249 relations: Abdul Hamid (soldier), Adampur, Aerodrome, Afzal Rahman Khan, Air marshal, Akhnoor, Akhtar Hussain Malik, Alexei Kosygin, Allama Iqbal International Airport, Altitude, Ambala, Amritsar, AMX-13, Arabian Sea, Ardeshir Tarapore, Arjan Singh, Armoured warfare, Attiqur Rahman, Auster AOP.6, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Azad Kashmir, Baghdad Pact, Bakhtiar Rana, Bambawali-Ravi-Bedian Canal, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Liberation War, Battle honour, Battle of Asal Uttar, Battle of Chawinda, Beas River, Bharat Rakshak, Bhaskar Sadashiv Soman, Bomber, Border, Brigadier, Cambridge University Press, Canadair Sabre, Central Intelligence Agency, Centurion (tank), Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan), Chief of the Air Staff (India), Chief of the Army Staff (India), Chief of the Naval Staff (India), Chumb, Circa, Cold War, Command and control, Commander-in-chief, ..., Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, Commando, Commodore (rank), Conventional warfare, Daily Times (Pakistan), Dawn (newspaper), Dawn News, De Havilland Vampire, Defence Day (Pakistan), Dennis Kux, Desert, Dwarka, East Pakistan, Encyclopædia Britannica, English Electric Canberra, Espionage, Fazilka, Federal Research Division, Fighter aircraft, Flight International, Flotilla, Flying ace, Folland Gnat, Front (military), General officer, General officer commanding, Gujarat, Halwara, Harbaksh Singh, Harold Wilson, Havildar, Hawker Hunter, Husain Haqqani, I Corps (India), I Corps (Pakistan), India, India–Pakistan border, Indian Air Force, Indian Army, Indian National Congress, Indian Navy, Indian rupee, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts, Indonesia, Infantry, INS Vikrant, Intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence, Iran, Iraq, IV Corps (Pakistan), Jalandhar, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, Jat Regiment, Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri, Jeremy Black (historian), Joginder Singh Dhillon, John F. Kennedy School of Government, John Keay, Jugular vein, Kashmir, Kashmir conflict, Kashmir Singh Katoch, Khaleej Times, Khemkaran, Lahore, Lahore District, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lieutenant colonel, Lieutenant general, Line of Control, Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, M24 Chaffee, M3 Stuart, M36 tank destroyer, M4 Sherman, M47 Patton, M48 Patton, Major general, Malik Nur Khan, Marshal of the air force, Martial race, Martin B-57 Canberra, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Military air base, Military exercise, Ministry of Defence (India), Muhammad Mahmood Alam, Muhammad Musa, Mumbai, Naval War College Review, Nishan-e-Haider, Non-Aligned Movement, North American F-86 Sabre, Nuclear weapon, Office of the Historian, Officer in tactical command, Operation Dwarka, Operation Gibraltar, Operation Grand Slam, Ordnance QF 25-pounder, PAF Museum, Karachi, Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Armed Forces Eastern Command, Pakistan Army, Parachute, Param Vir Chakra, Partition of India, Pasrur, Pathankot, Pir Panjal Range, PNS Ghazi, Poonch, Post–World War II air-to-air combat losses, President of India, President of Pakistan, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Propaganda, PT-76, Punjab, India, Radcliffe Line, Raja Aziz Bhatti, Rajasthan, Rann of Kutch, Rear admiral, Research and Analysis Wing, Richard H. Shultz, Rounaq Jahan, Royal Ordnance L7, S-75 Dvina, S. M. Anwar, Sabotage, Sargodha, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Sialkot, Sialkot District, Sindh, Sino-Indian War, Sir Creek, Skirmisher, Small arms, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Soviet Union, Special Service Group, Squadron leader, Stanley Wolpert, Status quo ante bellum, Steve Coll, Syed Mohammad Ahsan, Tank destroyer, Tariq Majid, Tashkent, Tashkent Declaration, The Art of War, The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965, The Nation (Pakistan), The Times of India, The Tribune, Time (magazine), Turkey, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Army, United States Department of State, United States House of Representatives, United States Naval Institute, Uri, Jammu and Kashmir, Uzbekistan, Vice admiral, West Pakistan, Western Command (India), World War II, XI Corps (India), XV Corps (India), Yahya Khan, Zero Point railway station, Zhou Enlai, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 12th Infantry Division (Pakistan), 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry, 1st Armoured Division (India), 2001–02 India–Pakistan standoff, 2004 in politics, 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse), 3rd Cavalry (India), 3rd Dragoon Guards, 4th Infantry Division (India), 6th Armoured Division (Pakistan), 6th Lancers (Pakistan), 7th Infantry Division (Pakistan), 7th Light Cavalry. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Company Quartermaster Havildar Abdul Hamid, PVC (1 July 1933 – 10 September 1965), was an Indian Army soldier who posthumously received India's highest military decoration, the Param Vir Chakra, for his actions during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Adampur (ਆਦਮਪੁਰ, आदमपुर) is a town, a municipal council and a sub-tehsil in Jalandhar district in the Indian state of Punjab.
