421 relations: Abe Okpik, Abenaki, Abraham Ulrikab, Adze, Alaska Native religion, Alaska Peninsula, Alberta, Algic languages, Algonquin language, Algonquin people, Americas, Andes, Andrey Korotayev, Anglican Church of Canada, Anglo-Métis, Animism, Anishinaabe, Anthropology, Anthropomorphism, Antler, Apache, Archaic Period (Americas), Archaic period (North America), Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Arctic small tool tradition, Arrow, Assembly of First Nations, Assiniboine language, Athabaskan languages, Atikamekw language, Atlantic Canada, Atlantic Ocean, Atlin, British Columbia, Band government, Band society, Bangle, Barbecue, Basques, Bean, Belmont, Nova Scotia, Beothuk, Beringia, Bill Reid, Birch bark, Bison, Blackfoot Confederacy, Blackfoot language, Bluefish Caves, Bristol Bay, ..., British Columbia, British Museum, British North America Acts, Bungi Creole, Cabinet of Canada, Camel, Canada, Canada 2016 Census, Canadian Aboriginal law, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian English, Canadian French, Canadian Gaelic, Canadian Indian residential school system, Canadian Museum of History, Canoe, Castoroides, Catholic Church in Canada, CBC News, Chert, Chile, Chipewyan, Chipewyan language, Chipmunk, Chisel, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Clovis culture, Coast Salish, Collective noun, Commissioner of the Northwest Territories, Common Era, Complex society, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, Constitution Act, 1867, Constitution Act, 1982, Constitution of Canada, Coquitlam Lake, Coyote, Cree, Cree language, Cucurbita, Cultural assimilation, Cultural imperialism, Culture of Canada, Dance music, Daniels v Canada (Indian Affairs and Northern Development), Deer, Disc number, Dogrib language, Dorset culture, Early human migrations, Editorial URSS, Edmonton Metropolitan Region, Edward VII, Elk, Employment equity (Canada), Eramosa River, Eric Wolf, Eskimo, Eskimo–Aleut languages, Ethnography, Eurocentrism, Fauna, Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians, First language, First Nations, Folsom point, Folsom tradition, Forced assimilation, Fort Langley, Fur trade, Gabriel Dumont Institute, Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Genocide, Genocide Convention, Geography of Canada, George Woodcock, Georgian Bay, Girl Guides of Canada, Gitxsan, Glacial refugium, Gourd, Government of Canada, Governor General of Canada, Gradual Civilization Act, Great Lakes, Great Plains, Greenland, Greenlandic Inuit, Groundhog, Gwich’in language, Haida people, Hamburg, Hammock, HarperCollins, Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Health Canada, Hecate Strait, Heiltsuk, Hide (skin), Historica Canada, History of Canada, Holocene, Hopewell tradition, Horn (anatomy), Horticulture, Hunter-gatherer, Hyena, Independence II culture, Index of articles related to Indigenous Canadians, Indian Act, Indian agent (Canada), Indian Department, Indian Health Transfer Policy, Indian Register, Indian reserve, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Eastern Woodlands, Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic, Infant mortality, Innu, Innu language, International court, Inuinnaqtun, Inuit, Inuit cuisine, Inuit culture, Inuit languages, Inuit religion, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Inuit throat singing, Inuksuk, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, Iroquoian languages, Iroquois, Jargon, Kainai Nation, Kiviaq (lawyer), Knapping, Kwakwaka'wakw, Lacrosse, Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe, Land claim, Languages of Canada, Last Glacial Maximum, Laurel Complex, Laurentian language, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Laurentides, Law of Canada, Leonid Grinin, Lethbridge, Linguistics, List of archaeological periods (North America), List of First Nations peoples, List of Indian reserves in Canada, List of place names in Canada of Indigenous origin, List of regions of Canada, Lithic reduction, Lithic technology, Longhouse, Louis Riel, Mackenzie River, Maliseet, Manitoba, Maple syrup, Marine mammal, Maritime Archaic, Masks among Eskimo peoples, Mastodon, Métis French, Métis in Canada, Métis National Council, Māori people, Meech Lake Accord, Menominee, Mi'kmaq, Mi'kmaq language, Michif, Microblade technology, Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs, Mixed-blood, Monarchy of Canada, Moose, Mound Builders, Mungo Martin, Musical instrument, Muskox, Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Na-Dene languages, Nation state, National Aboriginal Health Organization, National Historic Sites of Canada, National Indigenous Peoples Day, Native American religion, Native Americans in the United States, Native Friendship Centre, Native Women's Association of Canada, Navajo, New Brunswick, New England, New World, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nisga'a, Nomad, North-West Rebellion, Northwest Territories, Norval Morrisseau, Nova Scotia, Numbered Treaties, Nunamiut, Nunavut, Nuu-chah-nulth, Ochre, Oji-Cree language, Ojibwe language, Oka Crisis, Old Copper Complex, Old Crow Flats, Ontario, Orcadians, Ottawa, Ovide