80 relations: Accountability, Action theory (philosophy), Age of majority, Anatta, Asexual reproduction, Atom (disambiguation), Autonomy, Ayn Rand, Übermensch, Biology, Brill Publishers, Buddhism, Bundle theory, Clonal colony, Consciousness, Culpability, Cultural identity, Divisor, Empiricism, Existentialism, Extraterrestrial life, Failure, Free will, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gene, Genome, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hierarchy, Human, Ibn Tufail, Identity (social science), Impermanence, Independence, Individual and group rights, Individual time trial, Individualism, Interdependence, International law, Jean-Paul Sartre, John Locke, Law, Law of the United States, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Metaphysics, Military service, Minority group, Moral responsibility, Natural selection, Nikolai Berdyaev, Nondualism, ..., Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Organism, Person, Personal goal setting, Philosophy, Philosophy of biology, Philosophy of self, Prosecutor, Psychology of self, Rationality, Reciprocity (social psychology), Religious views on the self, Right to keep and bear arms, Rights, Sanity, Søren Kierkegaard, Self, Sexual reproduction, Social contract, Social status, Society, State (polity), Statistics, Structure and agency, Suffrage, Tabula rasa, Tax, Tyranny of the majority, Will (philosophy), Will to power. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
Action theory (or theory of action) is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind.
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
An atom is a basic unit of matter consisting of a nucleus within a cloud of one or more electrons.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
The Übermensch (German for "Beyond-Man", "Superman", "Overman", "Superhuman", "Hyperman", "Hyperhuman") is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bundle theory, originated by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, is the ontological theory about objecthood in which an object consists only of a collection (bundle) of properties, relations or tropes.
A clonal colony or genet is a group of genetically identical individuals, such as plants, fungi, or bacteria, that have grown in a given location, all originating vegetatively, not sexually, from a single ancestor.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Culpability, or being culpable, is a measure of the degree to which an agent, such as a person, can be held morally or legally responsible for action and inaction.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
An individual time trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock on flat or rolling terrain, or up a mountain road such as Alpe d'Huez (in French: contre la montre – literally "against the watch", in Italian: tappa a cronometro "stopwatch stage").
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Interdependence is the mutual reliance between two or more groups.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".
Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Personal goal setting is goal setting performed by individuals who want to achieve objectives that will result in the betterment of themselves or their situation.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences.
The philosophy of self defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
The psychology of self is the study of either the cognitive, conative or affective representation of one's identity or the subject of experience.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
In social psychology, reciprocity is a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions.
Religious views on the self vary widely.
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Sanity (from sānitās) refers to the soundness, rationality and health of the human mind, as opposed to insanity.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
The self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Tabula rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.
The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.