259 relations: Aer language, Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Andh language, Anga Lipi, Angika, Apabhraṃśa, Arabic script, Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, Armenian language, Ashvins, Assamese language, Awadhi language, Bagheli language, Bagri language, Balkan Romani, Baltic Romani, Bateri language, Bauria language, Bengali language, Bengali–Assamese languages, Bhatri language, Bhil languages, Bhilali language, Bhili language, Bhilori language, Bhojpuri language, Bihar, Bihari languages, Bishnupriya Manipuri language, Bote-Darai language, Brahmic scripts, Braj Bhasha, Brokskat, Buddhism, Bundeli language, Burmese script, Byomkes Chakrabarti, Caribbean Hindustani, Carpathian Romani, Central Zone (Hindi), Chakma language, Chhattisgarhi language, Chilisso language, Chinali language, Chittagonian language, Chodri language, Dakhini, Dameli language, Danwar language, ..., Dardic languages, Delhi, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Dhanki language, Dhatki language, Dhekaru, Dhodia language, Dhundari language, Dialect continuum, Doabi dialect, Dogri language, Dom people, Domaaki language, Domari language, Dubli language, Eastern Nagari script, Ethnologue, Fiji Hindi, Finnish Kalo language, Front vowel, Garhwali language, Gawar-Bati language, Gemination, George Cardona, Gowro language, Gujarati language, Gujarati languages, Halbi language, Halbic languages, Hanifi Rohingya script, Harauti language, Haryanvi language, Hindi, Hindko, Hinduism, Hinduri language, Hindustani language, Hittites, Homorganic consonant, Hurrians, Indian epic poetry, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Aryans, Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indra, Indus Kohistani, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iranian languages, Jadgali language, Jainism, Jakati language, Jandavra language, Jaunsari language, John Beames, Jumli language, Kadodi language, Kaithi, Kalami language, Kalasha language, Kalinga alphabet, Kalkoti language, Kalto language, Kamar language, Kangri dialect, Kanjari language, Kannauji language, Kashmiri language, Katkari language, Khandeshi language, Khariboli dialect, Kholosi language, Khowar language, Kikkuli, Koli language, Konkani language, Konkani people, Kosli language, KRNB lects, Kukna language, Kullu language, Kumaoni language, Kumhali language, Kundal Shahi language, Kutchi language, Labial consonant, Lahnda, Lahul Lohar language, Language contact, Languages of Bangladesh, Languages of India, Languages of Nepal, Languages of Pakistan, Latin script, Lenition, Linguistic history of the Indian subcontinent, Linguistic reconstruction, Lom people, Lomavren language, Luwati language, Magahi language, Magari language, Maharashtri Prakrit, Maharashtrian Konkani, Mahasu Pahari language, Maithili language, Majhi dialect, Maldivian language, Malvi language, Malwai dialect, Mandeali language, Marathi language, Marwari language, Memoni language, MENA, Mewari language, Mewati language, Microsoft Word, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Mirgan language, Mitanni-Aryan, Mitra, Mixed language, Mughal Empire, Multilingualism, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Mutual intelligibility, Nahari language, Nangalami language, Nasal consonant, Nepali language, North India, Northern Indo-Aryan languages, Northern Romani dialects, Od language, Odia alphabet, Odia language, Pahari Kinnauri language, Pahari-Pothwari, Pakistan, Palatal consonant, Pali, Palula language, Palya Bareli language, Pardhi language, Parkari Koli language, Parya language, Pashayi languages, Pauri Bareli language, Persian language, Phudagi language, Place of articulation, Postalveolar consonant, Prakrit, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-language, Punjabi dialects, Punjabi language, Rajasthan, Rajasthani language, Rathwi Bareli language, Register (sociolinguistics), Retroflex consonant, Rigveda, Rohingya language, Romani language, Romani people, Sanskrit, Saraiki language, Saurashtra language, Sawi language (Dardic), Shekhawati language, Shina language, Shumashti language, SIL International, Sindhi language, Sindhi languages, Sinhalese language, Sinte Romani, Sirmauri language, Sociolinguistics, Solstice, South Asia, Sylheti language, Sylheti Nagari, Tharu languages, Tirahi language, Tirhuta, Torwali language, Tvastar, Urdu, Ushoji language, Vaagri Booli language, Vaghri language, Varli language, Varuna, Vasavi language, Vedas, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar consonant, Vlax Romani language, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Western Pahari, Wotapuri-Katarqalai language. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
Aer is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 300 people in Sindh, Pakistan.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Andh language, also known as Andhi, is an unclassified Indo-Aryan language spoken by 100,000 Andhs in India.
