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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

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The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. [1]

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W. Norton & Company, Warao people, Wayuu people, Weaving, West Coast of the United States, West Indies, Western culture, White Colombians, Wichí, Wiigwaasabak, Wind instrument, Wisconsin glaciation, World Health Organization, Writing, Wyandot people, Xinca people, Xincan languages, Ye'kuana, Yellow fever, Yenisei River, Yucatán, Yucatán Peninsula, Yucatec Maya language, Yup'ik, Yupik, Zambo, Zapotec civilization, Zapotec peoples, Zapotecan languages, Zea (plant), Zona Sur, Zygosity, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, 1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic, 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic. Expand index (564 more) »

ABC Online

ABC Online is the brand name in Australia for the online services of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, managed by ABC Innovation.

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ABC-CLIO

ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.

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Abdalá Bucaram

Abdalá Jaime Bucaram Ortiz (born February 4, 1952) is an Ecuadorian politician and lawyer who was President of Ecuador from August 10, 1996, to February 6, 1997.

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Abugida

An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

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Achuar

The Achuar are an Amazonian community of some 18,500 individuals along either side of the border in between Ecuador and Peru.

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Acorn squash

Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo var. turbinata), also called pepper squash or Des Moines squash, is a winter squash with distinctive longitudinal ridges on its exterior and sweet, yellow-orange flesh inside.

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Afro-Hondurans

Afro-Hondurans or Black Hondurans are Hondurans of African descent.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ainu people

The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).

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Alaska Native Language Center

The, established in 1972 in Fairbanks, Alaska, is a research center focusing on the research and documentation of the Native languages of Alaska.

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Alaska Natives

Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.

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Alaskan Athabaskans

The Alaskan Athabascans, Alaskan Athabaskans, Alaskan AthapaskansWilliam Simeone, A History of Alaskan Athapaskans, 1982, Alaska Historical Commission (атабаски Аляски or атапаски Аляски) are Alaska Native peoples of the Northern Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group.

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Aleut

The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Altai people

The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai.

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Altai Republic

The Altai Republic (Респу́блика Алта́й, Respublika Altay,; Altai: Алтай Республика, Altay Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Alutiiq

The Alutiiq people (pronounced in English; from Promyshlenniki Russian Алеутъ, "Aleut"; plural often "Alutiit"), also called by their ancestral name Sugpiaq (or; plural often "Sugpiat") as well as Pacific Eskimo or Pacific Yupik, are a southern coastal people of Alaska Natives.

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Amazon basin

The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Indian Wars

The American Indian Wars (or Indian Wars) is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States government and American settlers, against various American Indian tribes.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amur Oblast

Amur Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East.

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Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anishinaabe

Anishinaabe (or Anishinabe, plural: Anishinaabeg) is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States that are the Odawa, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and Algonquin peoples.

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Anzick Clovis burial

The Anzick Site (24PA506) in Park County, Montana, United States, is the only known Clovis burial site in the New World.

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Anzick-1

Anzick-1 is the name given to the remains of Paleo-Indian male infant found in western Montana, U.S. in 1968 that date to 12,707–12,556 years BP.

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Apache

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.

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Apache fiddle

The Apache fiddle (Apache: tsii" edo'a'tl, "wood that sings") is a bowed string instrument used by the indigenous Apache people of the southwestern United States.

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Aquaculture

Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.

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Araucanía Region

The La Araucanía, La Araucanía Region (Región de La Araucanía) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.

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Arauco War

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

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Arawak

The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archaeology of the Americas

The archaeology of the Americas is the study of the archaeology of North America (Mesoamerica included), Central America, South America and the Caribbean.

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Archaic period (North America)

In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arica y Parinacota Region

The Arica and Parinacota Region (Región de Arica y Parinacota) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.

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Atacama people

The Atacama people, known as atacameños or atacamas in Spanish and kunzas, likan-antai or likanantaí in English, are an indigenous people from the Atacama Desert and altiplano region in the north of Chile and Argentina and southern Bolivia.

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Athabaskan languages

Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).

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Autosome

An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).

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Avocado

The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

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Awa-Kwaiker

The Awá, also known as the Kwaiker or Awa-Kwaiker, are an ancient indigenous people of Ecuador and Colombia.

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Aymara language

Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Aymara people

The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.

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Aztec codices

Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.

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Aztec Empire

The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance (Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, ˈjéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥), began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: italic, italic, and italic.

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Aztec society

Pre-Columbian Aztec society was a highly complex and stratified society that developed among the Aztecs of central Mexico in the centuries prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico, and which was built on the cultural foundations of the larger region of Mesoamerica.

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Aztec writing

Aztec or Nahuatl writing is pre-Columbian writing system that combines ideographic writing with Nahuatl specific phonetic logograms and syllabic signs which was used in central Mexico by the Nahua people.

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Aztecs

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Baoruco Mountain Range

The Baoruco Mountain Range—Sierra de Baoruco (or Sierra de Bahoruco) is a mountain range located in the far southwestern region of the Dominican Republic.

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Bartolomé de las Casas

Bartolomé de las Casas (1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.

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Basket weaving

Basket weaving (also basketry or basket making) is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or threedimensional artefacts, such as mats or containers.

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Beadwork

Beadwork is the art or craft of attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire, or sewing them to cloth.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Belize

Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.

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Bell pepper

The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.

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Benito Juárez

Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

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Bering Sea

The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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Beringia

Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Birch bark

Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.

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Bison

Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.

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Blackfoot Confederacy

The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people"Compare to Ojibwe: Anishinaabeg and Quinnipiac: Eansketambawg) is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.

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Blood quantum laws

Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are those enacted in the United States and the former colonies to define qualification by ancestry as Native American, sometimes in relation to tribal membership.

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Blood type

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

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Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Boruca

The Boruca (also known as the Brunca or the Brunka) are an indigenous people living in Costa Rica.

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Brazilians

Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese) are citizens of Brazil.

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Bribri people

The Bribri are an indigenous people of Costa Rica.