Mercredi, Pacific coast, Paleo-Arctic Tradition, Paleo-Indians, Pejorative, Penutian languages, Percussion mallet, Peter Turchin, Pinniped, Plains Indians, Plano cultures, Plano point, Pleistocene, PLOS One, Point Peninsula Complex, Politics of Canada, Popular Science, Potlatch, Pottery, Pre-Columbian era, Pre-Dorset, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Prince Edward Island, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Projectile point, Pronghorn, Pronunciation respelling, Provinces and territories of Canada, Public holidays in Canada, Quaternary glaciation, Quebec, Quebec City, Queen Charlotte Sound (Canada), R v Powley, Raccoon, Rain shadow, Rattle (percussion instrument), Rebecca Belmore, Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Red Paint People, Red River Rebellion, Reference Re Eskimos, Reindeer, Rocky Mountains, Roméo LeBlanc, Royal Commission, Royal Proclamation of 1763, Rupert's Land, Saint Lawrence River, Salishan languages, Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan River, Saugeen Complex, Saulteaux, Scouts Canada, Scraper (archaeology), Sea level rise, Section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, Sedentary lifestyle, Self-governance, Senakw, Settlement of the Americas, Settler colonialism, Shifting cultivation, Siberia, Sign language, Siouan languages, Sioux language, Skræling, Skunk, Slavey, Slavey language, Small population size, Smithsonian Institution, Snowshoe, Society, Southern Ontario, Sovereignty, Spear, Statistics Canada, Stave Lake, Stephen Harper, Steppe bison, Sto:lo, Stony Plain Indian Reserve No. 135, Subarctic, Sun Dance, Supreme Court of Canada, Surname, Taiga, Tanya Tagaq, Tłı̨chǫ, Teslin, Yukon, The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada, The Canadian Encyclopedia, The Crown, Thule people, Timeline of the European colonization of North America, Tlingit, Tlingit noun, Toboggan, Tom Jackson (actor), Tony Whitford, Treaty, Treaty 7, Treaty 8, Treaty of Waitangi, Trial of Louis Riel, Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Canada), Tsimshian, Tsimshianic languages, Tsuu T'ina Nation, Tug of war, Tutchone language, University of Chicago Press, University of Northern British Columbia, University of Saskatchewan, University of South Dakota, Uummarmiut, Vancouver, Vancouver Island, Venice Biennale, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Visible minority, Wakashan languages, Washington, D.C., Wendake, Quebec, Western Ojibwa language, Wisconsin glaciation, Woodland period, Woolly mammoth, Wyandot people, Xá:ytem, Younger Dryas, Yukon, Yupik, Yupik languages, Zoo, 2010 Winter Olympics, 7th millennium BC. 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Abraham "Abe" Okpik, CM (12 January 1928 – 10 July 1997) was an Inuit community leader in Canada.
The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.
Abraham Ulrikab (January 29, 1845 - January 13, 1881) was an Inuk from Hebron, Labrador, in the present day province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, who – along with his family and four other Inuit – agreed to become the latest attraction in the ethnographical shows organized by Carl Hagenbeck, owner of the Tierpark Hagenbeck, a zoo in Hamburg, Germany.
The adze (alternative spelling: adz) is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age.
Traditional Alaskan Native religion involves mediation between people and spirits, souls, and other immortal beings.
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
The Algic (also Algonquian–Wiyot–Yurok or Algonquian–Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America.
Algonquin (also spelled Algonkin; in Algonquin: Anicinàbemowin or Anishinàbemiwin) is either a distinct Algonquian language closely related to the Ojibwe language or a particularly divergent Ojibwe dialect.
The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.
The Anglican Church of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
A 19th century community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, although an oxymoron are more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of fur traders; they typically had Scots (Orcadian, mainland Scottish), or English fathers and Aboriginal mothers.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anishinaabe (or Anishinabe, plural: Anishinaabeg) is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States that are the Odawa, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and Algonquin peoples.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
Antlers are extensions of an animal's skull found in members of the deer family.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.
Several chronologies in the archaeology of the Americas include an Archaic Period or Archaic stage etc.
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
The Arctic Small Tool tradition (ASTt) was a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2500 BC.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is an assembly, modelled on the United Nations General Assembly, of First Nations (Indian bands) represented by their chiefs.
