402 relations: Adai language, Affix, Afroasiatic languages, Aguano language, Aikanã language, Ais people, Akokisa, Alagüilac language, Alaska, Algic languages, Algonquian–Basque pidgin, Algonquian–Wakashan languages, Alsea language, American Indian Pidgin English, Americas, Amerind languages, Andaqui language, Andoque language, Andoquero language, Apalachee language, Appalousa, Aranama language, Arawakan languages, Arawan languages, Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America, Arutani language, Arutani–Sape languages, Atakapa language, Avoyel, Aymara language, Aymara people, Aymaran languages, Aztec–Tanoan languages, Čestmír Loukotka, Baenan language, Barbacoan languages, Basque language, Basques, Bayogoula, Beothuk language, Bering Strait, Betoi language, Bible translations, Bidai, Bolivia, Bororoan languages, Brazil, Broken Slavey, Bungi Creole, Cacán language, ..., Caddoan languages, Cahuapanan languages, California, Calusa, Camsá language, Canberra, Candoshi-Shapra language, Canichana language, Carabayo language, Cariban languages, Catacaoan languages, Caucasus, Cayuse language, Cayuvava language, Central America, Chapacuran languages, Charruan languages, Chatot, Chibchan languages, Chimakuan languages, Chimane language, Chimariko language, Chimuan languages, Chinook Jargon, Chinookan languages, Chiquitano language, Chitimacha language, Choco languages, Chonan languages, Chono language, Christopher Columbus, Chumashan languages, Ciguayo language, Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Classification schemes for indigenous languages of the Americas, Coahuiltecan, Coahuilteco language, Code talker, Cofán language, Comecrudan languages, Coosan languages, Cotoname language, Cree language, Creole language, Cueva language, Cuitlatec language, Culle language, Cusabo, Dené–Caucasian languages, Dené–Yeniseian languages, Edward Sapir, Ejective consonant, El Güegüense, Eliot Indian Bible, Eskimo Trade Jargon, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Esmeralda language, Esmeralda–Yaruroan languages, Esselen language, Extinct language, Extinct languages of the Marañón River basin, Eyeish, Fulniô language, Gamela language, Germanic languages, Gorgotoqui language, Greenland, Guaicuruan languages, Guajiboan languages, Guale, Guamo language, Guanahatabey language, Guarani language, Guató language, Gulf languages, Haida Jargon, Haida language, Haida people, Haplogroup Q-M242, Harákmbut languages, Haush language, Head-marking language, Hibito–Cholon languages, Himarimã language, Hodï language, Hokan languages, Houma people, Huamoé language, Huarpean languages, Huave language, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Innu, Interior Plateau, Inuktitut-English Pidgin, Irantxe language, Iroquoian languages, Island Carib language, Isthmian script, Itonama language, Jê languages, Je–Tupi–Carib languages, Jeikó language, Jicaquean languages, Jirajaran languages, Jivaroan languages, John Eliot (missionary), Kaimbé language, Kalaallisut, Kalapuyan languages, Kallawaya language, Kamakã languages, Kanoê language, Karajá language, Karankawa language, Kariri languages, Karuk language, Katembri language, Katembri–Taruma languages, Katukinan languages, Kawésqar language, Keres language, Kickapoo people, Koeruna language, Koroa, Krenak languages, Kunza language, Kutenai language, Kwaza language, Labrador Inuit Pidgin French, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of Peru, Languages of the Caucasus, Língua Geral of São Paulo, Leco language, Lencan languages, List of endangered languages in Canada, List of endangered languages in Mexico, List of endangered languages in the United States, List of endangered languages with mobile apps, List of indigenous languages in Argentina, List of Ohlone villages, Lule language, Lule–Vilela languages, Lyle Campbell, Mabila, Macorix language, Macro-Andean languages, Macro-Chibchan languages, Macro-Jê languages, Macro-Jibaro languages, Macro-Mayan languages, Macro-Otomákoan languages, Macro-Paesan languages, Macro-Panoan languages, Macro-Puinavean languages, Macro-Siouan languages, Macro-Warpean languages, Maiduan languages, Maku-Auari language, Malibu languages, Mapuche language, Maratino language, Mascoian languages, Massachusett language, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Matacoan languages, Mataco–Guaicuru languages, Matanawi language, Maxakalían languages, Mayaca people, Mayaimi, Mayan languages, Media Lengua, Medny Aleut language, Mesoamerican languages, Mi'kmaq, Michif, Miskito language, Misumalpan languages, Mixe–Zoque languages, Mixed language, Mobilian Jargon, Mongolic languages, Mosan languages, Moseten–Chonan languages, Movima language, Munichi language, Mura language, Muscogee language, Muskogean languages, Na-Dene languages, Nadahup languages, Nahuatl, Nambikwaran languages, Naolan language, Natú language, Natchez language, Native American Languages Act of 1990, Navajo language, New Guinea, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nonuya language, Nootka Jargon, Nordic countries, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northwest Caucasian languages, Ofayé language, Ojibwe language, Okelousa, Old World, Omurano language, Oregon, Oregon Penutian languages, Oti language, Oto-Manguean languages, Otomákoan languages, Pacific Northwest, Paezan languages, Palaihnihan languages, Palta language, Pankararú language, Pano-Tacanan languages, Panzaleo language, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Pascagoula, Páez language, Peba–Yaguan languages, Pensacola people, Penutian languages, Peru, Pharyngeal consonant, Phonotactics, Piaroa–Saliban languages, Pidgin, Pidgin Delaware, Pijao language, Plains Indian Sign Language, Plateau Penutian languages, Polysynthetic language, Pomoan languages, Powhatan, Pre-Arawakan languages of the Greater Antilles, Puelche language, Puinave language, Puquina language, Purépecha language, Purian languages, Quechua people, Quechuan languages, Quechumaran languages, Quinigua language, Quinipissa, Rikbaktsa language, Roger Blench, Salinan language, Salishan languages, Saparo–Yawan languages, Sapé language, Sechura language, Sechura–Catacao languages, Seri language, Shastan languages, Sign language, Siouan languages, Siuslaw language, Solano language, Southeastern United States, Southern Quechua, Southwestern United States, Taensa language, Takelma language, Tanoan languages, Tarairiú language, Taruma