396 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Afanasievo culture, Afrikaans, Afroasiatic languages, Age of Discovery, Akkadian language, Albanian language, Altaic languages, Amsterdam, Anatolia, Anatolian languages, Ancient Greek, Ancient Macedonian language, Antoine Meillet, Aorist, Arabization, Areal feature, Armenian language, Asia, Assamese language, August Schleicher, Avestan, Babylonia, Bagnolo stele, Balkan sprachbund, Baltic languages, Balto-Slavic languages, Bangladesh, Basque language, Behistun Inscription, Belarusian language, Bengali language, Bosnian language, Boukólos rule, Breton language, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Bulgarian language, Calvert Watkins, Celtiberian language, Celtic languages, Celts, Central Asia, Centum and satem languages, Chain shift, Chinese language, Cimmerians, Classical antiquity, Classical Armenian, Classical Latin, ..., Close vowel, Colonialism, Common Era, Comparative linguistics, Conrad Malte-Brun, Conservative (language), Content word, Cornish language, Courland, Croatian language, Czech language, Dacian language, Danish language, Dardic languages, Daughter language, Donald Ringe, Dravidian languages, Dutch language, Dutch people, Early Middle Ages, Early modern Europe, Early modern period, Early Muslim conquests, East Asia, Eastern Iranian languages, Edicts of Ashoka, Egyptian language, Elam, Elamite language, Elamo-Dravidian languages, English as a lingua franca, English language, Eric P. Hamp, Estonian language, Ethnologue, Eurasia, Eurasian nomads, Eurasiatic languages, Europe, Evliya Çelebi, Faliscan language, Faroese language, Ferdinand de Saussure, Filippo Sassetti, Finnish language, Florence, Franz Bopp, French language, Fricative consonant, Frisian languages, Front vowel, Fusional language, Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, Gathas, Gautama Buddha, Genetic relationship (linguistics), German language, Germanic languages, Germanic parent language, Germanic peoples, Goa, Gothic language, Graeco-Armenian, Graeco-Aryan, Grammatical conjugation, Grassmann's law, Greek alphabet, Greek Dark Ages, Greek language, Grimm's law, Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, Gujarati language, Gupta Empire, Hallstatt culture, Hattic language, Hellenic languages, Hellenistic period, Helmut Rix, Hindi, Hindu Kush, Hindustani language, Historical linguistics, History of colonialism, History of Greek, Hittite language, Hittite texts, Hittites, Homer, Hungarian language, Hurrian language, Icelandic language, Iliad, Illyrian languages, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-European ablaut, Indo-European copula, Indo-European migrations, Indo-European sound laws, Indo-European studies, Indo-European vocabulary, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indo-Hittite, Indo-Iranian languages, Indo-Semitic languages, Indo-Uralic languages, Internal reconstruction, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Irish language, Iron Age, Isogloss, Italian language, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Japanese language, Jerzy Kuryłowicz, Jochem Schindler, John Colarusso, Joseph Greenberg, Julius Pokorny, Karl Brugmann, Kartvelian languages, Kashmiri language, Kassite language, Kültepe, Koiné language, Konkani language, Kurdish languages, Kushan Empire, Labial consonant, Labialized velar consonant, Language contact, Language death, Language family, Language isolate, Languages of Asia, Languages of Europe, Languages of India, Languages of the Caucasus, Languages used on the Internet, Laryngeal theory, Late antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latino-Faliscan languages, Latvian language, Lepontic language, Liburnian language, Ligurian language (ancient), Lingua franca, Linguistic reconstruction, Linguistic typology, List of Indo-European languages, List of languages by number of native speakers, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Low German, Lusitanian language, Luwian language, Luwians, Lycian language, Lydian language, Macedonian language, Macrofamily, Mahajanapada, Maltese language, Manuscript, Manx language, Marathi language, Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, Maurya Empire, Median language, Messapian language, Metre (poetry), Migration Period, Mikhail Lomonosov, Mitanni-Aryan, Modern Greek, Mongol invasions and conquests, Montenegrin language, Morpheme, Multilingualism, Murmured voice, Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean Greek, Nationalism, Neogrammarian, Neolithic, Nepali language, Nordic Bronze Age, North Asia, North India, Northwest Caucasian languages, Northwest China, Norwegian language, Nostratic languages, Nuristani languages, Oceania, Odia language, Odyssey, Ogham inscription, Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old High German, Old Irish, Old Italic script, Old Latin, Old Norse, Old Persian, Old Prussian language, Old Turkic language, Old Welsh, Oral tradition, Oscan language, Osco-Umbrian languages, Ossetian language, Oswald Szemerényi, Oxford English Dictionary, Paeonian language, Pakistan, Palatalization (sound change), Paleo-Balkan