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Butternut squash

Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata), sometimes known in Australia and New Zealand as butternut pumpkin or gramma, is a type of winter squash that grows on a vine.

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Cañari

The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar in Ecuador.

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Cabécar people

The Cabécar are an indigenous group of the remote Talamanca region of eastern Costa Rica.

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Caboclo

A caboclo (also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin") (English: cabloke) is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent.

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Cacaopera people

The Cacaopera people were an indigenous people in El Salvador.

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Calchaquí

The Calchaquí were a tribe of South American Indians of the Diaguita group, now extinct, who formerly occupied northern Argentina.

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Cali

Santiago de Cali, usually known by its short name "Cali", is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections.

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Calibration of radiocarbon dates

Radiocarbon dating measurements produce ages in "radiocarbon years", which must be converted to calendar ages by a process called calibration.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canada 2006 Census

The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population.

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Canadian Aboriginal law

Canadian Aboriginal law is the body of Canadian law that concerns a variety of issues related to Indigenous peoples in Canada.

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Canadian Museum of History

The Canadian Museum of History (Musée canadien de l’histoire), formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization (Musée canadien des civilisations), is Canada's national museum of human history.

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Cape Camarón

Cape Camarón (literally, "Cape Shrimp"), is a cape located on the Caribbean coast of Honduras at.

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Capsicum

Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.

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Cara culture

The Cara culture flourished in coastal Ecuador, in what is now Manabí Province, in the first millennium CE.

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Carib Territory

The Carib Territory, also known as the Carib Reserve or Kalinago Territory, is a district in the Caribbean island-nation of Dominica.

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Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

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Cascajal Block

The Cascajal Block is a tablet-sized writing slab in Mexico, made of serpentinite, which has been dated to the early first millennium BCE, incised with hitherto unknown characters that may represent the earliest writing system in the New World.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native American pottery is an art form with at least a 7500-year history in the Americas.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Charrúa

The Charrúa are an Amerindian, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina (Entre Ríos) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).

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Chiapas

Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

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Chicle

Chicle is a natural gum traditionally used in making chewing gum and other products.

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Chiefdom

A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.

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Child development of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

Styles of children’s learning across various Indigenous communities in the Americas have been practiced for centuries prior to European colonization and persist today.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chili pepper

The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.

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Chiquitano

The Chiquitano are an indigenous people of Bolivia, with a small number also living in Brazil.

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Chocolate

Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Chukchi people

The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.

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Chunkey

Chunkey (also known as chunky, chenco, tchung-kee or the hoop and stick game) is a game of Native American origin.

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Classic Maya collapse

In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period.

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Classical Nahuatl

Classical Nahuatl (also known simply as Aztec or Nahuatl) is any of the variants of Nahuatl, spoken in the Valley of Mexico and central Mexico as a lingua franca at the time of the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.

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Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.

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Clovis culture

The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Coca

Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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Cocoa bean

The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.

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Cocopah

The Cocopah, also Cocopá (in Cocopa: Kwapa or Kwii Capáy - "Cloud People" referring to the fog along the Colorado River), are Native Americans who live in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico, and in Arizona in the United States.

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Codex

A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.

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Cofán

The Cofan (endonym: A’i) people are an indigenous people native to Sucumbíos Province northeast Ecuador and to southern Colombia, between the Guamués River (a tributary of the Putumayo River) and the Aguaricó River (a tributary of the Napo River).

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Collection (artwork)

A museum is distinguished by a collection of often unique objects that forms the core of its activities for exhibitions, education, research, etc.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Comechingón

Comechingón (plural Comechingones) is the common name for a group of people indigenous to the Argentine provinces of Córdoba and San Luis.

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Commonwealth Caribbean

The term Commonwealth Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region.

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Complex society

In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.

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Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador

The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (La Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador) or more commonly, CONAIE, is Ecuador's largest indigenous organization.

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Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia

The Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia, (Confederación de Pueblos Indígenas de Bolivia; formerly, Confederación de Pueblos Indígenas del Oriente Boliviano or CIDOB), is a national representative organization of the Bolivian indigenous movement.

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Conquistador

Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Constitution of Bolivia

The current Constitution of Bolivia (Constitución Política del Estado; literally, the Political Constitution of the State) came into effect on February 7, 2009 when it was promulgated by President Evo Morales.

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Constitution of Venezuela

The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela.

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Contiguous United States

The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.

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Controlled burn

A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.

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Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin

Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin (COICA) (Spanish: Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica) was founded in 1984 in Lima, Peru.

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet

The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Creation myth

A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.

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Cree

The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cucurbita

Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.

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Cuenca, Ecuador

The city of Cuenca — in full, Santa Ana de los Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca — is the capital of the Azuay Province.

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Cultivar

The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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Cultural area

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).

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Culture of Canada

The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians.

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Cuzcatlan

Cuzcatlan (Nawat: Kuskatan) was a pre-Columbian Nahua state of the postclassical period that extended from the Paz river to the Lempa river (covering most of the western and central zones of the present Republic of El Salvador), this was the nation that Spanish chroniclers came to call the Pipils/Cuzcatlecs.

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Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, 13 September 2007, by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine).

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Demographics of the Marshall Islands

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Marshall Islands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Demographics of Tonga

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tonga, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Departments of Bolivia

Bolivia is a unitary state consisting of nine departments (departamentos).

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Diaguita

The Diaguita people are a group of South American indigenous people native to the Chilean Norte Chico and the Argentine Northwest.

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Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Discovery Channel

Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Drum

The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.

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Early human migrations

The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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East Indies

The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Ecuador

Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Education reform

Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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El Dorado

El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.

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El Loa

El Loa Province (Provincia El Loa) is one of three provinces of the northern Chilean region of Antofagasta (II).

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El Salvador

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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Elite

In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.

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Empire

An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".

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Encomienda

Encomienda was a labor system in Spain and its empire.

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Endemic warfare

Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies (but is not limited to tribal societies).

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English-based creole languages

An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language, for which English is the lexifier.