language, Taushiro language, Tequesta, Tequiraca language, Tequiraca–Canichana languages, Tequistlatecan languages, Teushen language, Texas, Ticuna language, Ticuna–Yuri languages, Timote language, Timotean languages, Timucua language, Tiniguan languages, Tonkawa language, Totonacan languages, Totozoquean languages, Trumai language, Tsimshianic languages, Tucanoan languages, Tunica language, Tupi language, Tupian languages, Turkic languages, Tutelo language, Tuxá language, Unclassified language, UNESCO, Uralic languages, Urarina language, Uru–Chipaya languages, Utian languages, Uto-Aztecan languages, Vilela language, Vowel, Waikuri language, Wakashan languages, Wakoná language, Wamo–Chapakura languages, Waorani language, Wappo language, Warao language, Washington (state), Washo language, Wayuu language, West Greenlandic Pidgin, Willem Adelaar, Wintuan languages, Witotoan languages, Wiyot language, Writing system, Xincan languages, Xocó language, Xukuru language, Yabutian languages, Yaghan language, Yamacraw, Yamasee, Yana language, Yanomaman languages, Yaruro language, Yazoo people, Yok-Utian languages, Yokutsan languages, Yuchi language, Yuki language, Yuki–Wappo languages, Yuman–Cochimí languages, Yuracaré language, Yuri language (Amazon), Yurok language, Yurumanguí language, Zamucoan languages, Zaparoan languages, Zuni language. 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Adai (also Adaizan, Adaizi, Adaise, Adahi, Adaes, Adees, Atayos) is an extinct Native American language that was spoken in northwestern Louisiana.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Aguano is a possible extinct language of Peru.
Aikanã (sometimes called Tubarão, Corumbiara/Kolumbiara, or Huari/Uari/Wari) is an endangered language isolate spoken by about 200 Aikanã people in Rondônia, Brazil.
The Ais or Ays were a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
The Akokisa were the indigenous tribe that lived on Galveston Bay and the lower Trinity and San Jacinto rivers in Texas, primarily in the present-day Greater Houston area.
Alagüilac is an undocumented indigenous American language that is thought to have been spoken by the Alaguilac people of Guatemala at the time of the Spanish conquest.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Algic (also Algonquian–Wiyot–Yurok or Algonquian–Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America.
The Algonquian–Basque pidgin was a pidgin spoken by the Basque whalers and various Algonquian peoples.
Algonquian–Wakashan (also Almosan, Algonkian–Mosan, Algonkin–Wakashan) is a hypothetical language family composed of several established language families that was proposed in 1929.
Alsea or Alsean (also Yakonan) was two closely related speech varieties spoken along the central Oregon coast.
American Indian Pidgin English (AIPE) is an English-based pidgin spoken by Native Americans in the United States.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.
Andaqui (or Andaki) is an extinct language from the southern highlands of Colombia.
The Andoque language is an aboriginal language spoken by a few hundred Andoque in Colombia, and is in decline.
Andoquero (Miranya, Miraña-Carapana-tapuyo) is an extinct Witotoan language of Colombia.
Apalachee was a Muskogean language of Florida.
The Appalousa (also Opelousa) were an indigenous American people who occupied the area around present-day Opelousas, Louisiana, west of the lower Mississippi River, before European contact in the 18th century.
Aranama (Araname), also known as Tamique, is an extinct unclassified language of Texas, USA.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
Arawan (also Arahuan, Arauan, Arawán, Arawa, Arauán) is a family of languages spoken in western Brazil (Amazonas, Acre) and Peru (Ucayali).
The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America (AILLA) is a digital repository housed in LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections at the University of Texas at Austin.
Arutani (Orotani, Urutani, also known as Awake, Auake, Auaqué, Aoaqui, Oewaku, ethnonym Uruak) is a nearly extinct language spoken by only 17 individuals in Roraima, Brazil and two others in the Karum River area of Bolivar State, Venezuela.
The Arutani–Sape, also known as Awake–Kaliana or Kalianan, are a proposed language family that includes two of the most poorly documented languages in South America, both of which are nearly extinct.
Atakapa (natively Ishak-koi) is an extinct language isolate native to southwestern Louisiana and nearby coastal eastern Texas.
The Avoyel or Avoyelles were a small Native American tribe who at the time of European contact inhabited land near the mouth of the Red River at its confluence with the Atchafalaya River near present-day Marksville, Louisiana.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan.
Aztec–Tanoan is a hypothetical and undemonstrated language family that proposes a genealogical relation between the Tanoan and the Uto-Aztecan families.
Čestmír Loukotka (&ndash) was a Czechoslovak linguist.
Baenan (Baenã, Baenán, Baena) is a poorly attested language of Brazil.
Barbacoan (also Barbakóan, Barbacoano, Barbacoana) is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Bayogoula were a Native American tribe from what is now called Mississippi and Louisiana in the southern United States.
The Beothuk language, also called Beothukan, was spoken by the indigenous Beothuk people of Newfoundland.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Betoi (Betoy) or Betoi-Jirara is an extinct language of Venezuela, south of the Apure River near the modern border with Colombia.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The Bidai were a tribe of Atakapa Indians from eastern Texas.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The Borôroan languages of Brazil are Borôro and the extinct Umotína and Otuke.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Broken Slavey (also Broken Slavé, Broken Slave, Slavey Jargon, Broken Slavee, and le Jargon esclave) was a trade language used between Native Americans and whites in the Yukon area (for example, in around Liard River and in the Mackenzie River district) in the 19th century.
Cacán (also Cacan, Kakán, Calchaquí, Chaka, Diaguita, and Kaka) is an extinct language that was spoken by the Diaguita and Calchaquí tribes in northern Argentina and Chile.
The Caddoan languages are a family of languages native to the Great Plains.