Anga Lipi (অঙ্গ লিপি) is a historical writing system or script of the Anga area of India.It is believed to have been originated from Mithilakshara or the Tirhuta script used to write Maithili.
Angika (अंगिका) or Chhika-Chhiki is a language spoken primarily in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Ardhamagadhi Prakrit was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Uttar Pradesh and used in some early Buddhism and Jainism.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.
Bagheli (Devanagari: बघेली or बाघेली), or Baghelkhandi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Baghelkhand region of central India.
The Bagri language (बागड़ी) forms something of a dialect bridge between Rajasthani, Punjabi and Haryanvi Hindi and takes its name from the Bagar tract region of Northwestern India.
Balkan Romani is a specific dialect, spoken by groups within the Balkans, which include countries such as Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia, etc.
Baltic Romani is group of dialects of the Romani language spoken in the Baltic states and adjoining regions of Poland and Russia.
Bateri (Devanagari: बटेरी) is a Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Kohistan District, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Bauria is a Bhil language of India.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bengali–Assamese languages (or Assamese-Bengali languages) belong to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Bhatri is an Indic language spoken in Chhattisgarh, India.
The Bhil languages, also known as Bhili or Bhilodi and vagari, vaghari,in vagad areas banswara,dungerpur, some parts of Udaipur, are a group of Western Indo-Aryan languages spoken in 2011 by around 8 million Bhils in western, central, and far eastern India.
Bhilali is a Bhil language of India.
Bhili (Bhili) is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad.
Bhilori is a Bhil language of India.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bihari is the western group of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, mainly spoken in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh and also in Nepal.
The Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriya Manipuri (BPM) (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and others, as well as in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, Burma, and other countries.
Bote (Bote-Majhi) and Darai are mutually intelligible tribal dialects of Nepal that are close to Danwar Rai but otherwise unclassified.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Braj Bhāshā is a Western Hindi language.
Brokskat, or Brokpa, the Shina of Ladakh and Baltistan, is a Dardic language of India.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bundeli (Devanagari: बुन्देली or बुंदेली; or Bundelkhandi, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bundelkhand region of central India. It belongs to the Western Hindi subgroup.
The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.
Caribbean Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language spoken as a lingua franca by Indo-Caribbeans and the Indo-Caribbean diaspora.
Carpathian Romani, also known as Central Romani or Romungro Romani, is a group of dialects of the Romani language spoken from southern Poland to Hungary, and from eastern Austria to Ukraine.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Chakma language (autonym: 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄌𑄴, script) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Chakma and Daingnet people.
Chhattisgarhi is a language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people.
Chilisso is a Dardic language in the Kohistani language group spoken by a thousand people in eastern Kohistan, Pakistan.
Chinali is an unclassified language of India.
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Chatgaya (চাঁটগাঁইয়া) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country.
Chodri (Chowdhary) is a Bhil language of Gujarat and neighboring states.
Dakhini or Dakkhani, also spelled Dakkani (داکھان) and Deccani (dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language of South India.
Dameli is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Danwar (also rendered Danuwar, Denwar, Dhanvar, Dhanwar), is a language spoken in parts of Nepal by an Indo-Aryan ethnic group of fifty thousand.
The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca) are a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern India's Jammu and Kashmir, and eastern Afghanistan.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dhanki is a Bhil language of India, sometimes classified as a dialect of Khandeshi.
Dhatki (धक्ती; ڍاٽڪي), also known as Dhati (धत्ती; ڍاٽي) or Thari (थारी; ٿَري), is one of the Rajasthani languages of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Dhekaru (Degaru) are a caste of India.
Dhodia is a tribal Bhil language, which is still spoken in some parts of Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
Dhundhari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Dhundhar region of northeastern Rajasthan state, India.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Doabi is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Doaba.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
The Dom (also called "Doma" and "Domi"; دومي / ALA-LC:, دومري /; هناجره), of the Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, are a Dravidian ethnic group.
