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Indigenous peoples

Index Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. [1]

262 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Adivasi, Adjective, Aegean Sea, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Age of Discovery, Age of Enlightenment, Agence France-Presse, Ainu people, Akkadian Empire, Americas, Ancient Greece, Andaman Islands, Anthropology, Arctic, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Highlands, Armenians, Assamese people, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Assyria, Assyrian genocide, Assyrian people, Austronesian languages, Aymara people, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Barbarian, Basques, Belief, Bhutia, Body politic, Bolivia, Cagayan Valley, Canary Islands, Central Highlands, Vietnam, Chamorro people, Champa, Chams, Chey Chettha II, Chiapas, Chile, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Chota Nagpur Plateau, Circassians, Civilization, Classical antiquity, Colonialism, Colonization, Comfort women, ..., Continent, Cordillera Administrative Region, Cultural assimilation, Cultural diversity, Culture, Culture change, Dalit, Data, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Degar, Demographics of the Marshall Islands, Denmark, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dzungar people, Dzungaria, Easter Island, Environment (biophysical), Eskimo, Ethnic group, Ethnography, European colonization of the Americas, Exploitation of natural resources, Extinction, First contact (anthropology), First Nations, Friends of Peoples Close to Nature, Fundação Nacional do Índio, Genocide, Genocide of indigenous peoples, Greco-Roman world, Greenland, Guam, Guanches, Guatemala, Hayk, Herodotus, Hesiod, Historical linguistics, History of Canada, History of the Cham–Vietnamese wars, Ho Chi Minh City, Hokkaido, Homer, Human migration, Human rights, Hunter-gatherer, Igorot people, India, Indigenism, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous intellectual property, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment Initiative, Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous rights, Individual and group rights, Infant mortality, Institution, Intangible cultural heritage, International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples, International Labour Organization, Inuit, Iraq, Irula people, Isuma, Jarawas (Andaman Islands), Jat people, Jurisdiction, Köppen climate classification, Khmer Krom, Kingdom of Singapura, Kinnaur district, Kinship, Kodava people, Komi peoples, Kota, Karnataka, Kuril Islands, Kuruba, Ladakh, Land claim, Land law, Language, Lepcha people, List of active non-governmental organizations of national minorities, indigenous and diasporas, List of contemporary ethnic groups, List of First Nations peoples, List of indigenous peoples, Lists of indigenous peoples of Russia, Lumad, Luzon, Maguindanao people, Malay Singaporeans, Mapuche, Maranao people, Marshall Islands, Matsés, Maya peoples, Métis in Canada, Meiji period, Mekong Delta, Melanesia, Menashi–Kunashir rebellion, Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Micronesia, Middle Ages, Mindanao, Mindoro, Minority group, Missing and murdered Indigenous women, Mizo people, Moro people, Movses Khorenatsi, Munda people, Mythology, Naga people, Nam tiến, National Indigenous Peoples Day, Native Indonesians, Natural resource, Nenets people, Neo-Assyrian Empire, New Guinea, Nivkh language, Nivkh people, Noble savage, Nomad, North Caucasus, Northern Mariana Islands, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut, Oaxaca, Pacific Islands, Palau, Palawan, Papua conflict, Papua New Guinea, Papuan people, Pastoralism, PDF, Pelasgians, Peru, Philippines, Polynesia, Polynesians, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Pre-Columbian era, Prenatal care, Public health, Rapa Nui people, Robert Blust, Russia, Russian conquest of Siberia, Ryukyu Islands, Ryukyuan people, Sahara, Sahel, Sakhalin, Sami people, Samoyedic peoples, Sanitation, Scandinavia, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Sedentism, Sentinelese, Shakushain's revolt, Sinjar Mountains, Social exclusion, Sovereignty, Sulu Archipelago, Survival International, Taiwan, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Tajiks of Xinjiang, Tausūg people, Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County, Territory, The Image Expedition, Thomas Hobbes, Tierra del Fuego, Toda people, Torres Strait Islanders, Tradition, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Waitangi, Tuareg people, Turkey, Uncontacted peoples, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, United Nations special rapporteur, University of Manitoba, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Urarina people, Vietnamese people, Virgin soil epidemic, Visayas, Western New Guinea, Working Group on Indigenous Populations, World Bank, World Health Organization, World population, World War I, Xinjiang, Yakuts, Yazidis, Yucatán, Zapatista Army of National Liberation. Expand index (212 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights

The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) is a quasi-judicial body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights and collective (peoples') rights throughout the African continent as well as interpreting the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and considering individual complaints of violations of the Charter.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Ainu people

The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).

