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Index Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. [1]

398 relations: Absurdism, Active imagination, Adam Smith, Adolf Brand, Aestheticism, Age of Enlightenment, AK Press, Allan Antliff, Altruism, Altruism (ethics), Americas, An Anarchist FAQ, Anarchism, Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche, Anarchism and issues related to love and sex, Anarchism and Other Essays, Anarchist schools of thought, Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow, Anarcho-communism, Anarcho-naturism, Anarcho-syndicalism, Angst, Anti-authoritarianism, Anti-capitalism, Anti-clericalism, Anti-individualism, Art, Asia, Atheistic existentialism, Authenticity (philosophy), Authoritarianism, Authority, Autonomism, Autonomy, Ayn Rand, Élie Diodati, Émile Armand, Baroque, Benjamin Tucker, Bernard Stiegler, Biofilo Panclasta, Birth control, Bob Black, Bohemianism, Bolsheviks, Boredom, Capitalism, Carl Jung, Cato Institute, Charles Baudelaire, ..., Charles Fourier, Charles Kegan Paul, Christian existentialism, Christian Israelite Church, Civil and political rights, Civil Disobedience (Thoreau), Civil libertarianism, Civil liberties, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Cognitive bias, Collective unconscious, Collectivism, Collectivist anarchism, Common ownership, Communalism, Communitarianism, Community, Confederation, Confirmation bias, Confucianism, Consciousness, Consequentialism, Conventional wisdom, Corporation, Cosmopolitanism, Council communism, Cultural relativism, Dandy, David Conway (academic), David Ricardo, Detraditionalization, Direct democracy, Divine right of kings, Doctrine, Dogma, Egalitarianism, Egoist anarchism, Egotism, Elite, Ellen Meiksins Wood, Emma Goldman, England, English language, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, Enrico Arrigoni, Epistemology, Errico Malatesta, Ethical egoism, Ethical subjectivism, Ethics, Eudaimonia, Existentialism, Fabian Society, Fact, Fallacy, Foundationalism, François de La Mothe Le Vayer, François de La Rochefoucauld (writer), François-Noël Babeuf, France, Free association (Marxism and anarchism), Free association (psychology), Free love, Free market, Free will, Freethought, Friedrich Hayek, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gabriel Naudé, Gad Barzilai, Gary Becker, Gender equality, General will, Geolibertarianism, George Bernard Shaw, George Stigler, George Woodcock, Georgism, Germany, Gilbert Simondon, Global issue, Great Britain, Groupthink, Guild, Guild socialism, Guilt-Shame-Fear spectrum of cultures, Han Ryner, HarperCollins, Henri Zisly, Henrik Ibsen, Henry David Thoreau, Herbert Spencer, Hierarchical organization, Hillel Steiner, History of socialism, Horst Matthai Quelle, Human nature, Human rights, Humanism, Ian Watt, Ideology, Idiosyncrasy, Ignorance, Illegalism, Impartiality, Independence, Individual, Individual and group rights, Individual reclamation, Individualism Old and New, Individualist anarchism, Individualist anarchism in Europe, Individualist anarchism in France, Institution, Instrumental and intrinsic value, International of Anarchist Federations, James Elishama Smith, James L. Walker, James Rachels, Jan Narveson, Jean-Baptiste Say, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-René Saulière, John Dewey, John Gray (philosopher), John Henry Mackay, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Joseph Brodsky, Josiah Warren, Jun Tsuji, Kevin Carson, Knowledge, L. Susan Brown, Labor theory of property, Labor theory of value, Laissez-faire, Latin, Left-libertarianism, Left-wing market anarchism, Left-wing politics, Legitimacy (political), Leninism, Lev Chernyi, Lew Rockwell, LGBT, Libertarian conservatism, Libertarian Marxism, Libertarian socialism, Libertarianism, Liberty, Liberty (1881–1908), Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Limited government, List of anarchist periodicals, Logic, Logical consequence, Loren Lomasky, Louis Dumont, Ludwig von Mises, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lysander Spooner, Mahatma Gandhi, Marcus Aurelius, Market fundamentalism, Marquis de Sade, Materialism, Max Stirner, Meaning (existential), Means of production, Metaphysics, Methodological individualism, Michel de Montaigne, Middle Ages, Middle East, Miguel Giménez Igualada, Mikhail Bakunin, Millenarianism, Milton Friedman, Mind, Modern liberalism in the United States, Moral, Moral agency, Moral nihilism, Moral realism, Moral relativism, Murray Bookchin, Mutualism (economic theory), Narcissism, Natural and legal rights, Natural resource, Naturism, Negative and positive rights, New Harmony, Indiana, Non-aggression principle, Non-cognitivism, Normative ethics, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Objectivity (philosophy), Obligation, Oscar Wilde, Owenism, Oxford University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, Participism, Passion (emotion), Peer pressure, People, Personal property, Personalism, Peter Kropotkin, Peter Lamborn Wilson, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Buonarroti, Philosophes, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy of desire, Philosophy of Max Stirner, Philosophy of self, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Pleasure, Political freedom, Political philosophy, Politics, Popular culture, Postdevelopment theory, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Prejudice, Princeton University Press, Private property, Probability, Problem of other minds, Process philosophy, Project Gutenberg, Proper noun, Protagoras, Psychological egoism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rational egoism, Rationalism, Rationality, Reality, Reason, Reductio ad absurdum, Reification (fallacy), Religion, Religious humanism, Renzo Novatore, Reproductive rights, Right-libertarianism, Right-wing politics, Robert Graham (historian), Robert Nozick, Robert Owen, Robert Paul Wolff, Roderick T. Long, Romanticism, Rosa Luxemburg, Routledge, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Russian Americans, Ruth Benedict, SAGE Publications, Saint-Simonianism, Søren Kierkegaard, Scientific method, Sect, Secular humanism, Self-governance, Separation of church and state, Sigmund Freud, Simple living, Slate (magazine), Social democracy, Social issue, Social justice, Socialism, Society, Solipsism, Sovereign state, Spanish language, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, State (polity), State religion, Stateless society, Statism, Statistics, Stephen Pearl Andrews, Steven Lukes, Steven T. Byington, Stoicism, Subject (philosophy), Subjective idealism, Subjectivity, Supernatural, Taoism, Thatcherism, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The Conquest of Bread, The Ego and Its Own, The Globe and Mail, The Politics of Individualism, The Social Contract, The Soul of Man under Socialism, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Robert Malthus, Totalitarianism, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Trade union, Tradition, Transcendentalism, Tribalism, Truth, Tzvetan Todorov, Union of egoists, Unitarianism, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Massachusetts Press, Urban legend, Usury, Utilitarianism, Utopian socialism, Vivian de Sola Pinto, Voluntary Socialism, Voluntaryism, Wage slavery, Walden, Walt Whitman, Well-being, Western Europe, Western world, Will (philosophy), William Batchelder Greene, William Godwin, William Maccall, Wordsworth Donisthorpe, Workers' council, Workers' self-management, World War II, Young Hegelians, 19th-century philosophy, 20th-century philosophy. 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In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.