Domaakí, also known as Dumaki or Domaá, is a Dardic language spoken by a few hundred people living in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.
Domari is an endangered Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.
Dubli is a Bhil language of Gujarat and neighboring states.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Fiji Hindi (फ़िजी हिंदी) or Fijian Hindi, known locally as "Hindustani", is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by most Fijian citizens of Indian descent, though a small number speak other languages at home.
Finnish Kalo (Fíntika Rómma) is a language of the Romani language family (a subgroup of Indo-European) spoken by Finnish Kale.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Gawar-Bati (Narsati) is a Dardic language spoken in Chitral, Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
George Cardona (born June 3, 1936) is an American linguist, Indologist, Sanskritist, and scholar of Pāṇini.
Gowro, also known as Gabaro, is a Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Kohistan District, Pakistan.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gujaratic languages are Gujarati and those Indic languages closest to it.
Halbi (also Bastari, Halba, Halvas, Halabi, Halvi, Mahari, Mehari) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, transitional between Oriya and Marathi.
The Halbic languages are Indic varieties transitional between the Oriya and Marathi.
The Hanifi Rohingya script is a unified script for the Rohingya language.
Harauti (Hadoti) is a Rajasthani language, spoken by approximately four million people in the Hadoti region of southwestern Rajasthan and neighbouring areas in Madhya Pradesh.
Haryanvi (हरियाणवी or हरयाणवी) is a language of the Western Hindi group.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduri (Handuri) is a Western Pahari of northern India.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indigenous Aryans theory, also known as the Out of India Theory, proposes that the Indo-European languages, or at least the Indo-Aryan languages, originated within the Indian subcontinent, as an alternative to the established migration model which proposes the Pontic steppe as the area of origin of the Indo-European languages.
The Tamil language has few words common in Indo-Aryan, Prakrit, Pali and Sanskrit, ever since the early 1st millennium CE, when the Sangam period Chola kingdoms became influenced by spread of Jainism, Buddhism and early Brahmanism.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Indus Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in part of the Indus valley in Kohistan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Jaḍgālī is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Jadgal, an ethno-linguistic group of Pakistan and Iran.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
The Jakati or Inku language is spoken by several small, supposedly Romani ethnic groups (Jāt) in Afghanistan.
Jandavra (Jhandoria) is a minor Indic language of Sindh, Pakistan, and Jodhpur, India.
Jaunsari is a Western Pahari language of northern India spoken in the Chakrata and Kalsi blocks of Dehradun district in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state.Jaunsari is included in the Definitely Endangered category on Red Book of Endangered Languages published by UNESCO.
John Beames (21 June 1837 – 24 May 1902) was a civil servant in British India and an author.
Jumli is a language of Nepal closely related to Nepali, and sometimes considered a dialect of it, though they are not close enough to understand complex discourse.
Kadodi is the language spoken by the Samvedi Brahmin and Kupari community in Vasai, Maharashtra, India.
Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.
Kalami (کالامي) also known as Gawri (ګاوری), is a Dardic language spoken in the Swat Kohistan region in the upper Swat District and in the upper Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kalasha (locally: Kalashamondr) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group.
The Kalinga script is one of many descendants of the ancient Brahmi script used in what is now modern-day regions of Northern Andhra Pradesh and Odisha.
Kalkoti, or Goedijaa, is a Dardic language of the Shina group spoken in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Kalto, or Nahali, is an Indo-Aryan language of India.
Kamar is an Indic language spoken by a tribal people of central India.
Kangri (Devanagari: कांगड़ी) is an Indo-Aryan dialect spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra, Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Una districts and in major parts of Mandi, Chamba and Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh and in the Pathankot, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts in the Punjab state.
Kanjari is an unclassified Indic tribal language of India.
The Kannauji language is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Katkari, or Kathodi, is an Indian language, which is classified with Marathi.
Khandeshi is an Indo-Aryan language in the Maharashtra state of India.
Khariboli, also known as Khari Boli or simply Khari, Dehlavi, Kauravi, and Vernacular Hindustani, is the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
Kholosi is a Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran that was first described in 2008.
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subbranch.
Kikkuli was the Hurrian "master horse trainer" (assussanni, virtually Sanskrit) of the land Mitanni" (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI) and author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BCE).