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Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenian Highlands

The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Assamese people

The Assamese people are the indigenous people of the state of Assam.They are a physically diverse group formed after years of assimilation of Austroasiatic, Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman and Tai races.

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian genocide

The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Aymara people

The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.

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No description.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

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No description.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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The Bhutia བོད་རིགས (Drenjongpa / Drenjop;; "inhabitants of Sikkim"; in Bhutan: Dukpa) are a community of people of Tibetan ancestry, who speak Lhopo or Sikkimese, a Tibetan dialect fairly mutually intelligible with standard Tibetan.

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Body politic

The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.

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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley (Tanap ti Cagayan; Tana' nat Cagayan; Tanap yo Cagayan; Tanap na Cagayan; Lambak ng Cagayan) (designated as Region II) is an administrative region in the Philippines located in the northeastern portion of Luzon.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Central Highlands, Vietnam

Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam.

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Chamorro people

The Chamorro people (/tʃɑˈmɔroʊ/) are the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands; politically divided between the United States territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Micronesia.

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Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.

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The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.

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Chey Chettha II

Chey Chettha II (ជ័យជេដ្ឋាទី២, 1576–1628) was a king of Cambodia who reigned from Oudong, about 40 km northwest of modern-day Phnom Penh, from 1618 to 1628.

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Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chittagong Hill Tracts

The Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT; Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম, Parbotto Choŧŧogram; or the Hill Tracts for short) are an area within the Chattogram Division in southeastern Bangladesh, bordering India and Myanmar (Burma).

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Chota Nagpur Plateau

The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.

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The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Comfort women

Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Cordillera Administrative Region

Cordillera Administrative Region (Rehion/Deppaar Administratibo ti Kordiliera; Rehiyong Pampangasiwaan ng Cordillera), designated as CAR, is an administrative region in the Philippines situated within the island of Luzon.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture change

Culture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and community behavior.

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Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.

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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

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Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007, by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine).

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The Degar, also known as Montagnard, are the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

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Demographics of the Marshall Islands

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Marshall Islands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dzungar people

The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Dzungaria (also spelled Zungaria, Dzungharia or Zungharia, Dzhungaria or Zhungaria, or Djungaria or Jungaria) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Environment (biophysical)

A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.

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Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Exploitation of natural resources

The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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First contact (anthropology)

In anthropology, first contact is the first meeting of two cultures previously unaware of one another.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Friends of Peoples Close to Nature

Friends of Peoples Close to Nature (fPcN) founded in Germany in 1991 as Freunde der Naturvölker (FdN), is a non-governmental European human rights organization that works in the field of indigenous rights.

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Fundação Nacional do Índio

Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation) or FUNAI is a Brazilian governmental protection agency for Indian interests and their culture.

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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Genocide of indigenous peoples

The genocide of indigenous peoples is the mass destruction of entire communities of indigenous peoples.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Hayk the Great (Հայկ),, or The Great Hayk, also known as Hayk Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ,, Hayk the "head of family" or patriarch), is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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History of Canada

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.

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History of the Cham–Vietnamese wars

The Cham-Vietnamese Wars refer to a series of wars and conflicts between various dynasties of Vietnam and of Champa that led to a total annexation of Champa by the Vietnamese.

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Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.

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(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigenism can refer to several different ideologies associated with indigenous peoples, is used differently by a various scholars and activists, and can be used purely descriptively or carry political connotations.

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Indigenous intellectual property

Indigenous intellectual property is an umbrella legal term used in national and international forums to identify indigenous peoples' claims of intellectual property rights to protect specific cultural knowledge of their groups.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment Initiative

The Indigenous Peoples' Biocultural Climate Change Assessment Initiative (IPCCA) is an international indigenous research initiative arising out of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, where it was noted: Accessed 5 December 2009 "..

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Indigenous peoples in Canada

Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indigenous rights

Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.

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Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.

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International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples

The International Day of the World's Indigenous People's is observed on August 9 each year to promote and protect the rights of the world’s indigenous population.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irula people

Irula is an aboriginal ethnic group of India.

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Isuma (Inuktitut syllabics, ᐃᓱᒪ; Inuktituk for "to think") is Canada's first Inuit (75%) production company co-founded by Zacharias Kunuk, Paul Apak Angilirq and Norman Cohn in Igloolik, Nunavut in 1990.

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Jarawas (Andaman Islands)

The Jarawas (also Järawa, Jarwa) (Jarawa: Aong) are an indigenous people of the Andaman Islands in India.

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Jat people

The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.

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Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Khmer Krom

The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.