languages, Paleo-European languages, Periphrasis, Persian language, Phonation, Phrygian language, Phrygians, Pierre Chantraine, Polish language, Pontic languages, Population growth, Portuguese language, Prakrit, Pre-Christian Slavic writing, Pre-Indo-European languages, Present tense, Primitive Irish, Pronoun, Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-European homeland, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European nominals, Proto-Indo-European phonology, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Indo-European root, Proto-Indo-European society, Proto-Indo-European verbs, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Italic language, Proto-language, Proto-Slavic, Punjab, Punjabi language, Recorded history, Rigveda, Robert Drews, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Root (linguistics), Ruki sound law, Runes, Russian language, Rusyn language, Sanskrit, Sardinian language, Scottish Gaelic, Scythian languages, Scythians, Semitic languages, Serbian language, Shakha, Sibilant, Sicels, Signal-to-noise ratio, Silk Road, Sinhalese language, Slavic languages, Slavs, Slovak language, Slovene language, Society of Jesus, Sogdia, Sogdian language, Sonorant, Sound change, Southeast Asia, Spanish language, Sri Lanka, Stop consonant, Subjunctive mood, Suffix, Sumerian language, Swedish language, Synthetic language, Tandy Warnow, Tarim Basin, The Critical Review, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, Thematic vowel, Thomas Stephens (Jesuit), Thomas Young (scientist), Thracian language, Tocharian languages, Tocharians, Tower of Babel, Tree model, Turkey, Turkic migration, Turkification, Turkish language, Ukrainian language, Umbrian language, University of Extremadura, University of Texas at Austin, Uralic languages, Urnfield culture, Uyghur Khaganate, Vasconic languages, Vedic chant, Vedic period, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar consonant, Venetic language, Verner's law, Viking Age, Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel length, Wanderwort, Wave model, Welsh language, West Germanic languages, Western Europe, Western Hemisphere, William Jones (philologist), Word stem, Yiddish, Zoroaster, 2nd millennium BC. 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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Afanasievo culture, or Afanasevo culture (Russian Афанасьевская культура Afanas'yevskaya kul'tura; " Afanasevan culture"), is the earliest known archaeological culture of south Siberia, occupying the Minusinsk Basin and the Altai Mountains during the eneolithic era, 3300 to 2500 BC.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet (11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
August Schleicher (19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German linguist.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Bagnolo steles are two stone boulders found in Ceresolo-Bagnolo, Malegno commune, Brescia province, Lombardia, Northern Italy, at the base of Monte Mignone, at an altitude of ca.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The boukólos rule is a phonological rule of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE).
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Calvert Watkins (March 13, 1933 – March 20, 2013) was an American linguist and philologist.
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Armenian (grabar, Western Armenian krapar, meaning "literary "; also Old Armenian or Liturgical Armenian) is the oldest attested form of the Armenian language.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
Conrad Malte-Brun (12 August 177514 December 1826), born Malthe Conrad Bruun, and sometimes referred to simply as Malte-Brun, was a Dano-French geographer and journalist.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
In linguistics content words are words that name objects of reality and their qualities.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The extinct Dacian language was spoken in the Carpathian region in antiquity.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Dardic languages (also Dardu or Pisaca) are a sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages natively spoken in northern Pakistan's Gilgit Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northern India's Jammu and Kashmir, and eastern Afghanistan.
In historical linguistics, a daughter language or son language, also known as offspring language, is a language descended from another language through a process of genetic descent.
Donald "Don" Ringe is an American linguist and Indo-Europeanist.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC).
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran).
English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language as "a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages".
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eric Pratt Hamp (born November 16, 1920) is an American linguist widely respected as a leading authority on Indo-European linguistics, with particular interests in Celtic languages and Albanian.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").