The Cahuapanan languages include two languages, Chayahuita and Jebero.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Calusa were a Native American people of Florida's southwest coast.
Camsá (Kamsá, Kamse), also Mocoa, Sibundoy, Coche, or Kamemtxa / Camëntsëá, is a language isolate of Colombia.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
Candoshi-Shapra (also known as Candoshi, Candoxi, Kandoshi, and Murato) is an indigenous American language isolate, spoken by several thousand people in western South America along the Chapuli, Huitoyacu, Pastaza, and Morona river valleys.
Canichana, or Canesi, is a possible language isolate of Bolivia (department Beni).
The Carabayo (Caraballo) language is spoken by the Carabayo people, also known as Yuri and Aroje, an uncontacted Amazonian people of Colombia living in at least three long houses, one of several suspected uncontacted peoples living along the Rio Puré (now the Río Puré National Park) in the southeastern corner of the country.
The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America.
The Catacaoan languages are an extinct family of three languages spoken in the Piura Region of Peru.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Cayuse language (Cailloux, Willetpoos) is an extinct unclassified language formerly spoken by the Cayuse Native American tribe in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Cayuvava (Cayubaba, Cayuwaba, Kayuvava) is a nearly extinct language of Bolivia, in the region of Beni, west of Mamore River, north of Santa Ana del Yacuma.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Chapacuran languages are a nearly extinct Native American language family of South America.
The Charruan languages are an extinct group of languages once spoken in Uruguay and the Argentine province of Entre Ríos.
The Chatot (also Chacato or Chactoo) were a Native American tribe who lived in the upper Apalachicola River and Chipola River basins in what is now Florida.
The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
The Chimakuan language family consists of one extinct and one severely endangered language spoken in northwestern Washington state, United States, on the Olympic Peninsula.
Chimané (Tsimané) is a South American language isolate.
Chimariko is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in northern Trinity County, California, by the inhabitants of several independent communities.
Chimuan (also Chimúan) or Yuncan is a hypothetical small extinct language family of northern Peru and Ecuador (inter-Andean valley).
Chinook Jargon (also known as chinuk wawa, or chinook wawa) is a revived American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska and Yukon Territory, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.
The Chinookan languages were a small family of languages spoken in Oregon and Washington along the Columbia River by Chinook peoples.
Chiquitano (also Bésiro or Tarapecosi) is an indigenous language isolate of eastern Bolivia, spoken in the central region of the Santa Cruz province.
Chitimacha is a language isolate historically spoken by the Chitimacha people of Louisiana, United States.
The Choco languages (also Chocoan, Chocó, Chokó) are a small family of Native American languages spread across Colombia and Panama.
The Chonan languages were a family of indigenous American languages spoken in Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia.
Chono is a poorly attested extinct language of confusing classification.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Chumashan (meaning "Santa Cruz Islander") is a family of languages that were spoken on the southern California coast by Native American Chumash people, from the Coastal plains and valleys of San Luis Obispo to Malibu, neighboring inland and Transverse Ranges valleys and canyons east to bordering the San Joaquin Valley, to three adjacent Channel Islands: San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz.
Ciguayo (Siwayo) was the language of the Samaná Peninsula of Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic) at the time of the Spanish Conquest.
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.
This article is a list of different language classification proposals developed for indigenous languages of the Americas.
The Coahuiltecan were various small, autonomous bands of Native Americans who inhabited the Rio Grande valley in what is now southern Texas and northeastern Mexico.
Coahuilteco was a language isolate that was spoken in southern Texas (United States) and northeastern Coahuila (Mexico).
Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.
The Cofán language (also Kofan or Kofane; autonym: A'ingae) is the language of the Cofán people, an indigenous group native to the province Sucumbíos in northeast Ecuador and southern Colombia.
Comecrudan refers to a group of possibly related languages spoken in the southernmost part of Texas and in northern Mexico along the Rio Grande.
The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast.
Cotoname is an extinct language isolate spoken by Native Americans indigenous to the lower Rio Grande Valley of northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas (United States).
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cueva is a poorly attested and often misclassified extinct indigenous language of Panama.
Cuitlatec, or Cuitlateco, is an extinct language of Mexico, formerly spoken by an indigenous people known as Cuitlatec.
Culle (Cullí, Kulyi), also known as Ilinga (Linga), is a poorly attested extinct language of northern Peru.
The Cusabo or Corsaboy were a group of historic Native American tribes who lived along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in what is now South Carolina, approximately between present-day Charleston and south to the Savannah River, at the time of European encounter.
Dené–Caucasian is a proposed broad language family that includes the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Na-Dené, Yeniseian, Vasconic (including Basque), and Burushaski language families.
Dené–Yeniseian is a proposed language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
El Güegüense (also known as Macho Ratón) is a satirical drama and was the first literary work of post-Columbian Nicaragua.
The Eliot Indian Bible (officially: Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God, a.k.a.: Algonquian Bible) was the first Bible published in British North America.
Eskimo Trade Jargon was an Inuit pidgin used by the Mackenzie River Inuit as a trade language with the Athabaskan peoples to their south, such as the Gwich'in (Loucheux).
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
Esmeralda, or Esmeraldeño (also called Takame or Atacame), is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in the coastal region of Ecuador.
Esmeralda–Yaruro or Takame–Jarúroan, is a proposed connection between two unclassified languages of Venezuela, Yaruro (Llaruro, Pumé, Yuapín), 6000 speakers, and the extinct Esmeralda (Esmeraldeño, Takame).
Esselen was the language of the tiny Esselen (or self-designated Huelel) Nation, which aboriginally occupied the mountainous Central Coast of California, immediately south of Monterey (Shaul 1995).
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
The Marañón River basin, at a low point in the Andes which made it an attractive location for trade between the Inca Empire and the Amazon basin, once harbored numerous languages which have been poorly attested or not attested at all.
The Eyeish were a Native American tribe from present-day eastern Texas.
Fulniô, or Yatê, is a language isolate of Brazil, and the only indigenous language remaining in the northeastern part of that country.