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Kingdom of Singapura

The Kingdom of Singapura (Malay: Kerajaan Singapura) was a Malay kingdom thought to exist on the island of Singapore from 1299 until its fall in 1398.

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Kinnaur district

Kinnaur is one of twelve administrative districts in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, India.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Kodava people

The term Kodava (ಕೊಡವ) has two related usages.

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Komi peoples

The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.

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Kota, Karnataka

Kota is a town on NH 66 on the way from Udupi to Kundapura. Famous Kannada writer, novelist and Yakshgana exponent, K. Shivaram Karanth hailed from this place. Kota is approximately 24 km from Udupi and 12 km from Kundapur.

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Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.

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Kuruba (also known as Kuruba Gowda, Kuruba, Kuruma and Kurumbar) is a Hindu caste native to the Indian state of Karnataka, where it is the third largest caste group.

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Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

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Land claim

Land claim(s) are a legal declaration of desired control over areas of property including bodies of water.

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Land law

Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from land.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Lepcha people

The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup (Lepcha: ᰕᰫ་ᰊᰪᰰ་ᰆᰧᰶ ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰀᰪᰱ ᰛᰪᰮ་ᰀᰪᰱ; "beloved children of the Róng and of God"), and Rongpa (Sikkimese), are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim and number between 30,000 and 50,000.

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List of active non-governmental organizations of national minorities, indigenous and diasporas

This is a list of notable active non-governmental organizations of national minorities, indigenous and diasporas.

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List of contemporary ethnic groups

The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups.

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List of First Nations peoples

The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area.

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List of indigenous peoples

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native people.

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Lists of indigenous peoples of Russia

The list of indigenous peoples of Russia consists of the following sub-lists.

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The Lumad are a group of non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines.

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Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

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Maguindanao people

The Maguindanao people are part of the wider Moro ethnic group, who constitute the sixth largest Filipino ethnic group.

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Malay Singaporeans

Malay Singaporeans or Singaporean Malays (Melayu Singapura; Jawi: ملايو سيڠاڤورا) are defined by the Government of Singapore and by intellectuals in the country using the broader concept of the Malay race, including ethnic Malays and related ethnic groups.

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The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

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Maranao people

The Maranao people (Maranao:; Filipino: Mëranaw (based on Papanoka Mera)), also spelled Meranao, Maranaw (based on Marapatik) and Mëranaw, is the term used by the Philippine government to refer to the southern tribe who are the "people of the lake" (Ranao in the Iranaon language), a predominantly-Muslim region of the Philippine island of Mindanao.

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Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

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The Matsés or Mayoruna are an indigenous people of the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon.

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Maya peoples

The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.

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Métis in Canada

The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.

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Mekong Delta

The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.

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Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.

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Menashi–Kunashir rebellion

The or Menashi-Kunashir battle was a battle in 1789 between Ainu and Japanese on the Shiretoko Peninsula in northeastern Hokkaidō.

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Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage

Merriam–Webster's Dictionary of English Usage is a usage dictionary published by Merriam-Webster, Inc., of Springfield, Massachusetts.

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Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.

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Mindoro is the seventh largest island in the Philippines by land area with a total of 10,571 km2 (4,082 sq.mi) and with a total population of 1,331,473 as of 2015.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Missing and murdered Indigenous women

Missing and murdered Indigenous women (MMIW) is an issue affecting Indigenous people in Canada and the United States, including the First Nations, Inuit, Métis and Native American communities.

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Mizo people

The Mizo people (Mizo: Mizo hnam) are an ethnic group native to north-eastern India, western Burma (Myanmar) and eastern Bangladesh; this term covers several ethnic peoples who speak various northern and central Kuki-Chin languages.

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Moro people

The Moro, also called the Bangsamoro or Bangsa Moro, are the Muslim population of the Philippines, forming the largest non-Catholic group in the country and comprising about 11% (as of the year 2012) of the total Philippine population.

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Movses Khorenatsi

Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.

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Munda people

The Munda people (Hindi: मुंडा, Assamese: মুনদা, Bengali: মুন্ডা) are an Adivasi ethnic group of India.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Naga people

The Naga people are an ethnic group conglomerating of several tribes native to the North Eastern part of India and north-western Myanmar (Burma).

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Nam tiến

Nam tiến (lit. "southward advance" or "march to the south") refers to the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam from the 11th century to the mid-18th century.

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National Indigenous Peoples Day

National Indigenous Peoples Day (French: Journée nationale des peuples autochtones) is a day recognising and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Indigenous peoples in Canada.

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Native Indonesians

Native Indonesians, or Pribumi/Bumiputra (literally "inlanders"), are members of the population group in Indonesia that shares a similar sociocultural and ethnic heritage whose members are considered natives of the country.