The Assiniboine language (also known as Assiniboin, Hohe, or Nakota, Nakoda, Nakon or Nakona, or Stoney) is a Nakotan Siouan language of the Northern Plains.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Atikamekw, which the endonym is Atikamekw Nehiromowin, literally the "Atikamekw Native language", is an Algonquian language, Cree, is the language of the Atikamekw people of southwestern Quebec.
Atlantic Canada is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Atlin (Tlingit: Áa Tlein) is a community in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, located on the eastern shore of Atlin Lake.
In Canada, an Indian band or band, sometimes referred to as a First Nation band or simply a First Nation, is the basic unit of government for those peoples subject to the Indian Act (i.e. Status Indians or First Nations).
A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.
Bangles are rigid bracelets, usually from metal, wood, glass or plastic.
Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ or barbie) is a cooking method, a style of food, and a name for a meal or gathering at which this style of food is cooked and served.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Belmont is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in Colchester County.
The Beothuk (or; also spelled Beothuck) were an indigenous people based on the island of Newfoundland.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
William Ronald "Bill" Reid Jr., OBC (–) (Haida) was a Canadian artist whose works include jewelry, sculpture, screen-printing, and paintings.
Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people"Compare to Ojibwe: Anishinaabeg and Quinnipiac: Eansketambawg) is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
The Blackfoot language, also called Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ, its denomination in ISO 639-3), (Siksiká siksiká, syllabics ᓱᖽᐧᖿ), often anglicised as Siksika, is an Algonquian language spoken by the Niitsitapi people, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America.
Bluefish Caves is an archaeological site in Yukon, Canada, located southwest of the Vuntut Gwichin community of Old Crow, from which a specimen of allegedly human-worked mammoth bone has been radiocarbon dated to 28,000 years before present (BP), earlier than the generally accepted age for habitation of the New World.
Bristol Bay (Iilgayaq in Central Yup'ik, Залив Бристольский) is the eastern-most arm of the Bering Sea, at 57° to 59° North 157° to 162° West in Southwest Alaska.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts at the core of the constitution of Canada.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada 2016 Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688.
Canadian Aboriginal law is the body of Canadian law that concerns a variety of issues related to Indigenous peoples in Canada.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.
Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by people in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.
The Canadian Museum of History (Musée canadien de l’histoire), formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization (Musée canadien des civilisations), is Canada's national museum of human history.
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
Castoroides, or giant beaver, is an extinct genus of enormous beavers that lived in North America during the Pleistocene.
The Catholic Church in Canada is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chipewyan (Denésoliné or Dënesųłı̨né, meaning "people of the barrens") are an aboriginal Dene ethnolinguistic group of the Athabaskan language family, whose ancestors are identified with the Taltheilei Shale archaeological tradition.
Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.
Chipmunks are small, striped rodents of the family Sciuridae.
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.
The Coast Salish is a group of ethnically and linguistically related indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, living in British Columbia, Canada and the U.S. states of Washington and Oregon.
In linguistics, a collective noun refers to a collection of things taken as a whole.
The Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (Commissaire des Territoires du Nord-Ouest) is the Government of Canada’s representative in the Northwest Territories.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
The Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP) (formerly the Native Council of Canada and briefly the Indigenous Peoples Assembly of Canada), founded in 1971, is a national Canadian aboriginal organization, that represents Aboriginal peoples (Non-Status, and Status Indians, Métis and Southern Inuit) who live off Indian reserves, in either urban or rural areas across Canada.
The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.
The Constitution Act, 1982 (Schedule B of the Parliament of the United Kingdom's Canada Act 1982) is a part of the Constitution of Canada.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
Coquitlam Lake is a reservoir located just north of Coquitlam, British Columbia.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.
The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
is a case of the Supreme Court of Canada, ruling that Métis and non-status Indians are "Indians" for the purpose of s 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Disc numbers, or ujamiit or ujamik in the Inuit language, were used by the Government of Canada in lieu of surnames for the Inuit and were similar to dog-tags.
The Dogrib" language or Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib people) of the Canadian Northwest Territories.
The Dorset was a Paleo-Eskimo culture, lasting from 500 BC to between 1000 and 1500 AD, that followed the Pre-Dorset and preceded the Inuit in the Arctic of North America.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
Editorial URSS is a Russian scientific literature publishing house (textbooks, monographs, journals, proceedings of Russian institutes and universities, etc.). Since 1995, Editorial URSS has issued more than 9000 items in Russian, Spanish, and English.
The Edmonton Metropolitan Region (EMR), also commonly referred to as the Alberta Capital Region, Greater Edmonton or Metro Edmonton, is a conglomeration of municipalities centred on Alberta's provincial capital of Edmonton.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.