Gamela (Gamella) Curinsi or Acobu, is an unclassified and presumably extinct language of the Maranhão region of Northeastern Brazil.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Gorgotoqui is a currently undocumented extinct language of the Chiquitania region of the eastern Bolivian lowlands.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Guaicuruan (Guaykuruan, Waikurúan, Guaycuruano, Guaikurú, Guaicurú, Guaycuruana) is a language family spoken in northern Argentina, western Paraguay, and Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul).
Guajiboan (also Guahiban, Wahívoan, Guahiboan) is a language family spoken in the Orinoco River region in eastern Colombia and southwestern Venezuela, which is a savannah-like area known in Colombia as the Llanos.
Guale was a historic Native American chiefdom of Mississippian culture peoples located along the coast of present-day Georgia and the Sea Islands.
Guamo Wamo or Guamotey, is an extinct language of Venezuela.
Guanahatabey (Guanajatabey) was the language of the Guanahatabey people, an archaic hunter-gatherer society living in western Cuba until the 16th century.
Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.
Guató is a possible language isolate spoken by 1% of the Guató people of Brazil.
Gulf is a proposed native North American language family composed of the Muskogean languages, along with four language isolates: Natchez, Tunica, Atakapa, and (possibly) Chitimacha.
In the 1830s a pidgin trade language based on Haida, known as Haida Jargon, was used in the islands by speakers of English, Haida, Coast Tsimshian, and Heiltsuk.
Haida (X̱aat Kíl, X̱aadas Kíl, X̱aayda Kil, Xaad kil) is the language of the Haida people, spoken in the Haida Gwaii archipelago of the coast of Canada and on Prince of Wales Island in Alaska.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Harákmbut or Harákmbet is a small language family in Peru spoken by the Harakmbut people.
The Haush language (also Manek'enk) was an indigenous language spoken by the Haush people and was formerly spoken on the island of Tierra del Fuego.
A language is head-marking if the grammatical marks showing agreement between different words of a phrase tend to be placed on the heads (or nuclei) of phrases, rather than on the modifiers or dependents.
The extinct Hibito–Cholón or Cholónan languages form a proposed language family that links two languages of Peru, Hibito and Cholón, extinct as of 2000.
Himarimã is the presumed language of the uncontacted Hi-Merimã people in Amazonas, Brazil, The language is believed to be Arawán per testimonies from the Suruwahá and Banawá.
The Hodï (Jodï, Jotí, Hoti) language, also known as Yuwana (Yoana), Waruwaru, or Chikano (Chicano), is a small unclassified language of Venezuela.
The Hokan language family is a hypothetical grouping of a dozen small language families that were spoken mainly in California, Arizona and Baja California.
The Houma are a historic Native American tribe located in Louisiana on the east side of the Red River of the South.
Huamoé (Wamoe) Uamué is an extinct language of Brazil that is too poorly attested to classify.
Huarpe (Warpe) was a small language family of central Argentina (historic Cuyo Province) that consisted of two closely related languages.
Huave (also spelled Wabe) is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.
The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of the Interior of British Columbia, and lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, and the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west.
Inuktitut-English Pidgin was an Inuit pidgin used as a contact language in Quebec, Labrador, and neighboring areas of the eastern Arctic.
Irantxe (Iranxe, Iranshe), also known as Münkü (Mỹky), is an indigenous American language that is spoken in Mato Grosso, Brazil, by about 200 people.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
Island Carib, also known as Igneri (Iñeri, Inyeri, etc.), was an Arawakan language historically spoken by the Island Caribs of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
The Isthmian script is a very early Mesoamerican writing system in use in the area of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from perhaps 500 BCE to 500 CE, although there is disagreement on these dates.
Itonama is a moribund language isolate spoken in the Amazonian lowlands of north-eastern Bolivia.
The Jê languages (also spelled Gê, Jean, Ye, Gean), or Jê–Kaingang languages, are spoken by the Gê, a group of indigenous peoples in Brazil.
Je–Tupi–Carib ("Katuje") is a proposed language family composed of the Macro-Je (or Macro-Gê), Tupian and Cariban languages of South America.
Jeikó (Jeicó, Jaiko, Yeico, Geico, Eyco) is an extinct language of Brazil.
Jicaquean, also known as Tolan, is a small language family of Honduras.
The Jirajaran languages are group of extinct languages once spoken in western Venezuela in the regions of Falcón and Lara.
Jivaroan (also Hívaro, Jívaro, Jibaroana, Jibaro) is a small language family of northern Peru and eastern Ecuador.
John Eliot (c. 1604 – May 21, 1690) was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians whom some called "the apostle to the Indians" and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645.
Kaimbé is an extinct unclassified language of eastern Brazil.
Kalaallisut, or West Greenlandic, is the standard dialect of the Greenlandic language, spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants of Greenland, as well as by thousands of Greenlandic Inuit in Denmark proper (in total, approximately 50,000 people).
Kalapuyan (also Kalapuya) is a small extinct language family that was spoken in the Willamette Valley of Western Oregon, United States.
Kallawaya, also Callahuaya or Callawalla is an endangered, secret, mixed language in Bolivia.
The Kamakã languages are a small family of extinct Macro-Jê languages of Bahía near Brazil's Atlantic coast.
Kanoê or Kapishana is a nearly extinct language isolate of Rondônia, Brazil.
Karajá, also known as Ynã, is spoken by the Karajá people in some thirty villages in central Brazil.
Karankawa is the extinct, unclassified language of the Texas coast, where the Karankawa people migrated between the mainland and the barrier islands.
The Karirí languages, generally considered dialects of a single language, are extinct languages formerly spoken by the Kiriri people of Brazil.
Karuk or Karok is an endangered language of northwestern California.
Katembri (Catrimbi, Kariri de Mirandela, Mirandela) was a divergent language of northeastern Brazil that appears to be distantly related to Taruma (Kaufman 1990).