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Active imagination

Active imagination is a cognitive methodology that uses the imagination as an organ of understanding.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Adolf Brand

Adolf Brand (14 November 1874 – 2 February 1945) was a German writer, individualist anarchist, and pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality.

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Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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AK Press

AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.

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Allan Antliff

Allan W. Antliff is an anarchist activist, art critic and author who has written extensively on the topics of anarchism and art in North America.

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Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.

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Altruism (ethics)

Altruism (also called the ethic of altruism, moralistic altruism, and ethical altruism) is an ethical doctrine that holds that the moral value of an individual's actions depend solely on the impact on other individuals, regardless of the consequences on the individual itself.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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An Anarchist FAQ

"An Anarchist FAQ" is a FAQ written by an international work group of social anarchists connected through the internet.

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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

The relation between anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche has been ambiguous.

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Anarchism and issues related to love and sex

Major male anarchist thinkers (except Proudhon) generally supported women's equality.

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Anarchism and Other Essays

Anarchism and Other Essays is a 1910 essay collection by Emma Goldman, first published by Mother Earth Publishing.

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Anarchist schools of thought

Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary and harmful, The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Slevin, Carl.

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Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow

Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow is a 2011 book about anarchism and left-libertarian thought in Britain written by David Goodway and published by PM Press.

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Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".

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Anarcho-naturism (also anarchist naturism and naturist anarchism) appeared in the late 19th century as the union of anarchist and naturist philosophies.