Employment equity, as defined in federal Canadian law by the Employment Equity Act, requires federal jurisdiction employers to engage in proactive employment practices to increase the representation of four designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities.
The Eramosa River is a river in Wellington County in southwestern Ontario which rises near Erin, Ontario, and flows southwest through the city of Guelph, where it joins the Speed River, which then enters the Grand River in Cambridge.
Eric Robert Wolf (February 1, 1923 – March 6, 1999) was an anthropologist, best known for his studies of peasants, Latin America, and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology.
Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
The position of Federal Interlocutor for Métis and Non-Status Indians was created in 1985 as a portfolio in the Canadian Cabinet.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Folsom points are a distinct form of knapped stone projectile points associated with the Folsom Tradition of North America.
The Folsom Complex is a name given by archaeologists to a specific Paleo-Indian archaeological culture that occupied much of central North America.
Forced assimilation is a process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups that is forced into an established and generally larger community.
Fort Langley is a village community forming part of the Township of Langley in British Columbia, Canada.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
The Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research Inc. (GDI) was formally incorporated as a non-profit corporation in 1980, to serve the educational and cultural needs of the Saskatchewan Métis and Non-Status Indian community.
The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
The geography of Canada describes the geographic features of Canada, the world's second largest country in total area.
George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.
Georgian Bay (French: Baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located entirely within Ontario, Canada.
Girl Guides of Canada – Guides du Canada (GGC) is the national Guiding association of Canada.
Gitxsan (also spelled Gitksan) are an indigenous people of Canada whose home territory comprises most of the area known as the Skeena Country in English (Git: means "people of" and Xsan: means "the River of Mist").
A glacial refugium (plural refugia) is a geographic region which made possible the survival of flora and fauna in times of ice ages and allowed a post-glacial re-colonization.
A gourd is a plant of the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria or the fruit of the two genera of Bignoniaceae "calabash tree", Crescentia and Amphitecna.
The Government of Canada (Gouvernement du Canada), formally Her Majesty's Government (Gouvernement de Sa Majesté), is the federal administration of Canada.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Act to Encourage the Gradual Civilization of Indian Tribes in this Province, and to Amend the Laws Relating to Indians (commonly known as the Gradual Civilization Act) was a bill passed by the 5th Parliament of the Province of Canada in 1857.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenlandic Inuit (kalaallit) are the most populous ethnic group in Greenland.
The groundhog (Marmota monax), also known as a woodchuck, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots.
The Gwich’in language (Dinju Zhuh K’yuu) belongs to the Athabaskan language family and is spoken by the Gwich’in First Nation (Canada) / Alaska Native People (United States).
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
A hammock (from Spanish hamaca, borrowed from Taino and Arawak hamaka) is a sling made of fabric, rope, or netting, suspended between two or more points, used for swinging, sleeping, or resting.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump is a buffalo jump located where the foothills of the Rocky Mountains begin to rise from the prairie 18 km west of Fort Macleod, Alberta, Canada on highway 785.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Hecate Strait (Haida language: K̲andaliig̲wii, also siigaay which means simply "ocean") is a wide but shallow strait between the Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands) and the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.
The Heiltsuk, also Bella Bella, are an Indigenous people of the Central Coast region in British Columbia, centred on the island community of Bella Bella.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
Historica Canada is the country's largest organization dedicated to enhancing awareness of Canadian history and citizenship.
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
Independence II was a Paleo-Eskimo culture that flourished in northern and northeastern Greenland from around 700 to 80 BC, north and south of the Independence Fjord.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Canadian Indigenous peoples, comprising the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples.
The Indian Act (An Act respecting Indians, Loi sur les Indiens), (the Act) is a Canadian Act of Parliament that concerns registered Indians, their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
Indian agent is the title of a position in Canada mandated by the Indian Act of that country.
The Indian Department was established in 1755 to oversee relations between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and those First Nations in British North America.
The Indian Health Transfer Policy of Canada, provided a framework for the assumption of control of health services by Aboriginal Canadians and set forth a developmental approach to transfer centred on the concept of self-determination in health.
The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada.
In Canada, an Indian reserve (réserve indienne) is specified by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." First Nations reserves are the areas set aside for First Nations people after a contract with the Canadian state ("the Crown"), and are not to be confused with land claims areas, which involve all of that First Nations' traditional lands: a much larger territory than any other reserve.