Katembri–Taruma is a language family proposed by Kaufman (1990) that links two extinct or critically endangered languages of South America, Katembrí also known as Mirandela of Amazonas State, Brazil, and Taruma also known as Taruamá of Brazil and Guyana.
Katukinan (Catuquinan) is a language family consisting of two languages in Brazil, Katukina-Kanamarí and the perhaps moribund Katawixi.
Kawésqar (Qawasqar), also known as Alacaluf, is a critically endangered language isolate spoken in southern Chile by the Kawésqar people.
Keresan, also Keres, is a Native American language, spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico.
The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.
Coeruna (Koeruna) is an extinct Witotoan language of Brazil.
The Koroa were one of the groups of indigenous people who lived in the Mississippi Valley prior to the European settlement of the region.
The Aimoré or Botocudoan languages, now sometimes known as Krenakan after the last one remaining, are a branch of the Macro-Jê languages, including moribund Krenak and extinct languages such as Guerén and Nakrehé.
Kunza a.k.a. Cunza, also known as Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe, or Atacameño, is an extinct language isolate once spoken in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile and southern Perú (specifically in Peine, Socaire (Salar de Atacama), and Caspana) by the Lickan-antay people, who have since shifted to Spanish.
The Kutenai language, also Kootenai, Kootenay, Ktunaxa, and Ksanka, is the native language of the Kutenai people of Montana and Idaho in the United States and British Columbia in Canada.
Kwaza (also written Kwazá or Koaiá) is an endangered language spoken by the Kwaza people of Brazil.
Labrador Inuit Pidgin French was a pidgin spoken between Breton and Basque fishermen and the Inuit of Labrador from the late 17th century until about 1760.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Peru is a multilingual nation.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The Língua Geral Paulista (São Paulo General language), or Tupí Austral (Southern Tupi), was a Tupi-based trade language of São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River.
Leco, also written as Leko, is a language isolate that, though long reported to be extinct, is spoken by 20–40 individuals in areas east of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia.
Lencan is a small family of nearly extinct indigenous Mesoamerican languages.
An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers.
This is a list of endangered languages with mobile apps available for use in language revitalization.
This is a list of Indigenous languages that are or were spoken in the present territory of Argentina.
Over 50 villages and tribes of the Ohlone (also known as Costanoan) Native American people have been identified as existing in Northern California circa 1769 in the regions of the San Francisco Peninsula, Santa Clara Valley, East Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley.
Lule is an indigenous language of northern Argentina.
The two Lule–Vilela languages constitute a small, distantly related language family of northern Argentina.
Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.
The town of Mabila (or Mavila, Mavilla, Mauvilla) was a small fortress town known to Chief Tuskaloosa in 1540, in a region of present-day central Alabama.
Macorix (also rendered Macorís and Mazorij) was the language of the northern coast of what is today the Dominican Republic.
Macro-Andean is a speculative proposal by Kaufman (2007) linking languages of the northern Andes.
Macro-Chibchan is a proposed grouping of the languages of the Lencan, Misumalpan, & Chibchan families into a single large phylum (macrofamily).
Macro-Jê (also spelled Macro-Gê) is a medium-sized language stock in South America, mostly in Brazil but also in small parts of Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.
The Macro-Jibaro proposal, also known as (Macro-)Andean, is a language proposal of Morris Swadesh and other historical linguists.
Macro-Mayan is a proposal linking the clearly established Mayan family with neighboring families that show similarities to Mayan.
Macro-Otomákoan is a proposal linking three small language families of the Amazon: The Harákmbut (Tuyoneri) family, the extinct Otomakoan languages, and the Trumai language isolate.
Macro-Paesan (also spelled Macro-Paezan) is a proposal linking several small families and language isolates of northwest South America.
Macro-Panoan is a hypothetical proposal linking four language families of Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina that Kaufman (1994) says "seems promising".
Macro-Puinavean is a hypothetical proposal linking some very poorly attested languages to the Nadahup family.
The Macro-Siouan languages are a proposed language family that would include the Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan families.
Macro-Warpean is a provisional proposal by Kaufman (1994) that connected the extinct Huarpe language with the previously connected Muran and Matanawí (Mura–Matanawí).
Maiduan (also Maidun, Pujunan) is a small endangered language family of northeastern California.
Maku or Mako (Spanish Macú, Portuguese Máku) is an unclassified language spoken on the Brazil–Venezuela border in Roraima along the upper Uraricoera and lower Auari rivers, west of Boa Vista.
The Malibu languages are a poorly attested group of extinct languages once spoken along the Magdalena River in Colombia.
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
Maratino is a barely attested extinct language that was spoken in north-east Mexico, near Martín, Tamaulipas.
The Mascoian also known as Enlhet–Enenlhet, Lengua–Mascoy, or Chaco languages are a small, closely related language family of Paraguay.
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and south-eastern Massachusetts and currently, in its revived form, in four communities of Wampanoag people.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Matacoan (also Mataguayan, Matákoan, Mataguayo, Mataco–Mataguayo, Matacoano, Matacoana) is a language family of northern Argentina, western Paraguay, and southeastern Bolivia.
Mataco–Guaicuru or Macro-Waikurúan is a hypothetical language family consisting of the Guaicuruan, Matacoan, and sometimes Mascoian and Charruan families.
Matanawi (Matanauí, Mitandua, Moutoniway) was a divergent Amazonian language that appears to be distantly related to the Muran languages.
The Maxakalían languages (also Mashakalían) were first classified into the Gê languages.
Mayaca was the name used by the Spanish to refer to a Native American tribe in central Florida, to the principal village of that tribe and to the chief of that village in the 1560s.
The Mayaimi (also Maymi, Maimi) were Native American people who lived around Lake Mayaimi (now Lake Okeechobee) in the Belle Glade area of Florida from the beginning of the Common Era until the 17th or 18th century.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Media Lengua, also known as Chaupi-shimi, Chaupi-lengua, Chaupi-Quichua, Quichuañol, Chapu-shimi or llanga-shimi,Llanga-shimi is typically a derogatory term used by Kichwa-speakers to describe their language.