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Natural resource

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.

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Nenets people

The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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Nivkh language

Nivkh or Gilyak (self-designation: Нивхгу диф Nivkhgu dif) is a language spoken in Outer Manchuria, in the basin of the Amgun (a tributary of the Amur), along the lower reaches of the Amur itself, and on the northern half of Sakhalin.

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Nivkh people

The Nivkh (also Nivkhs, Nivkhi, or Gilyak; ethnonym: Nivxi; language, нивхгу - Nivxgu) are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting the northern half of Sakhalin Island and the region of the Amur River estuary in Russia's Khabarovsk Krai.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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Northern Mariana Islands

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nunatsiavut is an autonomous area claimed by the Inuit in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

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Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region.

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Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.

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Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Pacific Islands

The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.

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Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.

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Papua conflict

The Papua conflict is an ongoing conflict between the Indonesian government and portions of the indigenous populations of Western New Guinea (Papua) in the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua on the island of New Guinea in which the Indonesian government has been accused of conducting a genocidal campaign against the indigenous inhabitants.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Papuan people

Papuan people are the various indigenous peoples of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, speakers of the Papuan languages.

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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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The name Pelasgians (Πελασγοί, Pelasgoí, singular: Πελασγός, Pelasgós) was used by classical Greek writers to either refer to populations that were the ancestors or forerunners of the Greeks, or to signify all pre-classical indigenes of Greece.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.

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Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.

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Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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Prenatal care

Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care, is a type of preventive healthcare.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Rapa Nui people

The Rapa Nui are the aboriginal Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.

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Robert Blust

Robert A. Blust (born 1940) is a prominent linguist in several areas, including historical linguistics, lexicography and ethnology.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian conquest of Siberia

The Russian conquest of Siberia took place in the 16th and 17th centuries, when the Khanate of Sibir had become a loose political structure of vassalages that were being undermined by the activities of Russian explorers.

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Ryukyu Islands

The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Ryukyuan people

The; also Lewchewan or) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people and Ainu. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period (pre 10,000–1,000 BCE) people, who arrived from Southeast Asia, and with the Yamato people who are mostly an admixture of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE–300 CE) migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula). The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.

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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Samoyedic peoples

The Samoyedic people (also Samodeic people) Some ethnologists use the term 'Samodeic people' instead 'Samoyedic', see are the people that speak Samoyedic languages, which are part of the Uralic family.

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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.

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In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.

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The Sentinelese (also called the Sentineli or North Sentinel Islanders) are the indigenous people of North Sentinel Island in the Andaman Islands of India.

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Shakushain's revolt

was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority on Hokkaidō between 1669 and 1672.

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Sinjar Mountains

The Sinjar Mountains (Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار; جبل سنجار; also Shingal\Shengar Mountains) are a mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq to an elevation of.

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Social exclusion

Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.

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Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Sulu Archipelago

The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug: Sūg, Kepulauan Sulu, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.

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Survival International

Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous tribal peoples and uncontacted peoples.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese indigenous peoples

Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.

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Tajiks of Xinjiang

Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.

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Tausūg people

The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.

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Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County

Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County (sometimes spelled Tashkurgan or Tashkorgan) is a county of Kashgar Prefecture in western Xinjiang, China.

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A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.

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The Image Expedition

The Image Expedition is an American not-for-profit organization that produces multi-platform projects, which serve to photograph and document indigenous ways of life that are at risk of disappearing.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.

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Toda people

Toda people are a Dravidian ethnic group who live in the Nilgiri Mountains of Tamil Nadu.

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Torres Strait Islanders

Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.

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A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.

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Tuareg people

The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Uncontacted peoples

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Commission on Human Rights

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII or PFII) is the UN's central coordinating body for matters relating to the concerns and rights of the world's indigenous peoples.

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United Nations special rapporteur

The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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University of Manitoba

The University of Manitoba (U of M, UMN, or UMB) is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada.

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Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international pro-democracy organization.

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Urarina people

The Urarina are an indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin (Loreto) who inhabit the valleys of the Chambira, Urituyacu, and Corrientes Rivers.

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Vietnamese people

The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.

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Virgin soil epidemic

Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby, defining it as epidemics "in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless".

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The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands (Visayan: Kabisay-an,; Kabisayaan), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao.

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Western New Guinea

Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.

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Working Group on Indigenous Populations

The Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) was a subsidiary body within the structure of the United Nations.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.

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The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Zapatista Army of National Liberation

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN), often referred to as the Zapatistas, is a left-wing revolutionary political and militant group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples

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