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Enriquillo

Enriquillo was a Taíno cacique who rebelled against the Spaniards from 1519 to 1533.

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Equus scotti

Equus scotti (translated from Latin as Scott's horse, (2003) Annotated Bibliography of Quaternary Vertebrates of Northern North America: With Radiocarbon Dates, University of Toronto Press, 539 pages named after vertebrate paleontologist William Berryman Scott) is an extinct species of Equus, the genus that includes the horse.

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Eskimo

Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.

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Eskimo–Aleut languages

The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Eyak people

The Eyak (Eyak: ʔi·ya·ɢdəlahɢəyu·, literally "inhabitants of Eyak Village at Mile 6"Krauss, Michael E. 1970. Eyak dictionary. University of Alaska and Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1963-1970) are a Native American indigenous group historically located on the Copper River Delta and near the town of Cordova, Alaska.

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Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Flute

The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Fort Orange (New Netherland)

Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.

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Founder effect

In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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Fruit tree

A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.

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Fundação Nacional do Índio

Fundação Nacional do Índio (National Indian Foundation) or FUNAI is a Brazilian governmental protection agency for Indian interests and their culture.

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Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.

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Garifuna

The Garifuna (Pardo) (pl. Garinagu in Garifuna) are Indigenous of mixed-race descendants of West African, Central African, Island Carib, European, and Arawak people.

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Garifuna language

Garifuna (Karif) is a minority language widely spoken in villages of Garifuna people in the western part of the northern coast of Central America.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic admixture

Genetic admixture occurs when two or more previously isolated and genetically differentiated populations begin interbreeding.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Glacial refugium

A glacial refugium (plural refugia) is a geographic region which made possible the survival of flora and fauna in times of ice ages and allowed a post-glacial re-colonization.

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Glyph

In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gordon Willey

Gordon Randolph Willey (7 March 1913 – 28 April 2002) was an American archaeologist who was described by colleagues as the "dean" of New World archaeology.

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Gran Chaco Province

Gran Chaco is a province in the eastern parts of the Bolivian department Tarija.

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Great Plains

The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.

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Greater Antilles

The Greater Antilles is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea: Cuba, Hispaniola (containing Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Greenlandic language

Greenlandic is an Eskimo–Aleut language spoken by about 56,000 Greenlandic Inuit in Greenland.

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Grenada

Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.

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Guaraní people

Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America.

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Guarani language

Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani family of the Tupian languages.

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Guatemala

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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Guyana

Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

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Haida people

Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.

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Haiti

Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Haplogroup A (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup B (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup C (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup D (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup P1 (Y-DNA)

Haplogroup P1, also known as P-M45 and K2b2a, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.

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Haplogroup Q-M242

Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.

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Haplogroup Q-M346

Haplogroup Q-M346 is a subclade of Y-DNA Haplogroup Q. Haplogroup Q-M346 is defined by the presence of the M346 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).

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Haplogroup R1a

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.

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Haplotype

A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Helianthus

Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.

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Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.

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Hispanic America

Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.

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Hispanidad

Hispanidad ("Hispanicity") is an expression with several meanings, loosely alluding to the group of people, countries and communities sharing the Spanish language and displaying a Spanish-related culture.

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Hispaniola

Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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History of the Americas

The prehistory of the Americas (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the height of an Ice Age.

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History of the west coast of North America

The human history of the west coast of North America is believed to stretch back to the arrival of the earliest people over the Bering Strait, or alternately along a now-submerged coastal plain, through the development of significant pre-Columbian cultures and population densities, to the arrival of the European explorers and colonizers.

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Honduras

Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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Horse

The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Horse culture

A horse culture is a tribal group or community whose day-to-day life revolves around the herding and breeding of horses.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Huaorani people

The Huaorani, Waorani or Waodani, also known as the Waos, are native Amerindians from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador (Napo, Orellana and Pastaza Provinces) who have marked differences from other ethnic groups from Ecuador.

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Huarpe

The Huarpes or Warpes are an indigenous people of Argentina, living in the Cuyo region.

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Huayna Capac

Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Iñupiat

The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Inca Civil War

The Inca Civil War, also known as the Inca Dynastic War, the Inca War of Succession, or, sometimes, the War of the Two Brothers was fought between two brothers, Huáscar and Atahualpa, sons of Huayna Capac, over the succession to the throne of the Inca Empire.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Inca-Caranqui

The Inca-Caranqui archaeological site is located in the village of Caranqui on the southern outskirts of the city of Ibarra, Ecuador.

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Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990

The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-644) is a truth-in-advertising law which prohibits misrepresentation in marketing of American Indian or Alaska Native arts and crafts products within the United States.

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Indian auxiliaries

Indian auxiliaries or indios auxiliares is the term used in old Spanish chronicles and historical texts for the indigenous peoples who were integrated into the armies of the Spanish conquistadors with the purpose of supporting their advance and combat operations during the Conquest of America.

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Indian Mass

Indian Mass is a partially vernacularized variation of the traditional Roman Catholic Mass, used in the American Indian missions of Canada and the United States.

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Indian reservation

An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.

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Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989

The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention, also known as ILO-convention 169, or C169.

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Indigenous language

An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Indigenous movements in the Americas

Indigenous people under the nation-state have experienced exclusion and dispossession.

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Indigenous music of North America

Indigenous music of North America, which includes American Indian music or Native American music, is the music that is used, created or performed by Indigenous peoples of North America, including Native Americans in the United States and Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of Mexico, and other North American countries—especially traditional tribal music, such as Pueblo music and Inuit music.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples in Brazil

Indigenous peoples in Brazil (povos indígenas no Brasil), or Indigenous Brazilians (indígenas brasileiros), comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500.

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Indigenous peoples in Canada

Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.

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Indigenous peoples of Australia

There are several hundred Indigenous peoples of Australia; many are groupings that existed before the British colonisation of Australia in 1788.

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Indigenous peoples of Siberia

Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people.