The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), referred to by its applied title under the Federal Identity Program as Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), (Affaires autochtones et du Nord Canada), is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples in Canada, that comprise the First Nations, Inuit, and Métis.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Eastern Woodlands is a cultural area of the indigenous people of North America.
Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau, also referred to by the phrase Indigenous peoples of the Plateau, and historically called the Plateau Indians (though comprising many groups) are indigenous peoples of the Interior of British Columbia, Canada, and the non-coastal regions of the United States Pacific Northwest states.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic are the aboriginal peoples who live in the Subarctic regions of the Americas, Asia and Europe, located south of the true Arctic.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.
Innu-aimun or Montagnais is an Algonquian language spoken by over 10,000 Innu in Labrador and Quebec in Eastern Canada.
International courts are formed by treaties between nations or under the authority of an international organization such as the United Nations and include ad hoc tribunals and permanent institutions but exclude any courts arising purely under national authority.
Inuinnaqtun (natively meaning like the real human beings/peoples), is an indigenous Inuit language of Canada and a dialect of Inuvialuktun.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit consume a diet of foods that are fished, hunted, and gathered locally.
Inuit describes the various groups of indigenous peoples who live throughout Inuit Nunangat, that is the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut of Northern Canada, Nunavik in Quebec and Nunatsiavut in Labrador, as well as in Greenland.
The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ, literally "Inuit United with Canada") is a nonprofit organization in Canada that represents over 60,000 Inuit.
Inuit throat singing, or katajjaq, is a form of musical performance uniquely found among the Inuit.
An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) (from the Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᒃᓱᒃ, plural ᐃᓄᒃᓱᐃᑦ; alternatively inukhuk in Inuinnaqtun, iñuksuk in Iñupiaq, inussuk in Greenlandic or inukshuk in English) is a human-made stone landmark or cairn used by the Inuit, Iñupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Inuvialuktun, also known as Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut, and Western Canadian Inuktun, comprises several Inuit language varieties spoken in the northern Northwest Territories and Nunavut by those Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
The Kainai Nation (or Káínawa, or Blood Tribe) is a First Nations band government in southern Alberta, Canada, with a population of 1000 members in 2005.
Kiviaq (also known as David Charles Ward;>, at Catbird Productions; 2006; retrieved January 9, 2013 January 23, 1936 – April 24, 2016) was a Canadian Inuit lawyer, politician, and former sportsman.
Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration.
The Kwakiutl (natively Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw "Kwak'wala-speaking peoples") are a Pacific Northwest Coast Indigenous people.
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball.
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, Canada, the fourth-largest lake wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, and Lake Nipissing.
Land claim(s) are a legal declaration of desired control over areas of property including bodies of water.
A multitude of languages are used in Canada.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Laurel Complex was a Native American culture in southern Quebec, southern and northwestern Ontario and east-central Manitoba in Canada and northern Michigan, northwestern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota in the United States.
Laurentian, or St.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
The Laurentides is a region of Quebec.
The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the English common law system, inherited from being a former colony of the United Kingdom and later a Commonwealth Realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Leonid Efimovich Grinin (Леони́д Ефи́мович Гри́нин; born in 1958) is a Russian philosopher of history, sociologist, political anthropologist, economist, and futurologist.
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
North American archaeological periods divides the history of pre-Columbian North America into a number of named successive eras or periods, from the earliest-known human habitation through to the early Colonial period which followed the European colonization of the Americas.
The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area.
Canada has numerous Indian reserves for its First Nations people, which were mostly established by the Indian Act of 1876 and have been variously expanded and reduced by royal commissions since.
This list of place names in Canada of Indigenous origin contains Canadian places whose names originate from the words of the First Nations, Métis, or Inuit, collectively referred to as Indigenous peoples.
The list of regions of Canada is a summary of geographical areas on a hierarchy that ranges from national (groups of provinces and territories) at the top to local regions and sub-regions of provinces at the bottom.
In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts.
Lithic technology refers to a broad array of techniques and styles in archaeology, which are used to produce usable tools from various types of stone.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Louis David Riel (22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies.
The Mackenzie River (Slavey language: Deh-Cho, big river or Inuvialuktun: Kuukpak, great river; fleuve (de) Mackenzie) is the longest river system in Canada, and has the second largest drainage basin of any North American river after the Mississippi River.
The Wolastoqiyik, or Maliseet (also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation of the Wabanaki Confederacy.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
The Maritime Archaic is a North American cultural complex of the Late Archaic along the coast of Newfoundland, the Canadian Maritimes and northern New England.
Masks among Eskimo peoples served a variety of functions.
Mastodons (Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") are any species of extinct proboscideans in the genus Mammut (family Mammutidae), distantly related to elephants, that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene or late Pliocene up to their extinction at the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 to 11,000 years ago.