The Faliscan language is the extinct Italic language of the ancient Falisci.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
Filippo Sassetti (1540–1588) was a traveller and merchant from a long-established Florentine mercantile family, who was born in Florence in 1540.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Franz Bopp (14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux or more accurately spelled Cœurdoux (18 December 1691, Bourges, France – 15 June 1779, Pondicherry, French India) was a French Jesuit missionary in South India and a noteworthy Indologist.
The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In historical linguistics, the Germanic parent language (GPL) includes the reconstructed languages in the Germanic group referred to as Pre-Germanic Indo-European (PreGmc), Early Proto-Germanic (EPGmc), and Late Proto-Germanic (LPGmc), spoken in the 2nd and 1st millennia BC.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Graeco-Armenian (or Helleno-Armenian) is the hypothetical common ancestor of Greek and Armenian that postdates Proto-Indo-European.
Graeco-Aryan, or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
Grassmann's law, named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen (German for "Outline of the comparative grammar of the Indo-Germanic languages") is a major work of historical linguistics by Karl Brugmann and Berthold Delbrück, published in two editions between 1886 and 1916.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hattic (Hattian) was a non-Indo-European agglutinative language spoken by the Hattians in Asia Minor between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC.
Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Helmut Rix (July 4, 1926, in Amberg – December 3, 2004, in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German linguist and professor of the Sprachwissenschaftliches Seminar of Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The corpus of texts written in the Hittite language is indexed by the Catalogue des Textes Hittites (CTH, since 1971).
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
In linguistics, the Indo-European ablaut (pronounced) is a system of apophony (regular vowel variations) in the Proto-Indo-European language.
A feature common to all Indo-European languages is the presence of a verb corresponding to the English verb to be.
Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.
As the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, as evidenced in various sound laws associated with the daughter Indo-European languages.
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.
The following is a table of many of the most fundamental Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) words and roots, with their cognates in all of the major families of descendants.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
In Indo-European linguistics, the term Indo-Hittite (also Indo-Anatolian) refers to Sturtevant's 1926 hypothesis that the Anatolian languages may have split off a Pre-Proto-Indo-European language considerably earlier than the separation of the remaining Indo-European languages.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Indo-Semitic hypothesis maintains that a genetic relationship exists between Indo-European and Semitic and that the Indo-European and the Semitic language families descend from a prehistoric language ancestral to them both.
Indo-Uralic is a proposed language family consisting of Indo-European and Uralic.
Internal reconstruction is a method of recovering information about a language's past from the characteristics of the language at a later date.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jerzy Kuryłowicz (26 August 1895 – 28 January 1978) was a Polish linguist who studied Indo-European languages.
Jochem Schindler (8 November 1944 in Amstetten, Lower Austria – 24 December 1994 in Prague) was an Austrian Indo-Europeanist.
John Colarusso is a linguist specializing in Caucasian languages.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
Karl Brugmann (16 March 1849 – 29 June 1919) was a German linguist.
The Kartvelian languages (ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South CaucasianBoeder (2002), p. 3) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of Turkey.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kassite (also Cassite) was a language spoken by the Kassites in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and southern Mesopotamia from approximately the 18th to the 4th century BC.
Kültepe (Turkish: "Ash Hill") is an archaeological site in Kayseri Province, Turkey.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
About half of the homepages of the most visited sites on the Internet are in English, with varying amounts of information available in many other languages.
The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.
The Liburnian language is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians, who occupied Liburnia in classical times.
The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
The Indo-European languages include some 439 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Luwians were a group of Indo-European speaking people who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
The Lycian language (𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊍𐊆)Bryce (1986) page 30.
Lydian is an extinct Indo-European language spoken in the region of Lydia, in western Anatolia (now in Turkey).
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
In historical linguistics, a macrofamily, also called a superfamily or phylum, is a proposed genetic relationship grouping together language families (also isolates) in a larger scale classification.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn (August 28, 1612 – October 3, 1653) was a Dutch scholar (his Latinized name was Marcus Zuerius Boxhornius).
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.
Messapian (also known as Messapic) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy, once spoken in the region of Apulia.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The Neogrammarians (also Young Grammarians; German: Junggrammatiker) were a German school of linguists, originally at the University of Leipzig, in the late 19th century who proposed the Neogrammarian hypothesis of the regularity of sound change.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.