Koli is a dialect cluster of Pakistan and India that is closely related to Gujarati.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
The Konkani people (also) are an ethno-linguistic community who inhabit the Konkan Coast of south western India and speak the Konkani language.
Sambalpuri, is a variety of Odia language spoken in western Odisha.
KRNB lects (or Kamta, Rajbanshi and Northern Bangla lects) are modern lects that arose from the proto-Kamata language.
Kukna is a minority language spoken by the Saraswat Konkani people of Karnataka and in some parts of Kerala.
Kullu (also known as and Kulvi) is a Western Pahari language spoken in Himachal Pradesh.
The Kumaoni language is a Central Pahari language.
Kumhali or Kumbale is an unclassified and moribund Indic language of Nepal.
Kundal Shahi is a Dardic language spoken by about 700 people in the Kundal Shahi village of Neelam Valley in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lahnda also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi (is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves. The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari. --> The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.
Lahul Lohar is an unclassified Indic tribal language of India.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The 2011 National census lists 123 Nepalese languages spoken as a mother tongue (first language) in Nepal.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
The languages of the Indian subcontinent are divided into various language families, of which the Indo-Iranian and the Dravidian languages are the most widely spoken.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
The Lom people, also known as Bosha by non-Loms (Բոշա; ბოშა; Боша; Azeri: Poşa) or Armenian Romani University of California, 1908 (армянские цыгане; հայ գնչուներ) or Caucasian Romani (кавказские цыгане), are an ethnic group in historic Armenia.
Lomavren (Լոմավրեն) is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari and the Armenian language.
Luwati (Al-Lawatia (Arabic: اللواتية, sing. Lawati), also known as Lawatiyya, Lawatiya, Hyderabadi, Khoja or Khojki) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 5,000 to 10,000 people known as the Lawatiya (also called the Khojas or Hyderabadis) in the country of Oman.
The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India.
The Magari language, Magra ki Boli, is a variety of Bhil in India.
Maharashtri or Maharashtri Prakrit, is a language of ancient and medieval India which is the ancestor of Marathi and Konkani, It is one of the many languages (often called dialects) of a complex called Prakrit, and the chief Dramatic Prakrit.
Maharashtrian Konkani more commonly spelt as Maharashtrian Kokani is a group of dialects spoken in the Konkan region.
Mahasu Pahari is a Western Pahari(Himachali) language spoken in Himachal Pradesh.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Majhi (ماجھی; ਮਾਝੀ) is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.
Maldivian, also known as Dhivehi or Divehi (ދިވެހި, or ދިވެހިބަސް), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the South Asian island country of Maldives; it is the language of Maldivians, an Indo-Aryan ethnic group native to the country.
Malvi, or Malwi, is a language spoken in the Malwa region of India, with ten million speakers.
Malwai is a Punjabi dialect spoken in the Malwa region of Punjab.
Mandeali is a Western Pahari language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh by the people of the Mandi Valley and particularly in the major city of Mandi.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
The Memon or Memoni language is the language of Memons historically associated with Kathiawar, in West India, a Memon subgroup.
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East and North Africa region.
Mewari is one of the major dialects of Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan languages family.
Mewati is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about three million speakers in the Mewat Region (Alwar and Bharatpur, districts of Rajasthan, Nuh district of Haryana).
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
Mirgan, or Panika, is an Indic language of eastern India.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
*Mitra is the reconstructed Proto-Indo-Iranian name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nahari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the states of Chhattisgarh and Odisha in India.
Nangalami, or Grangali, is a Dardic language of Afghanistan.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Northern Indo-Aryan languages, also known as Pahāṛi languages, are a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Nepal in the east, through the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
Northern Romani is group of dialects of the Romani language spoken in various Northern European, Central European and Eastern European countries.
Od (Oad, Odki) is an Indo-Aryan language of south Pakistan.
The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
Pahari Kinnauri, or Kinnauri Pahari, is a Western Pahari of northern India.
The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir, and in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari (or Pothohari).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Palula (also spelt Phalura, Palola, Phalulo, and also known as Ashreti (Aćharêtâʹ) or Dangarikwar, the name used by Khowar speakers) is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in the valleys of Ashret and Biori, as well as in the village of Puri (also Purigal) in the Shishi valley, and at least by a portion of the population in the village Kalkatak, in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Palya Bareli is a Bhil language of India.