Métis French (français métis), along with Michif and Bungi, is one of the traditional languages of the Métis people, and the French-dialect source of Michif.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
The Métis National Council (Ralliement national des Métis) is the representative body of the Métis people of northwestern Canada.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
The Meech Lake Accord (Accord du lac Meech) was a series of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and all 10 Canadian provincial premiers.
The Menominee (also spelled Menomini, derived from the Ojibwe language word for "Wild Rice People;" known as Mamaceqtaw, "the people," in the Menominee language) are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, with a reservation in Wisconsin.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
The Mi'kmaq language (spelled and pronounced Micmac historically and now always Migmaw or Mikmaw in English, and Míkmaq, Míkmaw or Mìgmao in Mi'kmaq) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000.
Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota, and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French and Scottish Canadians).
Microblade technology is a period of technological development marked by the creation and use of small stone blades, which are produced by chipping silica-rich stones like chert, quartz, or obsidian.
The Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs is one of two Ministers of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet responsible for overseeing the federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and administering the Indian Act and other legislation dealing with "Indians and lands reserved for the Indians" under subsection 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867.
The term mixed-blood in the United States is most often employed for individuals of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.
The various cultures collectively termed Mound Builders were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.
Chief Mungo Martin or Nakapenkem (lit. Potlatch chief "ten times over"), Datsa (lit. "grandfather"), was an important figure in Northwest Coast style art, specifically that of the Kwakwaka'wakw Aboriginal people who live in the area of British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
The mythologies of the indigenous peoples of North America comprise many bodies of traditional narratives associated with religion from a mythographical perspective.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Aboriginal Health Organization (NAHO) (Organisation nationale de la santé autochtone (ONSA), ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᓄᓇᖃᖅᑳᖅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᐋᓐᓂᐊᕐᓇᖕᒋᓐᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᕐᑲᑎᖐᑦ), was an Aboriginal-designed and -controlled not-for-profit body in Canada that worked to influence and advance the health and well-being of Aboriginal Peoples.
National Historic Sites of Canada (Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC), as being of national historic significance.
National Indigenous Peoples Day (French: Journée nationale des peuples autochtones) is a day recognising and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Indigenous peoples in Canada.
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Friendship Centres are non-profit community organizations that provide services to urban Inuit, Métis, and First Nations (Status and Non-Status) people.
The Native Women's Association of Canada (NWAC), or Association des Femmes Autochtones au Canada (AFAC) in French, is one of Canada's National Aboriginal Organizations, and represents Aboriginal women, particularly First Nations and Métis.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisg̱a’a (pronounced), are an Indigenous people of Canada in British Columbia.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The North-West Rebellion (or the North-West Resistance, Saskatchewan Rebellion, Northwest Uprising, or Second Riel Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people under Louis Riel and an associated uprising by First Nations Cree and Assiniboine of the District of Saskatchewan against the government of Canada.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norval Morrisseau, CM (March 14, 1932 – December 4, 2007), also known as Copper Thunderbird, was an Aboriginal Canadian artist.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Numbered Treaties (or Post-Confederation Treaties) are a series of eleven treaties signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada (or First Nations) and the reigning monarch of Canada (Victoria, Edward VII or George V) from 1871 to 1921.
The Nunamiut or Nunatamiut (Nunataaġmiut,, "People of the Land") are semi-nomadic inland Iñupiat located in the northern and northwestern Alaskan interior, mostly around Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
The Nuu-chah-nulth (Nuučaan̓uł), also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth or Tahkaht, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in Canada.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
The Severn Ojibwa or the Oji-Cree language (ᐊᓂᐦᔑᓂᓃᒧᐏᐣ, Anishininiimowin; Unpointed: ᐊᓂᔑᓂᓂᒧᐏᐣ) is the indigenous name for a dialect of the Ojibwe language spoken in a series of Oji-Cree communities in northern Ontario and at Island Lake, Manitoba, Canada.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
The Oka Crisis (Crise d'Oka) was a land dispute between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka, Quebec, Canada, which began on July 11, 1990, and lasted 78 days until September 26, 1990 with one fatality.
Old Copper Complex is a term used for ancient Native North American societies known to have been heavily involved in the utilization of copper for weaponry and tools.
Old Crow Flats is a wetland complex in northern Yukon, Canada along the Old Crow River.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Orcadians are the people who live in or come from the Orkney islands of Scotland.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Ovide William Mercredi (born January 30, 1946) is a Canadian politician.
A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.