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Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism) is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society.

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Angst means fear or anxiety (anguish is its Latinate equivalent, and anxious, anxiety are of similar origin).

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Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.

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Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.

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Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.

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Anti-individualism (also known as content externalism) is an approach to various areas of thought (both analytic and continental) including philosophy, the philosophy of psychology, French historical studies, literature, phenomenology and linguistics.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atheistic existentialism

"Atheistic existentialism" is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view.

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Authenticity (philosophy)

Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).

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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).

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Autonomism or autonomist Marxism is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.

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Élie Diodati

Élie Diodati (Elia, Elias) (1576–1661) was a Genevan lawyer and jurist from a leading Calvinist family in Geneva, who had moved there from Lucca.

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Émile Armand

Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand; 26 March 1872 – 19 February 1963) was an influential French individualist anarchist at the beginning of the 20th century and also a dedicated free love/polyamory, intentional community, and pacifist/antimilitarist writer, propagandist and activist.

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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Benjamin Tucker

Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (April 17, 1854 – June 22, 1939) was a 19th century proponent of American individualist anarchism, which he called "unterrified Jeffersonianism," and editor and publisher of the individualist anarchist periodical Liberty.

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Bernard Stiegler

Bernard Stiegler (born 1 April 1952) is a French philosopher.

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Biofilo Panclasta

Vicente Rojas Lizcano (Chinácota, Colombia, 1879 – Pamplona, Colombia, 1943), known as Biófilo Panclasta, was a political activist, writer, and Colombian individualist anarchist.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Bob Black

Robert Charles "Bob" Black Jr. (born January 4, 1951) is an American anarchist.

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Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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In conventional usage, boredom is an emotional or psychological state experienced when an individual is left without anything in particular to do, is not interested in his or her surroundings, or feels that a day or period is dull or tedious.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Charles Baudelaire

Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.

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Charles Fourier

François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.

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Charles Kegan Paul

Charles Kegan Paul (1828 – 19 July 1902) was an English publisher and author.

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Christian existentialism

Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology.

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Christian Israelite Church

The Christian Israelite Church was founded in 1822 by the prophet John Wroe.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Civil Disobedience (Thoreau)

Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.

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Civil libertarianism

Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports civil liberties, or which emphasizes the supremacy of individual rights and personal freedoms over and against any kind of authority (such as a state, a corporation, social norms imposed through peer pressure and so on).

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Cognitive bias

A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

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Collective unconscious

Collective unconscious (kollektives Unbewusstes), a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species.

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Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.

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Collectivist anarchism

Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.

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Common ownership

Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.

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Communalism usually refers to a system that integrates communal ownership and federations of highly localized independent communities.

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Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.

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A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

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A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.

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Conventional wisdom

Conventional wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public and/or by experts in a field.

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A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

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Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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Council communism

Council communism (also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s.

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Cultural relativism

Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.

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A dandy, historically, is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self.

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David Conway (academic)

David Conway (born 1947) is a British academic philosopher who has written several books on philosophy and politics.

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David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

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In social theory, detraditionalization refers to the erosion of tradition in religion (Secularization, agnosticism, Religious disaffiliation) and society in (post)modernism.

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Direct democracy

Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Egoist anarchism

Egoist anarchism is a school of anarchist thought that originated in the philosophy of Max Stirner, a 19th century existentialist philosopher whose "name appears with familiar regularity in historically orientated surveys of anarchist thought as one of the earliest and best known exponents of individualist anarchism".

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Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance.

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In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.

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Ellen Meiksins Wood

Ellen Meiksins Wood (April 12, 1942 – January 14, 2016) was an American Marxist historian and scholar.

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Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman (1869May 14, 1940) was an anarchist political activist and writer.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Enquiry Concerning Political Justice

Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Morals and Happiness is a 1793 book by philosopher William Godwin, in which Godwin outlines his political philosophy.

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Enrico Arrigoni

Enrico Arrigoni (pseudonym: Frank Brand) (February 20, 1894 Pozzuolo Martesana, Province of Milan – December 7, 1986 New York City) was an Italian American individualist anarchist, a lathe operator, house painter, bricklayer, dramatist and political activist influenced by the work of Max Stirner.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Errico Malatesta

Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.

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Ethical egoism

Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.