Pardhi is a Bhil language, or more likely languages, of India.
The Parkari Koli language (sometimes called just Parkari) is a language mainly spoken in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Parya (Парья язык) is a Central Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
Pashayi or Pashai is a group of languages spoken by the Pashai people in parts of Kapisa, Laghman, Nuristan, Kunar, and Nangarhar Provinces in Northeastern Afghanistan.
Pauri Bareli is a Bhil language of India.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Phudagi language, also known as Vadvali, is a language or dialect of the Marathi–Konkani group.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Proto-Indo-Aryan (sometimes Proto-Indic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Rathwi Bareli is a Bhil language of India.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
Saurashtra is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily by the Saurashtrian community of South India who migrated from present day Gujarat over a millennium ago.
Sawi, Savi, or Sauji, is an endangered Indo-Aryan language of northeastern Afghanistan.
Shekhawati is a Rajasthani language of Indo-Aryan languages family and is spoken by about three million speakers in Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts of Rajasthan.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
Shumashti – also known as Shumasht – is a Dardic language spoken in parts of western Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
The Sindhi languages are Sindhi and those Indo-Aryan languages closest to it.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Sinte Romani (also known as Sintenghero Tschib(en), Sintitikes or Romanes) is the variety of Romani spoken by the Sinti people in Germany, France, Austria, some parts of northern Italy and other adjacent regions.
Sirmauri is a pair of Western Pahari languages of northern India, Dharthi (Giriwari) and Giripari.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Sylheti Nagari (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ Silôṭi Nagri) is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti.
The Tharu (Tharu: थारु, थरुवा) or Tharuhat (थरुहट) languages are any of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by the Tharu people of the Terai region in Nepal, and neighboring regions of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India.
Tirahi, also called Dardù, is a nearly extinct if not already extinct Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in the Nangarhar Province of Northeastern Afghanistan.
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar, India and the eastern Terai region of Nepal.
Torwali (توروالی), or Turvali, is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
In the historical Vedic religion, (त्वष्टृ) is the artisan god or fashioner.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Ushoji (also spelled Ushojo) is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan and Swat districts of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Vaagri Booli is an unclassified tribal Indic language of southern India.
Vaghri (Bavri) is an Indic language of Pakistan.
Varli or Warli is an Indo-Aryan language, usually classified as Marathi, but sometimes as Konkani or Bhil.
Varuna (IAST: वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).
Vasavi is a Gujarati language spoken by the Bhil people, though not intelligible with Bhili.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vlax Romani is a dialect group of the Romani language.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Western Pahari or Himachali languages (Devanagri: पश्चिमी पहाड़ी, हिमाचली) are a range of languages and dialects spoken in the western parts of the Himalayan range, in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Wotapuri-Katarqalai is an extinct Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in Afghanistan.
Eastern Indic, Eastern Indic languages, Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Eastern zone Indo-Aryan languages, Gaudian languages, ISO 639:inc, Indic language, Indic languages, Indic languages language, Indo-Aryan (language), Indo-Aryan Languages, Indo-Aryan dialects, Indo-Aryan language, Indo-Aryan language family, Insular Indo-Aryan, List of Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, List of Indo-Aryan languages, List of Khandeshi languages, List of Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages, List of Sinhalese-Maldivian languages, List of Sinhalese–Maldivian languages, List of Southern Indo-Aryan languages, Magadhan, Magadhan languages, Midland Indo-Aryan languages, Modern Indo-Aryan, New Indo-Aryan, New-Indo-Aryan language, North-Western Indo-Aryan languages, North-Western Zone, North-Western zone, Northwest Indo-Aryan languages, Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages, Northwestern Zone, Northwestern zone, Old Indic, Old Indic language, Old Indic languages, Old Indo-Aryan, Old Indo-Aryan language, Old-Indo-Aryan, Rajasthani-Marwari, Rajasthani–Marwari, Sinhalese-Maldivian languages, Sinhalese–Maldivian languages, Southern Indic languages, Southern Indo-Aryan languages, Southern zone Indo-Aryan languages, Western Indic languages, Western Indo-Aryan, Western Indo-Aryan languages.