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Indigenous peoples of South America

The indigenous peoples of South America are the Pre-Columbian peoples of South America and their descendants. These peoples contrast with South Americans of European ancestry. In Spanish, indigenous people are often referred to as indígenas or pueblos indígenas (lit. indigenous peoples). They may also be called pueblos nativos or nativos (lit. native peoples). The term aborigen (lit. aborigine) is used in Argentina, and pueblos aborígenes (lit. aboriginal peoples) is commonly used in Chile. The English term "Amerindian" (short for "Indians of the Americas") is often used in the Guianas. People of mixed European and indigenous descent are usually referred to as mestizos. It is believed that the first human populations of South America either arrived from Asia into North America via the Bering Land Bridge, and migrated southwards or alternatively from Polynesia across the Pacific. The earliest generally accepted archaeological evidence for human habitation in South America dates to 14,000 years ago, the Monte Verde site in Southern Chile. The descendents of these first inhabitants would become the indigenous populations of South America. Before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, many of the indigenous peoples of South America were hunter-gatherers, and indeed many still are, especially in the Amazonian area. Others, especially the Andean cultures, practised sophisticated agriculture, utilized advanced irrigation and kept domesticated livestock, such as llamas and alpacas. In the period after the initial arrival of Europeans in 1492 the indigenous population of South America fell rapidly due to a variety of factors, such as disease and warfare. In the present day, there are two South American countries where indigenous peoples constitute the largest ethnic group. These are Peru, where 45% are indigenous, and Bolivia, where 62% of people identify as feeling a part of some indigenous group. South American indigenous peoples include.

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Indigenous territory (Brazil)

In Brazil, an indigenous territory or indigenous land (Terra Indígena, TI) is an area inhabited and exclusively possessed by indigenous people.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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International Indian Treaty Council

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is an organization of Indigenous Peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the Sovereignty and Self-Determination of Indigenous Peoples and the recognition and protection of Indigenous Rights, Treaties, Traditional Cultures and Sacred Lands.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Inuit religion

Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.

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Iroquois

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.

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Island Caribs

The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles.

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Isthmus of Tehuantepec

The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico.

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Itza people

The Itza are a Guatemalan people of Maya affiliation.

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Izalco

Izalco (in Nawat: Itzalku) is a municipality in the Sonsonate department of El Salvador.

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Jalapeño

The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum.

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Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

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Jamil Mahuad

Jorge Jamil Mahuad Witt (born July 29, 1949) is an Ecuadorian lawyer, academic and former politician, he was the 39th President of Ecuador from August 10, 1998 to January 21, 2000.

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Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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K'iche' language

K’iche’ (also Qatzijob'al "our language" to its speakers), or Quiché, is a Maya language of Guatemala, spoken by the K'iche' people of the central highlands.

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K'iche' people

K'iche' (pronounced; previous Spanish spelling: Quiché) are indigenous peoples of the Americas and are one of the Maya peoples.

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Kaqchikel language

The Kaqchikel, or Kaqchiquel, language (in modern orthography; formerly also spelled Cakchiquel or Cakchiquiel) is an indigenous Mesoamerican language and a member of the Quichean–Mamean branch of the Mayan languages family.

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Kaqchikel people

The Kaqchikel (also called Kachiquel) are one of the indigenous Maya peoples of the midwestern highlands in Guatemala.

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Katarismo

Katarism (Katarismo) is a political tendency in Bolivia, named after the 18th-century indigenous leader Túpac Katari.

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Ket people

Kets (Кеты; Ket: Ostygan) are a Siberian people.

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Khakas people

The Khakas, or Khakass (Khakas: Тадарлар, Tadarlar), are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in southern Siberia.

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Kichwa language

Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language that includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru.

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Kickapoo people

The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.

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Koreans

Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.

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Koryaks

Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.

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Kumeyaay

The Kumeyaay, also known as Tipai-Ipai, formerly Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico.

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L'Histoire

L'Histoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specific university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines).

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La Cruz de Río Grande

La Cruz de Río Grande is a municipality in the South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region of Nicaragua.

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Ladino people

The Ladino people are a mix of mestizo or hispanicized peoples en el Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) in Latin America, principally in Central America.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Laurentide Ice Sheet

The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.

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Laws of Burgos

The Leyes de Burgos ("Laws of Burgos"), promulgated on 27 December 1512 in Burgos, Kingdom of Castile (Spain), was the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards in the Americas, particularly with regard to the Indigenous people of the Americas ('native Caribbean Indians').

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Lenape

The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.

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Lenca people

The Lenca are an indigenous people of southwestern Honduras and eastern El Salvador in Central America.

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Lesser Antilles

The Lesser Antilles are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

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Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas

Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (En: General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights) was published in the Mexican Official Journal of the Federation on 13 March 2003 during the term of Mexican President Vicente Fox Quesada.

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Lima bean

Phaseolus lunatus, commonly known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans.

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Lineal descendant

A lineal descendant, in legal usage, is a blood relative in the direct line of descent – the children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, etc.

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List of American Inuit

This is a partial list of Notable American Inuit, especially Iñupiat, who largely reside in Alaska.

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List of archaeological periods (North America)

North American archaeological periods divides the history of pre-Columbian North America into a number of named successive eras or periods, from the earliest-known human habitation through to the early Colonial period which followed the European colonization of the Americas.

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List of countries where Spanish is an official language

The following is a list of countries where Spanish is an official language, plus a number of countries where Spanish, or any language closely related to it, is an important or significant language.

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List of federally recognized tribes

There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.

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List of First Nations peoples

The following is a partial list of First Nations peoples organized by linguistic-cultural area.

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List of Greenlandic Inuit

This is a partial list of Greenlandic Inuit people.

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List of indigenous artists of the Americas

This is a list of visual artists who are Indigenous peoples of the Americas, categorized by primary media.

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List of Mayan languages

The Mayan languages are a family of languages spoken by the Maya people.

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List of pre-Columbian cultures

This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.

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List of traditional territories of the indigenous peoples of North America

This list of traditional territories of the original peoples of North America gives an overview of the names of the indigenous "countries" of North America.