Mednyj Aleut (also called Copper Island Creole or Copper Island Aleut) is a nearly extinct mixed language spoken on Bering Island.
Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota, and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French and Scottish Canadians).
Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.
The Misumalpan languages (also Misumalpa or Misuluan) are a small family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples on the east coast of Nicaragua and nearby areas.
The Mixe–Zoque languages are a language family whose living members are spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
Mobilian Jargon (also Mobilian trade language, Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw–Choctaw trade language, Yamá) was a pidgin used as a lingua franca among Native American groups living along the Gulf of Mexico around the time of European settlement of the region.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Mosan is a hypothetical language family consisting of the Salishan, Wakashan, and Chimakuan languages of the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Mosetén–Chon is a proposal linking the Mosetenan languages (Tsimané) and the Chon languages of South America.
Movima is a language that is spoken by about 1,400 (nearly half) of the Movima, a group of Native Americans that resides in the Llanos de Moxos region of the Bolivian Amazon, in northeastern Bolivia.
Munichi is a recently extinct language which was spoken in the village of Munichis, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Yurimaguas, Loreto Region, Peru.
Mura is a language of Amazonas, Brazil.
The Muscogee language (Mvskoke in Muscogee), also known as Creek, Seminole, Maskókî or Muskogee, is a Muskogean language spoken by Muscogee (Creek) and Seminole people, primarily in the U.S. states of Oklahoma and Florida.
Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is an indigenous language family of the Southeastern United States.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
The Nadahup languages, also known as Makú (Macú) or Vaupés–Japurá, form a small language family in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The Nambikwaran languages are a language family of half a dozen languages, all spoken in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.
Naolan is a barely attested extinct language that was spoken a five-hour walk from Tula, Tamaulipas in north-east Mexico.
Natú Peagaxinan is an extinct language of eastern Brazil.
Natchez is the ancestral language of the Natchez people who historically inhabited Mississippi and Louisiana, and who now mostly live among the Creek and Cherokee peoples in Oklahoma.
The Native American Languages Act of 1990 is the short cited title for executive order PUBLIC LAW 101-477 enacted by Congress on October 30, 1990.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nonuya is a nearly extinct language of Colombia and Peru.
Nootka Jargon was a Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth) pidgin used as a trade language along the Pacific Northwest coast in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
The Ofayé or Opaye language, also Ofaié-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, forms its own branch of the Macro-Jê languages.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
The Okelousa are Native American people originally from the Southern United States (Louisiana and Mississippi).
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Omurano is an unclassified language from Peru.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Oregon Penutian is a hypothetical language family in the Penutian language phylum comprising languages spoken at one time by several groups of Native Americans in present-day western Oregon and western Washington in the United States.
The Otí language, also known as Chavante or Euchavante, is a language isolate once spoken in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between the Peixe and Pardo rivers.
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
Otomaco and Taparita are two long-extinct languages of the Amazon.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
Paezan (also Páesan, Paezano, Interandine) may be any of several hypothetical or obsolete language-family proposals of Colombia and Ecuador named after the Paez language.
Palaihnihan (also Palaihnih) is a language family of northeastern California.
The extinct Palta language of the Ecuadorian Amazon is attested by only a few words: yumé 'water', xeme 'maize', capal 'fire', let 'wood' (Jiménez de la Espada, 1586), and some toponyms.
Pankararú (Pancaré, Pankaré, Pancaru, Pankaruru, Pankarará, Pankaravu, Pankaroru, Pankarú, Brancararu) is an extinct language of eastern Brazil.
Pano-Tacanan (also Pano-Takana, Pano-Takánan, Pano-Tacana, Páno-Takána) is a proposed family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, Bolivia and northern Paraguay.
Panzaleo (Pansaleo, Quito, Latacunga) is a poorly attested and unclassified indigenous American language that was spoken in the region of Quito until the 17th century.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
The Pascagoula (also Pascoboula, Pacha-Ogoula, Pascagola, Pascaboula, Paskaguna) were an indigenous group living in coastal Mississippi on the Pascagoula River.
Páez (also Paez, Paes; the autonym Nasa Yuwe 'Nasa language' is becoming increasingly used) is a language of Colombia, spoken by the Páez people.
The Peba–Yaguan language family (also Yaguan, Peban, Yáwan) is located in the northwestern Amazon, but today Yagua is the only remaining spoken language of the family.
The Pensacola were a Native American people who lived in the western part of what is now the Florida Panhandle and eastern Alabama for centuries before first contact with Europeans until early in the 18th century.
Penutian is a proposed grouping of language families that includes many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
The Saliban (Salivan) languages, also known as Piaroa–Saliban or Saliba–Piaroan, are a small proposed language family of the middle Orinoco Basin, which forms an independent island within an area of Venezuela and Colombia (northern llanos) dominated by peoples of Carib and Arawakan affiliation.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Pidgin Delaware (also Delaware Jargon or Trader's Jargon)Goddard, Ives, 1997 was a pidgin language that developed between speakers of Unami Delaware and Dutch traders and settlers on the Delaware River in the 1620s.
Pijao (Piajao, Pinao) is an unclassified indigenous American language that was spoken in the villages of Orrega, Coyaima (Koyai, Tupe) and Natagaima in the Magdalena River Valley of Colombia until the 1950s.
Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
Plateau Penutian (also Shahapwailutan, Lepitan) is a family of languages spoken in northern California, reaching through central-western Oregon to northern Washington and central-northern Idaho.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
The Pomoan, or Pomo, languages are a small family of seven languages indigenous to northern California that spoken by the Pomo people, who formerly occupied the valley of the Russian River and the Clear Lake basin.
The Powhatan People (sometimes Powhatans) (also spelled Powatan) are an Indigenous group traditionally from Virginia.
Several languages of the Greater Antilles, specifically Cuba and Hispaniola, appear to have preceded the Arawakan Taíno.
Puelche is an extinct language formerly spoken by the Puelche people in the Pampas region of Argentina.