The Paleo-Arctic Tradition is the name given by archaeologists to the cultural tradition of the earliest well-documented human occupants of the North American Arctic, which date from the period 8000–5000 BC.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Penutian is a proposed grouping of language families that includes many Native American languages of western North America, predominantly spoken at one time in Washington, Oregon, and California.
A percussion mallet or beater is an object used to strike or beat a percussion instrument in order to produce its sound.
Peter Valentinovich Turchin (Пётр Валенти́нович Турчи́н; born 1957) is a Russian-American scientist, specializing in cultural evolution and "cliodynamics" — mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of the dynamics of historical societies.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.
The Plano cultures is a name given by archaeologists to a group of disparate hunter-gatherer communities that occupied the Great Plains area of North America during the Paleo-Indian period in the United States and the Paleo-Indian or Archaic period in Canada.
In archeology, Plano point is flaked stone projectile points and tools created by the various Plano cultures of the North American Great Plains between 9000 BC and 6000 BC for hunting, and possibly to kill other humans.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
The Point Peninsula Complex was an indigenous culture located in Ontario and New York from 600 BCE to 700 CE (during the Middle Woodland period).
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States,Harkin, Michael E., 2001, Potlatch in Anthropology, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., vol 17, pp.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The Pre-Dorset is a loosely defined term for a Paleo-Eskimo culture or group of cultures that existed in the Eastern Canadian Arctic from c. 3200 to 850 cal BC, and preceded the Dorset culture.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to weapon that was capable of being thrown or projected, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife.
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America.
A pronunciation respelling is a regular phonetic respelling of a word that does have a standard spelling, so as to indicate the pronunciation.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Public holidays in Canada, known as statutory holidays, stat holidays, or simply stats, consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in Canada at the federal or provincial and territorial levels.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Queen Charlotte Sound is a sound of the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia, Canada, between Vancouver Island in the south and Haida Gwaii (formerly Queen Charlotte Islands) in the north.
, commonly called the Powley ruling, is a Supreme Court of Canada case defining Métis Aboriginal rights under section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982.
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken.
Rebecca Belmore (born 1960) is an interdisciplinary Anishinaabekwe artist who is particularly notable for politically conscious and socially aware performance and installation work.
Red Bay is a fishing village in Labrador, notable as one of the most precious underwater archaeological sites in the Americas.
The Red Paint People are a Pre-Columbian culture indigenous to the New England and Atlantic Canada regions of North America.
The Red River Resistance (or the Red River Rebellion, Red River uprising, or First Riel Rebellion) was the sequence of events that led up to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
is a decision by the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the constitutional status of Canada's Inuit people, then called "Eskimos." The case concerned section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, then the British North America Act, 1867, which assigns jurisdiction over "Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians" to the federal government.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Roméo-Adrien LeBlanc (December 18, 1928June 24, 2009) was a Canadian journalist, politician, and statesman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 25th since Canadian Confederation.
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
The Saskatchewan River (Cree: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, "swift flowing river") is a major river in Canada, about long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to empty into Lake Winnipeg.
The Saugeen Complex was a Native American culture located around the southeast shores of Lake Huron and the Bruce Peninsula, around the London area, and possibly as far east as the Grand River.
The Saulteaux (pronounced,; also written Salteaux and many other variants) are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
Scouts Canada is a Canadian Scouting association providing programs for young people of all genders aged 5 to 26, with the stated aim "to help develop well rounded youth, better prepared for success in the world.". Scouts Canada, in affiliation with the French-language Association des Scouts du Canada, is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM).
In prehistoric archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools thought to have been used for hideworking and woodworking.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
Section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the first section under the heading "General" in the Charter, and like other sections within the "General" sphere, it aids in the interpretation of rights elsewhere in the Charter.
Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 provides constitutional protection to the indigenous and treaty rights of indigenous peoples in Canada.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Sen̓áḵw (Squamish) or sən̓aʔqʷ (Halkomelem), rendered in English as Snawk, Snawq, Sneawq, or Snawkw, is a village site of the Indigenous Squamish band government, located near what is now known as the Kitsilano neighbourhood of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers.
Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains, Ohio and Mississippi valleys and southeastern North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
Sioux is a Siouan language spoken by over 30,000 Sioux in the United States and Canada, making it the fifth most spoken indigenous language in the United States or Canada, behind Navajo, Cree, Inuit languages and Ojibwe.
Skræling (Old Norse and Icelandic: skrælingi, plural skrælingjar) is the name the Norse Greenlanders used for the peoples they encountered in North America and Greenland.
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae.
The Slavey (also Slave and South Slavey) are a First Nations aboriginal people of the Dene group, indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canada's Northwest Territories, and extending into northeastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta.
