Burney (born 25 April 1957) is an Australian politician, who was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly representing Canterbury for the Australian Labor Party from 2003 to 2016, when she resigned to contest the federal seat of Barton.
A genetic lineage is a series of mutations which connect an ancestral genetic type (allele, haplotype, or haplogroup) to derivative type.
Lionel Edmund Rose MBE (21 June 1948 – 8 May 2011) was an Australian bantamweight boxer, the first Indigenous Australian to win a world title.
This is a list of flags of different designs that have been used in Australia.
Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands.
Below is a list of names and collective designations which have been applied, either currently or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians.
This is a list of Indigenous Australians who have been members of Australian legislaturesfederal, state or territory.
This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people.
A range of laws applying to or of specific relevance to Indigenous Australians.
Groups of Aboriginals were killed on occasions in retaliation between the start of the British colonisation of Australia in 1788 up to the 1920s.
Little Children are Sacred is the report of a Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse.
The Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages is a digital archive of endangered literature in over forty Australian Indigenous languages from the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Lumad are a group of non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines.
Luminescence dating refers to a group of methods of determining how long ago mineral grains were last exposed to sunlight or sufficient heating.
The Luritja dialect is the dialect of the Luritja people and an Indigenous Australian Western Desert Language.
Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo).
Madjedbebe or Malakunanja II is a rock shelter in Arnhem Land, in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Magabala Books is an Indigenous publishing house based in Broome, Western Australia.
Makassan trepangers from the southwest corner of Sulawesi, Indonesia began visiting the coast of northern Australia sometime around the middle of the 1700s, first in the Kimberley region, and some decades later in Arnhem Land, to collect and process trepang (also known as sea cucumber), a marine invertebrate sea cucumber prized for its culinary value generally and for its medicinal properties in Chinese markets.
Makassar (Buginese-Makassar language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ) – sometimes spelled Macassar – is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Malarndirri Barbara Anne McCarthy (born 19 April 1970) is an Australian politician and former journalist who has been a Senator for the Northern Territory since 2016.
The Mallee is an ill-defined district, sometimes incorrectly referred to as an economic region, of the Australian state of Victoria.
Marcia Lynne Langton AM (born 31 October 1951, Brisbane, Australia) holds the Foundation Chair in Australian Indigenous Studies at the University of Melbourne in the Faculty of Medicine.
Margaret Rose Preston (29 April 1875 – 28 May 1963) was an Australian painter and printmaker who is regarded as one of Australia's leading modernists of the early 20th century.
Marion Rose Scrymgour (born 13 September 1960) is a former Australian politician.
Mark Gordon Ella, AM (born 5 June 1959) is an Australian former rugby union player, often considered as one of his country's all-time greats in that sport.
Marn Grook or marngrook, from the Gunditjmara language for "game ball", is a collective name given to a number of traditional Indigenous Australian recreational pastimes believed to have been played at gatherings and celebrations of up to fifty players.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Melaleuca is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, commonly known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees (although the last name is also applied to species of Leptospermum).
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
A message stick is a form of communication traditionally used by Indigenous Australians.
Michael James "Mick" Dodson (born 10 April 1950, in Katherine, Northern Territory) is an Aboriginal Australian barrister, academic, and member of the Yawuru peoples in the Broome area of the southern Kimberley region of Western Australia.
Milirrpum v Nabalco Pty LtdMilirrpum v Nabalco Pty Ltd (1971) 17 FLR 141 (27 April 1971) Supreme Court (NT).
The Millewa is a region of north western Victoria in Australia.
A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia.
The Motion of Reconciliation was a motion to the Australian Parliament introduced on 26 August 1999.
The Murrawarri Republic is a micronation that declared its independence from Australia in 2013, claiming territory straddling the border of the states of New South Wales-Queensland within Australia.
Murray Island, also called Mer in the native Meriam language, is a small island of volcanic origin, the most easterly inhabited island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago, just north of the Great Barrier Reef.
The Murray River (or River MurrayIn South Australia, the rendition "River Murray" is the most common, as is "River Darling" and "River Torrens".) (Ngarrindjeri: Millewa, Yorta Yorta: Tongala) is Australia's longest river, at in length.
The Murri are the Indigenous Australians of modern-day Queensland and north-west New South Wales.
The Qld Murri Carnival (QAIHC Arthur Beetson Foundation Murri Rugby League Carnival) is an annual four-day rugby league carnival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Queensland rugby league teams.
The Murri Rugby League Team is a representative side for Indigenous rugby league players that play in the annual Queensland Murri Rugby League Carnival.
Murujuga, usually known as the Burrup Peninsula, is an island in the Dampier Archipelago, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, containing the town of Dampier.