An aerodrome (Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
Vice-Admiral Afzal Akram Rahman Khan (Urdu: افضل رحمان خان; born: 1921— 2005; popularly known as Admiral A. R. Khan), HQA, HPk, HJ, was a three-star rank admiral, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1959 until 1966.
Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Akhnoor is an archeological site and Municipal Committee in Jammu district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India.
Lieutenant General Akhtar Hussain Malik (died 22 August 1969) was a distinguished General, a war hero of Pakistan Army in the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Allama Iqbal International Airport (علامہ اقبال بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is the third largest civil airport by traffic in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province as well a large portion of the travellers from the Punjab province.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Ambala, is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border with the Indian state of Punjab and in proximity to both states capital Chandigarh.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
The AMX-13 is a French light tank produced from 1952 to 1987.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore, PVC (19August 1923 – 16September 1965), was an officer in the Indian Army and a recipient of the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest award for bravery.
Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh, DFC (16 April 1919 – 16 September 2017) was an Indian Air Force marshal who served as Chief of the Air Staff from 1964 to 1969.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Mohammed Attique Rahman (محمد عتیق الرحمن), MC (24 June 1918 – 1 June 1996) was a three-star lieutenant general officer in the Pakistan Army, a noted military historian, as well as a senior government official.
The Auster AOP.6 was a British military air observation aircraft produced by Auster Aircraft Limited to replace the numerous wartime Taylorcraft Auster aircraft then in-service.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Lieutenant-General Bakhtiar Rana (Urdu: بختيار رانا; b. 3 November 1910–1999),, was a three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who was notable in leading his command level formation, the I Corps, during the second war with India in 1965.
Bambanwala-Ravi-Bedian Canal or simply, BRB Canal begins at Wazir Abad Nandipur Canal and ends at the Satluj River.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
The Battle of Asal Uttar (Hindi: आसल उत्ताड़ असल उत्तर नहीं, Punjabi: ਆਸਲ ਉਤਾੜ) was one of the largest tank battles fought during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The Battle of Chawinda was a part of the Sialkot Campaign in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.
Bharat Rakshak ("Defenders of India") is a website devoted to discussing India's military affairs.
Vice-Admiral Bhaskar Sadashiv Soman (30 March 1913 – 8 February 1995) was an Indian naval officer and in command of the Indian Navy from 1962 to 1966 as the 4th Chief of Naval Staff.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadair Sabre was a jet fighter aircraft built by Canadair under licence from North American Aviation.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
The Chief of Air Staff (سربراہ پاک فضائيہ) (reporting name: CAS), is a military appointment and a statutory office held by the four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Chief of the Naval Staff ((سربراہ پاک بحریہ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principle military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation. The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces. In Principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 6 October 2017.
Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head and the commander of the Indian Air Force.
The Chief of the Army Staff is the commander and usually the highest-ranking officer of the Indian Army.
The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy.
Chumb is an area of Pakistan near the southern tip of Azad Kashmir.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army reporting name: C-in-C) was generally recognized to be a single and senior most appointment held by the four-star officer in the Pakistan Army. Though, not a statutory office in existence, the Commander was subordinate to the Defence Minister but this was contested. Direct appointments to the command of the Pakistan Army came from the British Army Council until 1951, when the first native commander-in-chief was nominated and appointed by the Government of Pakistan. The C-in-C was assisted by deputy C-in-C till mid 60's, the last deputy C-in-C was Yahya Khan served till 1966. The C-in-C designation was changed to 'Chief of Army Staff' in 1972, Tikka Khan was the first person to hold the new title. Six men have served as C-in-C, the first two of them were native British and the post was largely akin to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Daily Times (DT) is an English-language Pakistani newspaper.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Dawn News is one of Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel.
The de Havilland Vampire is a British jet fighter developed and manufactured by the de Havilland Aircraft Company.
Defence Day (یوم دفاع ALA-LC) is a public holiday that is celebrated as national day to commemorate in the memory of Pakistan's successful defence against India that marked the ceasefire in the 1965 war on 6 September.