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Ethical subjectivism

Ethical subjectivism is the meta-ethical view which claims that.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.

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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Fabian Society

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.

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A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.

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A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.

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Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.

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François de La Mothe Le Vayer

François de La Mothe Le Vayer (August 15889 May 1672), was a French writer who was known to use the pseudonym Orosius Tubero.

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François de La Rochefoucauld (writer)

François VI, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Prince de Marcillac (15 September 1613 – 17 March 1680) was a noted French author of maxims and memoirs.

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François-Noël Babeuf

François-Noël Babeuf (23 November 1760 – 27 May 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Free association (Marxism and anarchism)

Free association (also called "free association of producers" or, as Marx often called it, a "community of freely associated individuals") is a relationship among individuals where there is no state, social class, authority, or private ownership of means of production.

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Free association (psychology)

Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud out of the hypnotic method of his mentor and colleague, Josef Breuer.

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Free love

Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Gabriel Naudé

Gabriel Naudé (2 February 1600 – 10 July 1653) was a French librarian and scholar.

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Gad Barzilai

Gad Barzilai (גד ברזילי; born 1958) is a full professor of law, political science and international studies, famous for his work on the politics of law, comparative law and politics, human rights and communities.

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Gary Becker

Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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General will

In political philosophy, the general will (volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole.

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Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics).

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.

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George Stigler

George Joseph Stigler (January 17, 1911 – December 1, 1991) was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics.

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George Woodcock

George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.

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Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gilbert Simondon

Gilbert Simondon (2 October 1924 – 7 February 1989) was a French philosopher best known for his theory of individuation, a major source of inspiration for Gilles Deleuze and Bernard Stiegler.

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Global issue

Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Guild socialism

Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public".

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Guilt-Shame-Fear spectrum of cultures

In cultural anthropology, the distinction between a guilt society (or guilt culture), shame society (also shame culture or honor-shame culture), and a fear society (or culture of fear) has been used to categorize different cultures.

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Han Ryner

Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner (7 December 1861 – 6 February 1938), also known by the pseudonym Han Ryner, was a French individualist anarchist philosopher and activist and a novelist.

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HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Henri Zisly

Henri Zisly (born in Paris, 2 November 1872; died in 1945) was a French individualist anarchist and naturist.

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Henrik Ibsen

Henrik Johan Ibsen (20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet.

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Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Hierarchical organization

A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity.

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Hillel Steiner

Hillel Isaac Steiner, FBA (born 1942) is a Canadian political philosopher and is Emeritus Professor of Political Philosophy at the University of Manchester.

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History of socialism

The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it wrought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas.

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Horst Matthai Quelle

Horst Matthai Quelle (30 January 1912 – 27 December 1999) was a Spanish-speaking German philosopher.

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Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Ian Watt

Ian Watt (9 March 1917 – 13 December 1999) was a literary critic, literary historian and professor of English at Stanford University.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).

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Ignorance is a lack of knowledge.

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Illegalism is an anarchist philosophy that developed primarily in France, Italy, Belgium and Switzerland during the early 1900s as an outgrowth of individualist anarchism.

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Impartiality (also called evenhandedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.

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Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.

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An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Individual reclamation

Individual reclamation (reprise individuelle) is a form of direct action, characterized by the individual theft of resources from the rich by the poor.

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Individualism Old and New

Individualism Old and New is a politically and socially progressive book by John Dewey, an American philosopher, written in 1930.

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Individualist anarchism

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions and ideological systems.

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Individualist anarchism in Europe

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.

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Individualist anarchism in France

Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and his or her will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems.

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Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Instrumental and intrinsic value

The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.

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International of Anarchist Federations

The International of Anarchist Federations (IAF/IFA) (Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes, IFA) was founded during an international anarchist conference in Carrara in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, Italy and Spain as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.

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James Elishama Smith

James Elishama Smith, often called Shepherd Smith (1801, Glasgow – 1857, Glasgow) was a British journalist and religious writer.

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James L. Walker

James L. Walker (June 1845 – April 2, 1904), sometimes known by the pen name Tak Kak, was an American individualist anarchist of the Egoist school, born in Manchester.

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James Rachels

James W. Rachels (May 30, 1941 – September 5, 2003) was an American philosopher who specialized in ethics and animal rights.