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List of writers from peoples indigenous to the Americas

This is a list of notable writers who are Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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Lithic flake

In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure,"Andrefsky, W. (2005) Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis.

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Logogram

In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.

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Macmillan Education

Macmillan Education is a publisher of English Language teaching and school curriculum materials.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Mal'ta–Buret' culture

The Mal'ta–Buret' culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation.

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Maleku people

The Maleku are an indigenous people of Costa Rica located in the Guatuso Indigenous Reserve near the town of Guatuso (San Rafael de Guatuso).

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Mam language

Mam is a Mayan language with half a million speakers in the Guatemalan departments of Quetzaltenango, Huehuetenango, San Marcos, and Retalhuleu, and 10,000 in the Mexican state of Chiapas.

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Mam people

The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language.

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Mangue language

Mangue, also known as Chorotega,Daniel G. Brinton.

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Mapuche

The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

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Mapuche conflict

Mapuche conflict (also referred to as the "conflict between the Chilean State and the Mapuche people") is a collective name for the revival and reorganization of Mapuche communities for greater autonomy, recognition of rights and the recovery of land since the Chilean transition to democracy.

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Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

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Matrilineality

Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Maya peoples

The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.

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Maya script

Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.

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Mayan languages

The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.

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Mazahua people

The Mazahuas are an indigenous people of Mexico, primarily inhabiting the northwestern portion of the State of Mexico and small parts of Michoacán and Querétaro.

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Métis in Canada

The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Menominee

The Menominee (also spelled Menomini, derived from the Ojibwe language word for "Wild Rice People;" known as Mamaceqtaw, "the people," in the Menominee language) are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, with a reservation in Wisconsin.

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MercoPress

MercoPress is an online news agency based in Montevideo, Uruguay.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesoamerican writing systems

Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.

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Mestizo

Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.

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Mexica

The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Mi'kmaq

The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.

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Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing

Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing was a writing system and memory aid used by the Mi'kmaq, a First Nations people of the east coast of Canada.

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Michael Pollan

Michael Pollan is an American author, journalist, activist, and professor of journalism at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism.

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Michoacán

Michoacán, formally Michoacán de Ocampo, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Microsatellite

A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Miskito Admiral

The Miskito Admiral was an official in the Miskito Kingdom.

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Miskito Coast Creole

Mískito Coast Creole or Nicaragua Creole English is a language spoken in Nicaragua based on English.

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Miskito General

The General was an official in the Miskito Kingdom.

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Miskito Governor

The Governor, in the Miskito Kingdom, was an official who ruled the southern regions, from the Cucalaya River to Pearl Key Lagoon.

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Miskito language

Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.

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Miskito people

The Miskito are an indigenous ethnic group in Central America, of whom many are mixed race.

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Mississippi River

The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

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Mixtec

The Mixtecs, or Mixtecos, are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples of Mexico inhabiting the region known as La Mixteca of Oaxaca and Puebla as well as the state of Guerrero's Región Montañas, and Región Costa Chica, which covers parts of the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla. The Mixtec region and the Mixtec peoples are traditionally divided into three groups, two based on their original economic caste and one based on the region they settled. High Mixtecs or mixteco alto were of the upper class and generally richer; the Low Mixtecs or "mixteco bajo" were generally poorer. In recent times, an economic reversal or equalizing has been seen. The third group is Coastal Mixtecs "mixteco de la costa" whose language is closely related to that of the Low Mixtecs; they currently inhabit the Pacific slope of Oaxaca and Guerrero. The Mixtec languages form a major branch of the Otomanguean language family. In pre-Columbian times, a number of Mixtecan city states competed with each other and with the Zapotec kingdoms. The major Mixtec polity was Tututepec which rose to prominence in the 11th century under the leadership of Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, the only Mixtec king who ever united the Highland and Lowland polities into a single state. Like the rest of the indigenous peoples of Mexico, the Mixtec were conquered by the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies in the 16th century. Pre-Columbia Mixtecs numbered around 1.5 million. Today there are approximately 800,000 Mixtec people in Mexico, and there are also large populations in the United States.

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Moche culture

The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Mocoví

The Mocoví are an indigenous tribe of the Gran Chaco.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Montana

Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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Mopan people

The Mopan are one of the Maya peoples in Belize and Guatemala.

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Mosquito Coast

The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom, historically comprised the kingdoms fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras.

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Moxo

The Mojeños, also known as Moxeños, Moxos, or Mojos, are an indigenous people of Bolivia.

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Muisca

The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.

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Muisca Confederation

The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America.

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Municipal council

A municipal council is the local government of a municipality such as city councils and town councils.

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Musical instrument

A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Na-Dene languages

Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

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Nahuas

The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.

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Nahuatl

Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

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Nahuizalco

Nahuizalco is a municipality in the Sonsonate department of El Salvador.

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Naia (skeleton)

Naia (designated as HN5/48) is a 12,000- to 13,000-year-old human skeleton of a teenage female that was found in the Yucatán, Mexico.

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Nakota

The term Nakota (or Nakoda or also Nakona) is the endonym used by those native peoples of North America who usually go by the name of Assiniboine (or Hohe), in the United States, and of Stoney, in Canada.

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National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples

The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, CDI) is a decentralized agency of the Mexican Federal Public Administration.

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National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu

The National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu (Consejo Nacional de Ayllus y Markas del Qullasuyu; CONAMAQ) is a confederation of traditional governing bodies of Quechua-, Aymara- and Uru-speaking highland indigenous communities in the departments of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca and Tarija, Bolivia.

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National Indigenous Organization of Colombia

The National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia or ONIC) is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people or approximately 2% of the population.

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National Indigenous Peoples Day

National Indigenous Peoples Day (French: Journée nationale des peuples autochtones) is a day recognising and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Indigenous peoples in Canada.

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National Museum of the American Indian

The National Museum of the American Indian is part of the Smithsonian Institution and is committed to advancing knowledge and understanding of the Native cultures of the Western Hemisphere—past, present, and future—through partnership with Native people and others.