Slavey (also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status.
Small populations can behave differently from larger populations.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Stave Lake is a lake and reservoir for the production of hydroelectricity in the Stave River system, located on the northern edge of the District of Mission, about east of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian economist, entrepreneur, and retired politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, from February 6, 2006, to November 4, 2015.
The steppe bison or steppe wisent (Bison priscus) – Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre.
The Sto:lo, alternately written as Stó:lō, Stó:lô, or Stó:lõ and historically, as Staulo or Stahlo, and historically known and commonly referred to in ethnographic literature as the Fraser River Indians or Lower Fraser Salish, are a group of First Nations peoples inhabiting the Fraser Valley and lower Fraser Canyon of British Columbia, Canada.
Stony Plain 135 is an Indian reserve in central Alberta, Canada in Division No. 11.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by some Indigenous people of United States of America and Canada, primarily those of the Plains cultures.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tanya Tagaq (born Tanya Tagaq Gillis, May 5, 1975) is a Canadian (Inuk) throat singer from Cambridge Bay (Iqaluktuutiaq), Nunavut, Canada, on the south coast of Victoria Island.
The Tłı̨chǫ people, sometimes spelled Tlicho and also known as the Dogrib, are a Dene First Nations people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group living in the Northwest Territories, Canada.
The community of Teslin includes the Village of Teslin in Yukon, Canada.
The association between the Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada stretches back to the first decisions between North American Indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and Indigenous tribes.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Thule or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Inuit.
This is a chronology and timeline of the colonization of North America, with founding dates of selected European settlements.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
Like nouns in many Native American languages, the Tlingit noun is easily conceptualized but difficult to formally define.
A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada.
Thomas Dale Jackson, OC (born 27 October 1948), is a Canadian-born Métis actor and singer perhaps best known for the annual series of Christmas concerts, called the Huron Carole, which he created and starred in for 18 years.
Anthony Wilfred James Whitford (born June 11, 1941) is a retired Canadian politician and former Commissioner of the Northwest Territories.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Treaty 7 was an agreement between Queen Victoria and several, mainly Blackfoot, First Nation band governments in what is today the southern portion of Alberta.
Treaty 8 was an agreement signed on June 21, 1899, between Queen Victoria and various First Nations of the Lesser Slave Lake area.
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
The trial of Louis Riel is arguably the most famous trial in the history of Canada.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) was a truth and reconciliation commission organized by the parties of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.
The Tsimshian (Coast Tsimshian: Ts’msyan) are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
The Tsimshianic languages are a family of languages spoken in northwestern British Columbia and in Southeast Alaska on Annette Island and Ketchikan.
The Tsuut'ina Nation (also Tsu T’ina, Tsuu T’ina, Tsúùtínà - "a great number of people"; formerly Sarcee, Sarsi) is a First Nation in Canada.
Tug of war (also known as war of tug, tug o' war, tug war, rope war, rope pulling, tugging war or toutrek) is a sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull.
Tutchone is a Athabaskan language spoken by the Northern and Southern Tutchone First Nations in central and southern regions of Yukon Territory, Canada.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) is a small, research-intensive university, the main campus of which is located in Prince George, British Columbia.
The University of Saskatchewan (U of S) is a Canadian public research university, founded on March 19, 1907, and located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
The University of South Dakota (or informally USD) is a public coeducational research (R2) university located in the small town community of Vermillion, South Dakota.
The Uummarmiut (people of the green trees) is the name given to the Inuvialuit who live predominantly in the Mackenzie Delta communities of Aklavik and Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.
The Venice Biennale (La Biennale di Venezia; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization organizes.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states.
A visible minority is defined by the Canadian government as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".
Wakashan is a family of languages spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, and in the northwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wendake is the current name for an urban reserve of the Huron-Wendat Nation in the Canadian province of Quebec.
Western Ojibwa (also known as Nakawēmowin (ᓇᐦᑲᐌᒧᐎᓐ), Saulteaux, and Plains Ojibwa) is a dialect of the Ojibwe language, a member of the Algonquian language family.
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period.
The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) is an extinct species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene epoch, and was one of the last in a line of mammoth species, beginning with Mammuthus subplanifrons in the early Pliocene.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
X̲áːytem is an indigenous archaeological site and the name of a related museum run under the auspices of the Stoːlo people at Hatzic, British Columbia, Canada.
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.
The Yupik languages are the several distinct languages of the several Yupik peoples of western and south-central Alaska and northeastern Siberia.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.
The 7th millennium BC spanned the years 7000 through 6001 BC.
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