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Jan Narveson

Jan Narveson, OC (born 1936) is professor of philosophy emeritus at the University of Waterloo, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

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Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jean-René Saulière

Jean-René Saulière (also René Saulière) (Bordeaux, 6 September 1911 – 2 January 1999) was a French anarcho-pacifist, individualist anarchist"Le courant individualiste, qui avait alors peu de rapport avec les théories de Charles-Auguste Bontemps, est une tendance représentée à l’époque par Georges Vincey et avec des nuances par A. Arru" and freethought writer and militant who went under the pseudonym André Arru.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Gray (philosopher)

John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.

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John Henry Mackay

John Henry Mackay (6 February 1864 – 16 May 1933) was an individualist anarchist, thinker and writer.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester

John Wilmot (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680) was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.

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Joseph Brodsky

Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский; 24 May 1940 – 28 January 1996) was a Russian and American poet and essayist.

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Josiah Warren

Josiah Warren (1798 – April 14, 1874) was an individualist anarchist, inventor, musician, printer, and author in the United States.

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Jun Tsuji

, was a Japanese author: a poet, essayist, playwright, and translator.

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Kevin Carson

Kevin Amos Carson (born 1963) is an American author, anarchist and political theorist on the topics of mutualism, individualist anarchism, left-libertarianism and freemarketism.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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L. Susan Brown


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Labor theory of property

The labor theory of property (also called the labor theory of appropriation, labor theory of ownership, labor theory of entitlement, or principle of first appropriation) is a theory of natural law that holds that property originally comes about by the exertion of labor upon natural resources.

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Labor theory of value

The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related, but distinct approaches to political and social theory which stress both individual freedom and social equality.

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Left-wing market anarchism

Left-wing market anarchism, a form of left-libertarianism, individualist anarchism and libertarian socialism, is associated with contemporary scholars such as Kevin Carson, Roderick T. Long, Charles Johnson, Brad Spangler, Sheldon Richman,Sheldon Richman (3 February 2011).

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.

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Lev Chernyi

Lev Chernyi (a; died September 21, 1921) was a Russian individualist anarchist theorist, activist and poet, and a leading figure of the Third Russian Revolution.

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Lew Rockwell

Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant.

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LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

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Libertarian conservatism

Libertarian conservatism is a political philosophy and ideology that combines right-libertarian politics and conservative values.

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Libertarian Marxism

Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.

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Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Liberty (1881–1908)

Liberty was a nineteenth-century anarchist periodical published in the United States by Benjamin Tucker, from August 1881 to April 1908.

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Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness

"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" is a well-known phrase in the United States Declaration of Independence.

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Limited government

In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.

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List of anarchist periodicals

The following is a chronological list of noteworthy anarchist and proto-anarchist periodicals.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Loren Lomasky

Loren E. Lomasky is an American philosopher, currently a Cory Professor of Political Philosophy, Policy and Law at the University of Virginia.

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Louis Dumont

Louis Dumont (1911 – 19 November 1998) was a French anthropologist.

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Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Lysander Spooner

Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century.

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Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Market fundamentalism

Market fundamentalism (also known as free market fundamentalism) is a term applied to a strong belief in the ability of unregulated laissez-faire or free market policies to solve most economic and social problems.

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Marquis de Sade

Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de Sade (2 June 1740 – 2 December 1814), was a French nobleman, revolutionary politician, philosopher, and writer, famous for his libertine sexuality.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Max Stirner

Johann Kaspar Schmidt (October 25, 1806 – June 26, 1856), better known as Max Stirner, was a German philosopher who is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, psychoanalytic theory, postmodernism and individualist anarchism.

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Meaning (existential)

Meaning in existentialism is descriptive; therefore it is unlike typical, prescriptive conceptions of "the meaning of life".

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Means of production

In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Methodological individualism

Methodological individualism is the requirement that causal accounts of social phenomena explain how they result from the motivations and actions of individual agents, at least in principle.

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Michel de Montaigne

Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Miguel Giménez Igualada

Miguel Giménez Igualada (1888, Iniesta, Spain - 1973, Mexico), was a Spanish individualist anarchist writer also known as Miguel Ramos Giménez and Juan de Iniesta.

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Mikhail Bakunin

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.

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Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.

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Modern liberalism in the United States

Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.

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A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.