Puinave, Waipunavi (Guaipunabi) or Wanse (Wãnsöhöt), is a poorly attested and generally unclassified language of South America.
Puquina (or Pukina) is an extinct language once spoken by a native ethnic group in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia) and in the north of Chile.
Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), often called Tarascan (Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family that is spoken by a quarter-million Purépecha in the highlands of Michoacán, Mexico.
Purian (also Purían) is a pair of extinct languages of eastern Brazil.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quechumaran or Kechumaran is a language-family proposal that unites Quechua and Aymara.
Quinigua is a barely attested extinct language that was spoken in north-east Mexico.
The Quinipissa (sometimes spelled Kinipissa in French sources) were an indigenous group living on the lower Mississippi River, in present-day Louisiana, as reported by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1682.
The Rikbaktsa language, also spelled Aripaktsa, Erikbatsa, Erikpatsa and known ambiguously as Canoeiro, is a language spoken by the Rikbaktsa people of the Mato Grosso, Brazil, that forms its own branch of the Macro-Gê languages.
Roger Marsh Blench (born 1953) is a British linguist, ethnomusicologist and development anthropologist.
Salinan was the indigenous language of the Salinan people of the central coast of California.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Saparo–Yawan (Zaparo–Yaguan, Zaparo–Peba) is a language family proposal uniting two small language families of the western Amazon.
Sapé a.k.a. Kaliana is a nearly extinct language spoken along the Paragua and Karuna rivers.
The Sechura language, also known as Sek, is an extinct language spoken in the Piura Region of Peru, near the port of Sechura.
Sechura–Catacao is a proposed connection between the small Catacaoan language family of Peru and the language isolate Sechura (Sek).
Seri (Seri: cmiique iitom) is an indigenous language spoken by between 716La situación sociolingüística de la lengua seri en 2006.
The Shastan (or Sastean) family consisted of four languages, spoken in present-day northern California and southern Oregon.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains, Ohio and Mississippi valleys and southeastern North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
Siuslaw was the language of the Siuslaw people and Lower Umpqua (Kuitsh) people of Oregon.
Solano is an unclassified extinct language formerly spoken in northeast Mexico and perhaps also in the neighboring U.S. state of Texas.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southern Quechua (Quechua: Urin qichwa, quechua sureño), or simply Quechua (Qichwa or Qhichwa), is the most widely spoken of the major regional groupings of mutually intelligible dialects within the Quechua language family, with about 6.9 million speakers.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
The Taensa language was the Natchez language-variant spoken by the Taensa people originally of northeastern Louisiana, and later with historical importance in Alabama.
Takelma was the language spoken by the Latgawa and Takelma people and Cow Creek band of Upper Umpqua.
Tanoan, also Kiowa–Tanoan or Tanoan–Kiowa, is a family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples in present-day New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Tarairiú Caratiú is an extinct and very poorly known language of eastern Brazil.
Taruma (Taruamá) is a divergent language of northeastern Brazil.
Taushiro, also known as Pinche or Pinchi, is a nearly extinct possible language isolate of the Peruvian Amazon near Ecuador.
The Tequesta (also Tekesta, Tegesta, Chequesta, Vizcaynos) Native American tribe, at the time of first European contact, occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida.
Tequiraca (Tekiráka), also known as Abishira (Avishiri)* and Aiwa (Aewa), is a language spoken in Peru.
Tequiraca–Canichana is a possible language family proposed in Kaufman (1994) uniting two erstwhile language isolates, Canichana of Bolivia and Tequiraca of Peru, both of which are either extinct or nearly so.
The Tequistlatecan languages, also called Chontal of Oaxaca, are three close but distinct languages spoken or once spoken by the Chontal people of Oaxaca State, Mexico.
The Teushen language is an indigenous language of Argentina, which may be extinct.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Ticuna, or Tikuna, is a language spoken by approximately 50,000 people in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia.
Ticuna–Yuri is a small family, perhaps even a dialect continuum, consisting of at least two, and perhaps three, known languages of South America: the major western Amazonian language Ticuna, the poorly attested and extinct Yurí, and the scarcely known language of the largely uncontacted Carabayo.
Timote, also known as Cuica or Timote–Cuica, is the language of the Timote–Cuica state in the Venezuelan Andes, around the present city of Mérida and south of Lake Maracaibo.
The Timotean languages were spoken in the Venezuelan Andes around what is now Mérida.
Timucua is a language isolate formerly spoken in northern and central Florida and southern Georgia by the Timucua people.
The Tiniwan languages are two extinct and one nearly extinct language of Colombia that form a small family,.
The Tonkawa language was spoken in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico by the Tonkawa people.
The Totonacan languages (also known as Totonac–Tepehua languages) are a family of closely related languages spoken by approximately 290,000 Totonac (approx. 280,000) and Tepehua (approx. 10,000) people in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo in Mexico.
Totozoquean (Toto-Zoquean) is a proposed language family of Mesoamerica, originally consisting of two well-established genetic groupings, Totonacan and Mixe–Zoque.
Trumai is an endangered language isolate of Brazil.
The Tsimshianic languages are a family of languages spoken in northwestern British Columbia and in Southeast Alaska on Annette Island and Ketchikan.
Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.
The Tunica (or Tonica, or less common form Yuron) language is a language isolate that was spoken in the Central and Lower Mississippi Valley in the United States by Native American Tunica peoples.
Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil.
The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Tutelo, also known as Tutelo–Saponi, is a member of the Virginian branch of Siouan languages that was originally spoken in what is now Virginia and West Virginia, as well as in the later travels of the speakers through North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New York, and finally, Ontario.
Tuxá (Tusha; also Todela ~ Rodela, Carapató, Payacú) was the eastern Brazilian language of the Tuxá people, who now speak Portuguese.
An unclassified language is a language whose genetic affiliation has not been established, most often due to a lack of data.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urarina is an isolated language spoken in Peru, specifically in the Loreto Region of Northwest Peru, by the Urarina people.
The Uru–Chipaya family is an indigenous language family of Bolivia.