Muruwari (also Muruwarri, Murawari, Murawarri) is an Australian Aboriginal language, an isolate within the Pama–Nyungan family.
My Place is an autobiography written by artist Sally Morgan in 1987.
NAIDOC (National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee) Week is an Australian observance lasting from the first Sunday in July until the following Sunday.
Nathan Leon Jawai (born 10 October 1986), an Indigenous Australian of Torres Strait Islander descent, is a professional basketball player for the Cairns Taipans of the National Basketball League (NBL).
The Australian National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (AEP) is an agreed national policy between the Government of Australia and each State and Territory government and is the foundation of education programs for all Indigenous Australians.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Gallery of Australia (originally the Australian National Gallery) is the national art museum of Australia as well as one of the largest art museums in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art.
The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
The National Museum of Australia preserves and interprets Australia's social history, exploring the key issues, people and events that have shaped the nation.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Fred Thomas Bonner AO (28 March 19225 February 1999) was an Australian politician, and the first Indigenous Australian to become a member of the Parliament of Australia.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
New Holland (Nieuw Holland; Nova Hollandia) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.
The Ngaanyatjarra, also known as the Nana, are an Indigenous Australian cultural group of Western Australia.
Ngarrindjeri (also Yaraldi, Yaralde Tingar) or Narrinyeri (also written Ngarinyeri) was the language of the Ngarrindjeri people of southern South Australia.
The Ngunawal are an indigenous Australian people of southern New South Wales.
Noel Pearson (born 25 June 1965) is an Aboriginal Australian lawyer, academic, land rights activist and founder of the Cape York Institute for Policy and Leadership, an organisation promoting the economic and social development of Cape York.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Noongar (also spelt Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, Yunga) are a constellation of peoples of Indigenous Australian descent who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast.
The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT).
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
The Northern Territory National Emergency Response (also referred to as "the intervention") was a package of changes to welfare provision, law enforcement, land tenure and other measures, introduced by the Australian federal government under John Howard in 2007 to address allegations of rampant child sexual abuse and neglect in Northern Territory Aboriginal communities.
The Northern Territory Special Reconnaissance Unit (NTSRU) was an irregular warfare unit of the Australian Army during World War II, composed mainly of Aboriginal people from the Northern Territory.
Nova Maree Peris (born 25 February 1971) is an indigenous Australian athlete and former politician.
NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout Carnival is one of the biggest Indigenous gatherings in Australia.
Nunga is a term of self-reference for many of the Aboriginal peoples of southern South Australia.
The Office of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, often known by its acronym OATSIH, is a division of the Australian Government's Department of Health and Ageing.
Old Parliament House, known formerly as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988.
The Olympic flame is a symbol used in the Olympic movement.
Oodgeroo Noonuccal (born Kathleen Jean Mary Ruska, formerly Kath Walker) (3 November 192016 September 1993) was an Australian poet, political activist, artist and educator.
Opal is a variety of low-aromatic 91 RON petrol developed in 2005 by BP Australia to combat the rising use of petrol as an inhalant in remote Indigenous Australian communities.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of indigenous Australian languages, containing perhaps 300 languages.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
Papuan people are the various indigenous peoples of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, speakers of the Papuan languages.
Papunya Tula, or Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, is an artist cooperative formed in 1972 that is owned and operated by Aboriginal people from the Western Desert of Australia.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria.
Patrick Lionel Djargun Dodson (born 29 January 1948) is a Senator for Western Australia.
Patrick Sammy "Patty" Mills (born 11 August 1988) is an Australian professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Pemulwuy (also rendered as Pimbloy, Pemulvoy, Pemulwoy, Pemulwye, or sometimes by contemporary Europeans as Bimblewove or Bumbleway) (c. 1750 – 2 June 1802) was an Aboriginal Australian man born around 1750 in the area of Botany Bay in New South Wales.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phillip Noyce (born 29 April 1950) is an Australian film director.
The Pintupi are an Australian Aboriginal group who are part of the Western Desert cultural group and whose homeland is in the area west of Lake MacDonald and Lake Mackay in Western Australia.
The Pintupi Nine were a group of nine Pintupi people who lived a traditional hunter-gatherer desert-dwelling life in Australia's Gibson Desert until 1984, when they made contact with their relatives near Kiwirrkurra.
The Pitjantjatjara are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert.
A population pyramid, also called an "age-sex pyramid", is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
Possum-skin cloaks were a form of clothing worn by Aboriginal people in the south-east of Australia – present-day Victoria and New South Wales.
The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the colonization of Australia in 1788, which marks the start of consistent documentation of Australia.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
The Proposed Australian constitutional referendum, 2013 refers to an Australian referendum which was planned, and then abandoned, in 2013.