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Moral agency

Moral agency is an individual's ability to make moral judgments based on some notion of right and wrong and to be held accountable for these actions.

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Moral nihilism

Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism or the error theory) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is morally right or wrong.

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Moral realism

Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.

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Moral relativism

Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.

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Murray Bookchin

Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.

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Mutualism (economic theory)

Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society with free markets and occupation and use property norms.

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Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Natural resource

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.

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Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating, and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property.

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Negative and positive rights

Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).

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New Harmony, Indiana

New Harmony is a historic town on the Wabash River in Harmony Township, Posey County, Indiana.

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Non-aggression principle

The non-aggression principle (or NAP; also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle or non-initiation of force) is an ethical stance that asserts that aggression is inherently wrong.

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Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).

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Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.

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Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.

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Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Participism is a libertarian socialist political philosophy consisting of two independently created economic and political systems: participatory economics or "parecon" and participatory politics or "parpolity".

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Passion (emotion)

Passion (Greek πασχω and late Latin (Christian theology) pati: "suffer") is a feeling of intense enthusiasm towards or compelling desire for someone or something.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.

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Personal property

Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.

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Personalism is a philosophical school of thought searching to describe the uniqueness of 1) God as Supreme Person or 2) a human person in the world of nature, specifically in relation to animals. One of the main points of interest of personalism is human subjectivity or self-consciousness, experienced in a person's own acts and inner happenings—in "everything in the human being that is internal, whereby each human being is an eyewitness of its own self". Other principles.

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Peter Kropotkin

Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.

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Peter Lamborn Wilson

Peter Lamborn Wilson (pseudonym Hakim Bey; born 1945) is an American anarchist author, primarily known for advocating the concept of temporary autonomous zones.

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Peter Vallentyne

Peter Vallentyne (born March 25, 1952, in New Haven, Connecticut) is Florence G. Kline Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.

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Philippe Buonarroti

Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti, more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (11 November 1761 – 16 September 1837), was an Italian utopian socialist, writer, agitator, freemason, and conspirator; he was active in Corsica, France, and Geneva.

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The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of desire

In philosophy, desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity.

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Philosophy of Max Stirner

The philosophy of Max Stirner is credited as a major influence in the development of individualism, nihilism, existentialism, post-modernism and anarchism (especially of egoist anarchism, individualist anarchism, postanarchism and post-left anarchy).

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Philosophy of self

The philosophy of self defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others.

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Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.

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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Postdevelopment theory

Postdevelopment theory (also post-development or anti-development or development criticism) holds that the whole concept and practice of development is a reflection of Western-Northern hegemony over the rest of the world.

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Pre-Socratic philosophy

A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.

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Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Problem of other minds

The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological challenge raised by the skeptic: given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? It is a central tenet of the philosophical idea known as solipsism; the notion that for any person only one's own mind is known to exist.

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Process philosophy

Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.

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Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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Proper noun

A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).

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Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.

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Psychological egoism

Psychological egoism is the view that humans are always motivated by self-interest, even in what seem to be acts of altruism.

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Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.

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Rational egoism

Rational egoism (also called rational selfishness) is the principle that an action is rational if and only if it maximizes one's self-interest.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reductio ad absurdum

In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

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Reification (fallacy)

Reification (also known as concretism, hypostatization, or the fallacy of misplaced concreteness) is a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction (abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a concrete real event or physical entity.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious humanism

Religious humanism is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with congregational but non-theistic rituals and community activity which center on human needs, interests, and abilities.

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Renzo Novatore

Abele Rizieri Ferrari (May 12, 1890 – November 29, 1922), better known by the pen name Renzo Novatore, was an Italian individualist anarchist, illegalist and anti-fascist poet, philosopher and militant, now mostly known for his posthumously published book Toward the Creative Nothing (Verso il nulla creatore) and associated with ultra-modernist trends of futurism.

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Reproductive rights

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.

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Right-libertarianism (or right-wing libertarianism) refers to libertarian political philosophies that advocate negative rights, natural law and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.

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Robert Graham (historian)

Robert Graham (born 1958) is a Canadian anarchist historian and writer.

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Robert Nozick

Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.

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Robert Owen

Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.

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Robert Paul Wolff

Robert Paul Wolff (born December 27, 1933) is an American political philosopher and professor emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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Roderick T. Long

Roderick Tracy Long (born February 4, 1964) is an American professor of philosophy at Auburn University and libertarian blogger.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998.