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Native American Languages Act of 1990

The Native American Languages Act of 1990 is the short cited title for executive order PUBLIC LAW 101-477 enacted by Congress on October 30, 1990.

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Native American name controversy

The Native American name controversy is an ongoing discussion about the changing terminology used by indigenous peoples of the Americas to describe themselves, as well as how they prefer to be referred to by others.

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Native American religion

Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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Native American use of fire

Native American tribes used fire to modify their landscapes in many significant ways prior to the arrival of European settlers.

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Native American weaponry

Native American weaponry was used by Native Americans to hunt and to do battle with other Native American tribes.

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Native Americans in German popular culture

Native Americans in German popular culture are largely portrayed in a romanticised, idealized, and fantasy-based manner, that relies more on historicised stereotypical depictions of Plains Indians, rather than the contemporary realities facing real Indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Native Hawaiians

Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.

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Natural Resources Canada

The Department of Natural Resources (Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is the ministry of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New Philology

New Philology generally refers to a branch of Mexican ethnohistory and philology that uses colonial-era native language texts written by Indians to construct history from the indigenous point of view.

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New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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Ngäbe

The Ngäbe or Guaymí are an indigenous people within the territories of present-day Panama and Costa Rica in Central America.

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.

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Northern California

Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal or "The Northstate" for the northern interior counties north of Sacramento to the Oregon stateline) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.

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Nova (TV series)

Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston.

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Oaxaca

Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Occupation of Araucanía

The Occupation of Araucanía or Pacification of Araucanía (1861–1883) was a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and settlers into Mapuche territory which led to the incorporation of Araucanía into Chilean national territory.

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Ojibwe

The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.

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Ojibwe language

Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Olmecs

The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.

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Oral history

Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.

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Origins of Paleoindians

The term Paleoindians refers to the earliest human populations that spread throughout the Americas around the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, during roughly 20,000 to 10,000 years ago.

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Otavalo people

The Otavalos are an indigenous people native to the Andean mountains of Imbabura Province in northern Ecuador.

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Otomi

The Otomi (Otomí) are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the central Mexican Plateau (Altiplano) region.

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Pacific Islander

Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.

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Pacific Islands Americans

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).

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Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.

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Painting

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).

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Paleo-Indians

Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

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Pan American Health Organization

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas.

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Panama

Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Panará

The Panará are an Indigenous people of Mato Grosso in the Brazilian Amazon.

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Panchimalco

Panchimal is a town in the San Salvador department of El Salvador.

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Panzaleo language

Panzaleo (Pansaleo, Quito, Latacunga) is a poorly attested and unclassified indigenous American language that was spoken in the region of Quito until the 17th century.

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Paprika

Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.

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Paraguay

Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Pardo

Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.

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Pascua Yaqui Tribe

The Pascua Yaqui Tribe is a federally recognized tribe of Yaqui Native Americans in southern Arizona.

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Patagonia

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Paubrasilia

Paubrasilia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae.

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Pánfilo de Narváez

Pánfilo de Narváez (147?–1528) was a Spanish conquistador and soldier in the Americas.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Peanut

The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.

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Pech people

The Pech are an indigenous people in northeastern Honduras, previously known as the Paya.

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Pedro de Alvarado

Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.

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Pemon

The Pemon or Pemón (Pemong) are indigenous people living in areas of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana.

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Penobscot

The Penobscot (Panawahpskek) are an indigenous people in North America with members who reside in the United States and Canada.

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Pentatonic scale

A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five notes per octave, in contrast to the more familiar heptatonic scale that has seven notes per octave (such as the major scale and minor scale).

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Phaseolus

Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.

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Phaseolus acutifolius

Phaseolus acutifolius, the Tepary bean, is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico and has been grown there by the native peoples since pre-Columbian times.

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Phaseolus vulgaris

Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).

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Philip Phillips (archaeologist)

Philip Phillips (11 August 1900 – 11 December 1994) was an influential archaeologist in the United States during the 20th century.

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Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Pilagá language

Pilagá is a Guaicuruan language spoken by 4,000 people in the Bermejo and Pilcomayo River valleys, western Formosa Province, in northeastern Argentina.

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Pineapple

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

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Pinto bean

The pinto bean is a variety of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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Pipil language

Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nicarao language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.

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Pipil people

The Pipils or Cuzcatlecs are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Cuzcatlan.

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Plains Indians

Plains Indians, Interior Plains Indians or Indigenous people of the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the greater Interior Plains (i.e. the Great Plains and the Canadian Prairies) in North America.

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Pleistocene megafauna

Pleistocene megafauna is the set of large animals that lived on Earth during the Pleistocene epoch and became extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.

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Points of the compass

The points of the compass mark the divisions on a compass, which is primarily divided into four points: north, south, east, and west.

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Political organisation

A political organisation or political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups.

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Polynesia

Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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Polynesians

The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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Population decline

A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.

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Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

The population figures for indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus have proven difficult to establish.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Pow wow

A pow wow (also powwow or pow-wow) is a social gathering held by many different Native American communities.

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Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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President of Bolivia

The President of Bolivia (Presidente de Bolivia) officially known as the President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Presidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is head of state and head of government of Bolivia.

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Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

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Primary source

In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Projectile point

In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to weapon that was capable of being thrown or projected, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife.

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Public service

Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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Purépecha

The Purépecha or Tarascans (endonym P'urhépecha) are a group of indigenous people centered in the northwestern region of Michoacán, Mexico, mainly in the area of the cities of Cherán and Pátzcuaro.

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Q'eqchi'

Q'eqchi' (K'ekchi' in the former orthography, or simply Kekchi in many English-language contexts, such as in Belize) are a Maya people of Guatemala and Belize.

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Q'eqchi' language

The Q'eqchi' language, also spelled Kekchi, K'ekchi', or kekchí, is one of the Mayan languages, spoken within Q'eqchi' communities in Guatemala and Belize.

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Quebec

Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quechua people

The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.

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Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.

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Quitu culture

The Quitus were Pre-Columbian indigenous peoples in Ecuador who founded Quito, which is now the capital of Ecuador.