The Nuristani languages (نورستاني) are one of the three groups within the Indo-Iranian language family, alongside the much larger Indo-Aryan and Iranian groups.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
There are roughly 400 known ogham inscriptions on stone monuments scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the Old Prussians, the Baltic peoples of Prussia (not to be confused with the later and much larger German state of the same name)—after 1945 northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia and southernmost part of Lithuania.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Oscan is an extinct Indo-European language of southern Italy.
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before Latin replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
__notoc__ Oswald John Louis Szemerényi (7 September 1913 in London – 29 December 1996 in Freiburg) was a Hungarian Indo-Europeanist with strong interests in comparative linguistics in general.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Paeonian language is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians, whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
The Paleo-Balkan languages are the various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times.
The Paleo-European languages, or Old European languages, are the mostly-unknown languages that were spoken in Europe prior to the spread of the Indo-European and the Uralic families caused by invasion of pastoralists from the Bronze Age Eurasian steppe that dominate the continent today.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Pierre Chantraine (15 September 1899 – 30 June 1974) was a French linguist.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pontic is a proposed language family or macrofamily, comprising the Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian language families, with Proto-Pontic being its reconstructed proto-language.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pre-Christian Slavic writing is a hypothesized writing system that may have been used by the Slavs prior to Christianization and the introduction of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets.
Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Primitive Irish or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
The Proto-Albanian language is the unattested language from which Albanian later developed.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
The Proto-Indo-European homeland (or Indo-European homeland) was the prehistoric urheimat of the Indo-European languages – the region where their reconstructed common ancestor, the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), was originally spoken.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-European nominals include nouns, adjectives and pronouns.
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists, based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Proto-Indo-European society is the hypothesized culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European, ancestors of all modern Indo–European ethnic groups who are speakers of Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European verbs had a complex system, with verbs categorized according to their aspect: stative, imperfective, or perfective.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
The Proto-Italic language is the ancestor of the Italic languages, including notably Latin and thus its descendants, the Romance languages.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Robert Drews (born March 26, 1936) is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
The ruki sound law, also known as the ruki rule or iurk rule, is a historical sound change that took place in the satem branches of the Indo-European language family, namely in Balto-Slavic, Albanian, Armenian, and Indo-Iranian.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scythian languages are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
A shakha (Sanskrit, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Tandy Warnow is an American computer scientist, the Founder Professor of Engineering (and Professor of Computer Science) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
The Critical Review was a British publication appearing from 1756 to 1817.
The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World is a 2007 book by David W. Anthony, in which the author describes his "Revised Steppe Theory." He explores the origins and spread of the Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian steppes throughout Western Europe, and Central and South Asia.
In Indo-European studies, a thematic vowel or theme vowel is the vowel or from ablaut placed before the ending of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word.
Thomas Stephens (c.1549–1619) was an English Jesuit priest and missionary in Portuguese India, writer and linguist (focusing on Marathi and Konkani).
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Tocharians or Tokharians were Indo-European peoples who inhabited the medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China) in ancient times.
The Tower of Babel (מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages.
In historical linguistics, the tree model (also Stammbaum, genetic, or cladistic model) is a model of the evolution of languages analogous to the concept of a family tree, particularly a phylogenetic tree in the biological evolution of species.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria.
University of Extremadura (in Universidad de Extremadura.) is a Spanish public university in Extremadura (Badajoz and Cáceres).
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Vasconic languages (from Latin vasco "Basque") are a putative family of languages that includes Basque and the extinct Aquitanian language.
The oral tradition of the Vedas (Śrauta) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic mantras.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy (Veneto) and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
A Wanderwort ('wandering word', plural Wanderwörter; capitalized like all German nouns) is a word that has spread as a loanword among numerous languages and cultures, especially those that are faraway from one another, usually in connection with trade.
In historical linguistics, the wave model or wave theory (German Wellentheorie) is a model of language change in which a new language feature (innovation) or a new combination of language features spreads from a central region of origin in continuously weakening concentric circles, similar to the waves created when a stone is thrown into a body of water.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
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