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Russian Americans

Russian Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry to Russia, the Russian Empire, or the former Soviet Union.

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Ruth Benedict

Ruth Fulton Benedict (June 5, 1887September 17, 1948) was an American anthropologist and folklorist.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Saint-Simonianism was a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (1760–1825).

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.

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Secular humanism

Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Simple living

Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplify one's lifestyle.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social issue

A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Stateless society

A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.

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In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stephen Pearl Andrews

Stephen Pearl Andrews (March 22, 1812 – May 21, 1886) was an American individualist anarchist, linguist, political philosopher, outspoken abolitionist, and author of several books on the labor movement and Individualist anarchism.

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Steven Lukes

Steven Michael Lukes FBA (born 1941) is a British political and social theorist.

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Steven T. Byington

Steven Tracy Byington (birthname Stephen) (December 10, 1869 – October 12, 1957) was a noted intellectual, translator, and American individualist anarchist.

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Subject (philosophy)

A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").

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Subjective idealism

Subjective idealism, or empirical idealism, is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist.

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Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Thatcherism describes the conviction, economic, social and political style of the British Conservative Party politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990.

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The American Journal of Economics and Sociology

The American Journal of Economics and Sociology is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1941 by Will Lissner with support from the Robert Schalkenbach Foundation.

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The Conquest of Bread

The Conquest of Bread (La Conquête du Pain; Хлеб и воля) is an 1892 book by the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin.

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The Ego and Its Own

The Ego and Its Own (Der Einzige und sein Eigentum; meaningfully translated as The Individual and his Property, literally as The Unique and His Property) is an 1844 work by German philosopher Max Stirner.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The Politics of Individualism

The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism is a 1993 political science book by L. Susan Brown.

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The Social Contract

The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).

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The Soul of Man under Socialism

"The Soul of Man under Socialism" is an 1891 essay by Oscar Wilde in which he expounds a libertarian socialist worldview and a critique of charity.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.

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Tribalism is the state of being organized by, or advocating for, tribes or tribal lifestyles.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Tzvetan Todorov

Tzvetan Todorov (Цветан Тодоров; March 1, 1939 – February 7, 2017) was a Bulgarian-French historian, philosopher, structuralist literary critic, sociologist and essayist and geologist.

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Union of egoists

Max Stirner's idea of the "Union of egoists" (Verein von Egoisten) was first expounded in The Ego and Its Own.

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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Massachusetts Press

The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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Urban legend

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.

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Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Utopian socialism

Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.

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Vivian de Sola Pinto

Vivian de Sola Pinto (9 December 1895 – 27 July 1969) was a British poet, literary critic and historian.

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Voluntary Socialism

Voluntary Socialism is a work of nonfiction by the American mutualist (1867–1913).

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Voluntaryism (. Collins English Dictionary.; sometimes voluntarism) is a philosophy which holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary, a term coined in this usage by Auberon Herbert in the 19th century, and gaining renewed use since the late 20th century, especially among libertarians.

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Wage slavery

Wage slavery is a term used to draw an analogy between slavery and wage labor by focusing on similarities between owning and renting a person.

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Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.

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Walt Whitman

Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.

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Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Will (philosophy)

Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.

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William Batchelder Greene

William Batchelder Greene (April 4, 1819 – May 30, 1878) was a 19th-century individualist anarchist, Unitarian minister, soldier and promotor of free banking in the United States.

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William Godwin

William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist.

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William Maccall

William Maccall (1812–1888) was a Scottish author and Unitarian minister.

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Wordsworth Donisthorpe

Wordsworth Donisthorpe (Leeds, 24 March 1847 – Shottermill, 30 January 1914) was an English individualist anarchist and inventor, pioneer of cinematography and chess enthusiast.

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Workers' council

A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.

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Workers' self-management

Self-management or workers' self-management (also referred to as labor management, autogestión, workers' control, industrial democracy, democratic management and producer cooperatives) is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Young Hegelians

The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.

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19th-century philosophy

In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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Economic individualism, Freedom of individuals, Individual freedom, Individualism in the United States, Individualist, Individualistic, Individualists, Liberal individualist, Liberal individualists, Political individualism, Rugged Individualism, Types of individualism.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individualism

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