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Qulla

The Qulla (Quechuan for south, hispanicized and mixed spellings: Colla, Kolla) are an indigenous people of western Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina living in Jujuy and Salta Provinces.

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Racism

Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Rain shadow

A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).

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Rama language

Rama is one of the indigenous languages of the Chibchan family spoken by the Rama people on the island of Rama Cay and south of lake Bluefields on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.

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Rama people

The Rama are an indigenous people living on the eastern coast of Nicaragua.

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Rapa Nui people

The Rapa Nui are the aboriginal Polynesian inhabitants of Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.

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Rattle (percussion instrument)

A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken.

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Red Power movement

The Red Power movement was a social movement led by American Indian youth to demand self-determination for Indians in the United States.

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Redskin (slang)

"Redskin" is a slang term referring to Native Americans in the United States.

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Republic of Lakotah proposal

The Republic of Lakotah or Lakotah is a proposed independent republic in North America for the Lakota people and other people.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Sacacoyo

Sacacoyo is a municipality in the La Libertad department of El Salvador.

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Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.

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Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.

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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean.

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Salvia hispanica

Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala.

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Samoans

Samoans or Samoan people (tagata Sāmoa) are a Polynesian ethnic group native to the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language.

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San José Mogote

San José Mogote is a pre-Columbian archaeological site of the Zapotec, a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in the region of what is now the Mexican state of Oaxaca.

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San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán (or San Lorenzo) is the collective name for three related archaeological sites—San Lorenzo, Tenochtitlán and Potrero Nuevo—located in the southeast portion of the Mexican state of Veracruz.

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Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia)

Santa Cruz, with an area of, is the largest of the nine constituent departments of Bolivia occupying about one-third (33,74%) of the territory of the country.

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Santiago

Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.

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Saraguro people

The Saraguro is a people of the Kichwa nation most of whom live in Saraguro Canton in the Loja Province of Ecuador.

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Sayan Mountains

The Sayan Mountains (Саяны Sajany; Соёны нуруу, Soyonï nurû; Kogmen Mountains during the period of the Göktürks) are a mountain range in southern Siberia, Russia (the Tyva Republic specifically) and northern Mongolia.

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Scraper (archaeology)

In prehistoric archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools thought to have been used for hideworking and woodworking.

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Sculpture

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.

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Sea level rise

A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.

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Secondary education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.

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Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982

Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 provides constitutional protection to the indigenous and treaty rights of indigenous peoples in Canada.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Self-determination

The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

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Self-governance

Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Selk'nam people

The Selk'nam, also known as the Onawo or Ona people, are an indigenous people in the Patagonian region of southern Argentina and Chile, including the Tierra del Fuego islands.

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Selkup people

The Selkup (сельку́пы), until the 1930s called Ostyak-Samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды), are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to Northern Siberia.

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Settlement of the Americas

Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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Shors

Shors or Shorians (Shor шор-кижи) are a Turkic people in the Kemerovo Oblast in Russia.

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Shuar

The Shuar are an indigenous people of Ecuador and Peru.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberian Yupik

Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits, are a Yupik Eskimo people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska.

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Sistema Sac Actun

Sistema Sac Actun (from Spanish and Yucatec Maya meaning "White Cave System") is an underwater cave system situated along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula with passages to the north and west of the village of Tulum.

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Small population size

Small populations can behave differently from larger populations.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Smallpox vaccine

Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Social organization

In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Soil fertility

Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.

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Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean hypothesis on the peopling of the Americas claims that the earliest human migration to the Americas took place from Europe, during the Last Glacial Maximum.

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Soyot

The Soyot people live mainly in the Oka region in the Okinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia.

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish–Taíno War of San Juan–Borikén

The Spanish and Taíno War of San Juan–Borikén, also known as the Taíno Rebellion of 1511, was the first major conflict to take place in the modern-day Puerto Rico after the arrival of the Spaniards on November 19, 1493.

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Special rights

Special rights is a term originally used by conservatives and libertarians to refer to laws granting rights to one or more groups that are not extended to other groups.

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Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State-recognized tribes in the United States

State-recognized tribes are Native American Indian tribes, Nations, and Heritage Groups that have been recognized by a process established under assorted state laws for varying purposes.

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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Strawberry

The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.

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String instrument

String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.

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Subtiaba language

Subtiaba is an extinct Oto-Manguean language which was spoken on the Pacific slope of Nicaragua, especially in the Subtiaba district of León.

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Sumo people

The Mayangna (also known as Sumu or Sumo) are a people who live on the eastern coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras, an area commonly known as the Mosquito Coast.

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Suriname

Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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Syllabary

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.

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Taíno

The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.

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Tahitians

The Tahitians, or Maohis, are a nation and Polynesian ethnic group native to Tahiti and thirteen other Society Islands in French Polynesia, as well as the modern population of these lands of multiracial, primarily Polynesian-French, ancestry (demis).

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Tarapacá Region

The Tarapacá Region (I Región de Tarapacá) is one of Chile's 15 first-order administrative divisions.

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Tehuelche people

The Aónikenk people, better known by the exonym Tehuelche, are a group of indigenous peoples of Patagonia and the southern pampas regions of Argentina and Chile.

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Tenochtitlan

Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.

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Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.

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Texture (music)

In music, texture is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece.

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The Guianas

The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.

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The Straight Dope

"The Straight Dope" was an online question-and-answer newspaper column published from 1973 to 2018 in the Chicago Reader and syndicated in eight newspapers in the United States.

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Timoto–Cuica people

Timoto–Cuica people were an indigenous group composed primarily of two tribes, the Timote and the Cuica, that inhabited in the Andean region of western Venezuela.

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Tlingit

The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.

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Toba people

The Toba people, also known as the Qom people, are one of the largest indigenous groups in Argentina who historically inhabited the region known today as the Pampas, in the Central Chaco.

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Tobacco

Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Toltec

The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).