Quadrant is an Australian literary and cultural journal.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Queensland Council of Unions (QCU) is a representative, peak body of Queensland trade union organisations, also known as a labour council, in the State of Queensland, Australia.
Rabbit-Proof Fence is a 2002 Australian drama film directed by Phillip Noyce based on the book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington Garimara.
The Rainbow Serpent or Rainbow Snake is a common deity (also known as Wagyl, Wuagyl, etc.) often seen as a creator god and a common motif in the art and religion of Aboriginal Australia.
Reconciliation Australia is a non-government, not-for-profit foundation established in January 2001 to promote a continuing national focus for reconciliation between indigenous Australians and Australians from a non-indigenous cultural background.
Reconciliation Place is an urban landscape design in the Parliamentary Triangle Canberra, Australia, commenced in 2001 as a monument to reconciliation between Australia’s Indigenous people and settler population.
Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
The Returned and Services League, Australia (RSL) is a support organisation for men and women who have served or are serving in the Defence Force.
Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
Riji are the pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia, around present day Broome.
The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales (NSW), Australia.
Robert (Bobby) Mellor Granites Jabanungga AKA Robert Kantilla, Robert Japanangka, Robert Japananga, Robert Jabanunga Kantilla (1946–1985) was a TV actor, Aboriginal dancer and musician best known for playing the didgeridoo at many Canberra festivals as well as national and international events.
Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (Gloucester, England, 25 January 1939) is a Professor of Linguistics in the College of Arts, Society, and Education and The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Queensland.
Robert Michael Manne (born 31 October 1947) is an Emeritus Professor of politics and Vice-Chancellor's Fellow at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Rolf de Heer (born 4 May 1951) is a Dutch Australian film director.
The Royal Society of Tasmania (RST) was formed in 1843.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Sally Jane Morgan (born 18 January 1951) is an Australian Aboriginal author, dramatist, and artist.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Section 127 of the Australian Constitution was the final section within Chapter VII (dealing with miscellaneous matters), and mandated the exclusion of Aboriginal Australians from population counts conducted for electoral purposes.
Section 25 of the Constitution of Australia is a provision of the Constitution of Australia headed ‘Provision as to races disqualified from voting’ and providing that ‘For the purposes of the last section, if by the law of any State all persons of any race are disqualified from voting at elections for the more numerous House of the Parliament of the State, then, in reckoning the number of the people of the State or of the Commonwealth, persons of that race resident in that State shall not be counted.’.
Section 51(xxvi) of the Australian Constitution,(xxvi).
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Shadow Cabinet of Australia (also known in the Coalition as the Opposition Front Bench) is a group of senior Opposition spokespeople who are regarded as the alternative Cabinet to the Cabinet of Australia, whose members shadow or mark each individual Minister or portfolio of the Government.
A sheep station is a large property (station, the equivalent of a ranch) in Australia or New Zealand whose main activity is the raising of sheep for their wool and meat.
Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The 2018 South Australian state election to elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia was held on 17 March 2018.
South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Selatan) is a province in the southern peninsula of Sulawesi.
The Sovereign Yidindji Government or Yidindji Tribal Nation is an indigenous Australian micronation that is part of the Australian Aboriginal Sovereignty.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
In Australia a stockman (plural stockmen) is a person who looks after the livestock on a large property known as a station, which is owned by a grazier or a grazing company.
The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A stringybark can be any of the many Eucalyptus species which have thick, fibrous bark.
The Stronger Futures policy is a multifaceted social policy of the Australian government concerning the aboriginal population of the Northern Territory.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age.
Sydney rock engravings, or Sydney rock art, are a form of Australian Aboriginal rock art in the sandstone around Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that consist of carefully drawn images of people, animals, or symbols.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tara June Winch (born 1983) is an Australian writer of Aboriginal and European descent.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Terra nullius (plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith is a 1972 Booker Prize-nominated novel by Thomas Keneally, and a 1978 Australian film of the same name directed by Fred Schepisi.
The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith is a 1978 Australian drama film directed, written and produced by Fred Schepisi, and starring Tom E. Lewis (billed at the time as Tommy Lewis), Freddy Reynolds and Ray Barrett.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Other Side of the Frontier: Aboriginal Resistance to the European invasion of Australia is a history book published in 1981 by Australian historian Henry Reynolds.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Tracker is an 2002 Australian drama film directed and written by Rolf de Heer.
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
Thomas Michael Keneally, AO (born 7 October 1935) is a prolific Australian novelist, playwright, and essayist.
The Tiwi Islands are part of the Northern Territory, Australia, 80 km to the north of Darwin where the Arafura Sea joins the Timor Sea.
The Tiwi people, properly Tunuvivi, are one of the many Indigenous groups of Australia.