Utian (also Miwok–Costanoan, previously Mutsun) is a family of indigenous languages spoken in Northern California, United States.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.
Vilela (Uakambalelté, Atalalá, Chulupí~Chunupí) is an extinct language last spoken in the Resistencia area of Argentina and in the eastern Chaco near the Paraguayan border.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Waikuri (Guaycura, Waicura) is an extinct language of southern Baja California spoken by the Waikuri or Guaycura people.
Wakashan is a family of languages spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, and in the northwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Wakoná is an extinct and unattested, presumed language of eastern Brazil.
Wamo–Chapakúra is a proposed connection between the largely extinct Chapacuran language family and the otherwise unclassified language Wamo.
The Waorani (Huaorani) language, commonly known as Sabela (also Wao, Huao, Auishiri, Aushiri, Ssabela; autonym: Wao Terero; pejorative: Auka, Auca) is a vulnerable language isolate spoken by the Huaorani people, an indigenous group living in the Amazon Rainforest between the Napo and Curaray Rivers in Ecuador.
Wappo is an extinct language that was spoken in the Alexander Valley north of San Francisco by the Wappo Native Americans.
Warao (also known as Guarauno, Guarao, Warrau) is the native language of the Warao people.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Washo (or Washoe; endonym wá:šiw ʔítlu) is an endangered Native American language isolate spoken by the Washo on the California–Nevada border in the drainages of the Truckee and Carson Rivers, especially around Lake Tahoe.
The Wayuu language, or Goajiro (Wayuu: Wayuunaiki), is spoken by 305,000 indigenous Wayuu people in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia on the Guajira Peninsula.
West Greenlandic Pidgin is an extinct Greenlandic-based contact language once used between the Inuit of Greenland and European traders.
Willem F. H. Adelaar (born at The Hague in 1948) is a Dutch linguist specializing in Native American languages, specially those of the Andes.
Wintuan (also Wintun, Wintoon, Copeh, Copehan) is a family of languages spoken in the Sacramento Valley of central Northern California.
Witotoan (also Huitotoan or Uitotoan,, occasionally known as Huitoto–Ocaina to distinguish it from Bora–Witoto) is a small language family of southwestern Colombia (Amazonas Department) and the neighboring region of Peru.
Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic languageCampbell (1997:152) formerly spoken by the Wiyot of Humboldt Bay, California.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Xinca (Szinca) is a small extinct family of Mesoamerican languages, formerly regarded as a single language isolate, once spoken by the indigenous Xinca people in southeastern Guatemala, much of El Salvador, and parts of Honduras.
Xocó (Chocó, Shokó) is an extinct and poorly attested language or languages of Brazil that is not known to be related to other languages.
Xukuru (Xucuru, Shukurú) is an extinct and poorly attested language of Brazil.
The Yabutian or Jabutian languages are two similar moribund languages of Brazil.
Yagán (originally Yahgan, but also now spelled Yaghan, Jagan, Iakan), also known as Yámana and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people.
The Yamacraw were a Native American band that emerged in the early 18th century, occupying parts of what became Georgia, specifically along the bluffs near the mouth of the Savannah River where it enters the Atlantic Ocean.
The Yamasee were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans who lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.
Yana (also Yanan) is an extinct language formerly spoken by the Yana people, who lived in north-central California between the Feather and Pit rivers in what is now the Shasta and Tehama counties.
Yanomaman (also Yanomam, Yanomáman, Yamomámi, Yanomamana, Shamatari, Shirianan) is a language spoken by about 20,000 Yanomami people in southern Venezuela and northwestern Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas).
The Yaruro language (also spelled Llaruro or Yaruru; also called Yuapín or Pumé) is an indigenous language spoken by Yaruro people, along the Orinoco, Cinaruco, Meta, and Apure rivers of Venezuela.
The Yazoo were a tribe of the Native American Tunica people historically located on the lower course of Yazoo River in Mississippi, an area known as the Mississippi Delta.
Yok-Utian is a proposed language family of California.
Yokutsan (also known as Yokuts and Mariposan) is an endangered language family spoken in the interior of Northern and Central California in and around the San Joaquin Valley by the Yokut people.
Yuchi (Euchee) is the language of the Cohaya people living in Oklahoma.
The Yuki language, also spelled Ukiah and also known as Ukomno'm, was a language of California, spoken by the indigenous American Yuki people, formerly in the Eel River area, the Round Valley Reservation, northern California.
The Yuki–Wappo or Yukian languages are a small language family of western California consisting of two distantly related languages, both now extinct.
The Yuman–Cochimí languages are a family of languages spoken in Baja California, northern Sonora, southern California, and western Arizona.
Yuracaré (also Yurakaré, Yurakar, Yuracare, Yurucare, Yuracar, Yurakare, Yurujuré, Yurujare) is an endangered language isolate of central Bolivia in Cochabamba and Beni departments spoken by the Yuracaré people.
Yurí (Jurí) is, or was, a language previously spoken near a stretch of the Caquetá River in the Brazilian Amazon, extending slightly into Colombia.
The Yurok language (also Chillula, Mita, Pekwan, Rikwa, Sugon, Weitspek, Weitspekan) is an Algic language.
Yurumanguí is an extinct language of Colombia.
Zamucoan (also Samúkoan) is a small language family of Paraguay (northeast Chaco) and Bolivia (Santa Cruz Department).
Zaparoan (also Sáparoan, Záparo, Zaparoano, Zaparoana) is an endangered language family of Peru and Ecuador with fewer than 100 speakers.
Zuni (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.
Aboriginal languages of the Americas, American Indian languages, American autochthonous languages, Amerindian Languages, Amerindian language, First Nations language, First Nations languages, ISO 639:nai, ISO 639:sai, Indigenous American language, Indigenous languages of America, Indigenous languages of North America, Indigenous languages of the americas, Languages of the New World, Native American Languages, Native American language, Native American languages, North American Indian languages, North American languages, South America language, South America languages, South American Indian languages, Unattested indigenous languages of the Americas, Unattested languages of the Americas.