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Tolupan people

The Tolupan or Jicaque people are an indigenous ethnic group of Honduras, primarily inhabiting the northwest coast of Honduras Encyclopædia Britannica. (retrieved 2 Dec 2011) and the community in central Honduras.

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Treaty

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Tsáchila

The Tsachila, also called the Colorados (meaning red), are an indigenous people of the Ecuadorian province of Santo Domingo.

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Tsimshian

The Tsimshian (Coast Tsimshian: Ts’msyan) are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Typhus

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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Uncontacted peoples

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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University of Alaska Fairbanks

The University of Alaska Fairbanks (also referred to as UAF or Alaska) is a public research university in Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

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University of Manitoba

The University of Manitoba (U of M, UMN, or UMB) is a public university in the province of Manitoba, Canada.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international pro-democracy organization.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Upward Sun River site

The Upward Sun River site, or Xaasaa Na’, is a Late Pleistocene archaeological site associated with the Paleo-Arctic Tradition, located in the Tanana River Valley, Alaska.

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Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.

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Valdivia culture

The Valdivia culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas.

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Vanilla

Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Veracruz (city)

Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.

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Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas

Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the visual artistic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas from ancient times to the present.

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W. W. Norton & Company

W.

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Warao people

The Warao are an indigenous people inhabiting northeastern Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.

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Wayuu people

Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.

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Weaving

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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West Coast of the United States

The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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White Colombians

White Colombians are the Colombian descendants of European (overwhelmingly Spanish) and Middle Eastern (primarily Lebanese and Syrian) people, who self identify as such.

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Wichí

The Wichí are an indigenous people of South America. They are a large group of tribes ranging about the headwaters of the Bermejo River and the Pilcomayo River, in Argentina and Bolivia.

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Wiigwaasabak

Wiigwaasabak (Ojibwe language, plural: wiigwaasabakoon) are birch bark scrolls, on which the Ojibwa (Anishinaabe) people of North America wrote complex geometrical patterns and shapes.

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Wind instrument

A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at or near the end of the resonator.

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Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.

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Wyandot people

The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.

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Xinca people

The Xinca, or Xinka, are a non-Mayan indigenous people of Mesoamerica, with communities in the southern portion of Guatemala, near its border with El Salvador, and in the mountainous region to the north.

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Xincan languages

Xinca (Szinca) is a small extinct family of Mesoamerican languages, formerly regarded as a single language isolate, once spoken by the indigenous Xinca people in southeastern Guatemala, much of El Salvador, and parts of Honduras.

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Ye'kuana

The Ye'kuana, also called Ye'kwana, Ye'Kuana, Yekuana, Yequana, Yecuana, Dekuana, Maquiritare, Makiritare, So'to or Maiongong, are a Cariban-speaking tropical rain-forest tribe who live in the Caura River and Orinoco River regions of Venezuela in Bolivar State and Amazonas State.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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Yenisei River

The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.

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Yucatán

Yucatán, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán (Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

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Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.

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Yucatec Maya language

Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.

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Yup'ik

The Yup'ik or Yupiaq (sg & pl) and Yupiit or Yupiat (pl), also Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Central Yup'ik, Alaskan Yup'ik (own name Yup'ik sg Yupiik dual Yupiit pl), are an Eskimo people of western and southwestern Alaska ranging from southern Norton Sound southwards along the coast of the Bering Sea on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (including living on Nelson and Nunivak Islands) and along the northern coast of Bristol Bay as far east as Nushagak Bay and the northern Alaska Peninsula at Naknek River and Egegik Bay.

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Yupik

The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.

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Zambo

Zambo and cafuzo are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, sambo, is considered a slur).

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Zapotec civilization

The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.

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Zapotec peoples

The Zapotecs (Zoogocho Zapotec: Didxažoŋ) are an indigenous people of Mexico.

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Zapotecan languages

The Zapotecan languages are a group of related Oto-Manguean languages which descend from the common proto-Zapotecan language spoken by the Zapotec people during the era of the dominance of Monte Albán.

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Zea (plant)

Zea is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family.

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Zona Sur

The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.

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Zygosity

Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus is a 2005 non-fiction book by American author and science writer Charles C. Mann about the pre-Columbian Americas.

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1775–82 North American smallpox epidemic

The New World of the Western Hemisphere was devastated by the 1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic.

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1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic

The 1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic spanned 1836 through 1840, but reached its height after the spring of 1837 when an American Fur Company steamboat, the S.S. St.

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Aboriginal American, Aboriginal Americans, American Indian race, American indigenous people, American indigenous peoples, American indigenous person, American indigenous persons, American native, Amerind (people), Amerind peoples, Amerindia, Amerindian, Amerindians, Amerinds, Andean man, Central American Indians, Early peoples of the Americas, Indian lore, Indian nation, Indians of North America, Indigenas, Indigenous American, Indigenous Americans, Indigenous Guatemalans, Indigenous North American, Indigenous North Americans, Indigenous Peoples of North America, Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, Indigenous of the Americas, Indigenous people (Americas), Indigenous people in North America, Indigenous people of Honduras, Indigenous people of North America, Indigenous people of the Americas, Indigenous peoples (Americas), Indigenous peoples in Guatemala, Indigenous peoples in North America, Indigenous peoples in the Americas, Indigenous peoples of El Salvador, Indigenous peoples of Guatemala, Indigenous peoples of Honduras, Indigenous peoples of Nicaragua, Indigenous peoples of North Ameria, Indigenous peoples of North America, Indigenous peoples of north america, Indigenous peoples of the New World, Indigenous peoples of the americas, Indigenous person of the Americas, Indigenous persons of the Americas, Indigineous peoples of the Americas, Indiginous Americans, Indyans, Native America, Native American (Americas), Native American peoples, Native Americans (Americas), Native Americans in North America, Native North America, Native North American, Native North Americans, Native people of North America, Native peoples of North America, Native peoples of the Americas, North America's Indians, North American First Nations, North American Indian, North American Indians, North American Natives, North American people, Onkwehonwe, Pre-Columbian indigenous population, Red Indian, The First Americans.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas

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