Thomas Wentworth Wills (19 August 1835 – 2 May 1880) was a sportsman who is credited with being Australia's first cricketer of significance and a founder of Australian football.
The Top End of Australia's Northern Territory is a geographical region encompassing the northernmost section of the Northern Territory, which aside from the Cape York Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Australian continent.
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.
Torres Strait Creole (also Torres Strait Pidgin, Yumplatok, Torres Strait Brokan/Broken, Cape York Creole, Lockhart Creole, Papuan Pidgin English, Broken English, Brokan/Broken, Blaikman, Big Thap) is an English-based creole language spoken on several Torres Strait Islands (Queensland, Australia), Northern Cape York and South-Western Coastal Papua.
The Torres Strait Islander Flag is an official flag of Australia, and is the flag that represents Torres Strait Islander people.
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.
The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea.
The Torres Strait Light Infantry Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army during the Second World War.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
Truganini (c. 1812 – 8 May 1876) was an Aboriginal Tasmanian (Palawa).
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
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Uluru (Pitjantjatjara), also known as Ayers Rock and officially gazetted as "UluruAyers Rock", is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia.
Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.
Australia is one of the most urbanised nations, with 90 per cent of the population living in just 0.22 per cent of the country’s land area and 85 per cent living within 50 kilometres of the coast.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Victorian Aborigines, the indigenous Australians of Victoria, Australia, occupied the land for tens of thousands of years prior to European settlement.
Vincent Lingiari AM (13 June 1908 – 21 January 1988), was an Aboriginal rights activist and was a member of the Gurindji people.
Walkabout is a 1971 British-Australian survival drama film set in the Australian outback, directed by Nicolas Roeg, and starring Jenny Agutter, Luc Roeg, and David Gulpilil.
Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer (23 June 1860 – 14 July 1929), commonly referred to as W. Baldwin Spencer or Baldwin Spencer, was an English-Australian biologist and anthropologist.
Wangkatha, otherwise written Wongatha, Wongi or Wangai, is a language and the identity of eight tribal groups of the Goldfields Eastern Goldfields region region of Western Australia Western Australia.
The Warlpiri are a group of Indigenous Australians, many of whom speak the Warlpiri language.
Nyunggai Warren Stephen Mundine (born 11 August 1956 in Grafton, New South Wales) is an Australian Aboriginal leader and the former National President of the Australian Labor Party (ALP).
Watkin Tench (6 October 1758 – 7 May 1833) was a British marine officer who is best known for publishing two books describing his experiences in the First Fleet, which established the first settlement in Australia in 1788.
Wave Hill walk-off or The Gurindji strike was a walk-off and strike by 200 Gurindji stockmen, house servants and their families in August 1966 at Wave Hill cattle station in Kalkarindji (formerly known as Wave Hill), Northern Territory.
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.
Welcome to Country and Acknowledgement of Country are protocols sometimes used in Australia at the opening of meetings, launches, special events and official functions.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Australian Legislative Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Western Australia, an Australian state.
The Western Desert cultural bloc or just Western Desert is a cultural region in central Australia covering about, including the Gibson Desert, the Great Victoria Desert, the Great Sandy and Little Sandy Deserts in the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia.
William Barak (or Beruk) (c. 1824 – 15 August 1903), was the last traditional ngurungaeta (elder) of the Wurundjeri-willam clan, first inhabitants of present-day Melbourne, Australia.
William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651; died March 1715) was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
Wiltjas are shelters made by the Pitjantjatjara people and other Indigenous Australian groups such as yankunytjatjara people/groups.
The Wimmera is a region of the Australian state of Victoria.
Windradyne (1800 – 1 March 1829) was an Aboriginal warrior and resistance leader of the Wiradjuri nation, in what is now central-western New South Wales, Australia; he was also known to the British settlers as Saturday.
A woomera is a wooden Australian Aboriginal spear-throwing device.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wurundjeri are a people of the Indigenous Australian nation of the Wurundjeri language group, in the Kulin alliance.
Yagan (c. 1795 – 11 July 1833) was an Indigenous Australian warrior from the Noongar people.
Yamatji (or Yamaji) is a Wajarri language word that has at least three different meanings.
Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language.
The Yarra Valley is the name given to the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia.
The Yirrkala bark petitions 1963 are historic Australian documents that were the first traditional documents prepared by Indigenous Australians that were recognised by the Australian Parliament, and are the first documentary recognition of Indigenous people in Australian law.
The Yolngu or Yolŋu are an aggregation of indigenous Australian people inhabiting north-eastern Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Yothu Yindi (Yolngu for "child and mother") were an Australian musical group with Aboriginal and balanda (non-Aboriginal) members, formed in 1986 as a merger of two bands formed in 1985 – a White rock group called the Swamp Jockeys and an unnamed Aboriginal folk group.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions.
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