Dennis H. Kux (born August 11, 1931 in London, England) is a diplomat and former United States Ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire (1986–89).
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dwarka is an ancient city and a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwarka district in the state of Gujarat in northwestern India.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The English Electric Canberra is a British first-generation jet-powered medium bomber that was manufactured during the 1950s.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Fazilka is a town and a municipal council in Punjab, India.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Flight International (or simply Flight) is a weekly magazine focused on aerospace, published in the United Kingdom.
A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a small flota (fleet) of ships, and this from French flotte, and this from Russian "флот" (flot), meaning "fleet"), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
The Folland Gnat is a British compact swept-wing subsonic fighter aircraft that was developed and produced by Folland Aircraft.
A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Halwara is a township in Punjab state in India.
Lieutenant General Harbaksh Singh, VrC was a three star General in the Indian Army.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
A havildar or havaldar (हविलदार (Devanagari) (Perso-Arabic)) is a rank in the Indian and Pakistani armies, equivalent to a sergeant.
The Hawker Hunter is a transonic British jet-powered fighter aircraft that was developed by Hawker Aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Husain Haqqani (born 1 July 1956, alternately spelled Hussain Haqqani) is a Pakistani journalist, academic, political activist and former ambassador of Pakistan to Sri Lanka and the United States.
For the First World War corps, see I Corps (British India) I Corps, headquartered at Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, is a military field formation of the Indian Army, created in 1965.
The I Corps, also known as I Strike Corps, of the Pakistan Army headquartered in Mangla, Azad Kashimir Territory of Pakistan.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The India and Pakistan Border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between India and Pakistan that demarcates the Indian states and the four provinces of Pakistan.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Two ships operated by the Indian Navy have had the name INS Vikrant.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The IV Corps is one of military administrative corps of Pakistan Army.
Jalandhar, formerly known as Jullundur in British India, is a city in the Doaba region of the northwestern Indian state of Punjab.
Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
General Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri, OBE (10 June 1908 – 6 April 1983) was an Indian four-star general who served as the Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army from 1962 to 1966 and the Military Governor of Hyderabad State from 1948 to 1949.
Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.
Lieutenant General Joginder Singh Dhillon (1914–2003) was the first post independence Sapper Army Commander (Central Army) and was a decorated and celebrated Indian and Sikh military war hero.
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS, widely known as John Keay, (pronounced 'Kay') is a British historian, journalist, radio presenter and lecturer specialising in popular histories of India, the Far East and China, often with a particular focus on their colonisation and exploration by Europeans.
The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Lieutenant General Kashmir Singh Katoch, MC (born 15 July 1915) was a former Indian Army General and military adviser to the Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, officiating as the Chief of Staff of the State Forces during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
Khaleej Times (KT) is a daily English language newspaper published in United Arab Emirates. Launched on April 16, 1978, KT is the UAE's oldest and remains the country's longest running English daily.
Khem Karan is a town and a nagar panchayat in Tarn Taran district of Patti tehsil of the Majha region of Indian state of Punjab.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lahore District (Punjabi, ضلع لاہور) is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan, mainly consisting of the city of Lahore.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft.
The M24 Chaffee (officially Light Tank, M24) is an American light tank used during the later part of World War II; it was also used in post–World War II conflicts including the Korean War, and by the French in the War in Algeria and the First Indochina War.
The M3 Stuart, officially Light Tank, M3, was an American light tank of World War II.
The M36 tank destroyer, formally 90 mm Gun Motor Carriage, M36, was an American tank destroyer used during World War II.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
The M47 Patton was an American main battle tank, a development of the M46 Patton mounting an updated turret, and was in turn further developed as the M48 Patton.
The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Air Marshal Malik Nur Khan (ملک نور خان.; 22 February 1923 – 15 December 2011), commonly known as Nur Khan, was a three-star rank air force general, politician, sports administrator, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Air Force, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1965 until 1969.
Marshal of the air force is the English term for the most senior rank in a number of air forces.
Martial race was a designation created by Army officials of British India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, where they classified each caste into one of two categories, 'martial' and 'non-martial'.
The Martin B-57 Canberra is an American-built, twinjet tactical bomber and reconnaissance aircraft that entered service with the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1953.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
A military air base (sometimes referred to as a military airfield, military airport, air force station, air force base or short air base) is an aerodrome (military base) used by a military force for the operation of military aircraft.
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.
The Ministry of Defence (IAST) (abbreviated as MoD) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces.
Muhammad Mahmood Alam SJ (محمد محمود عالم, মোহাম্মদ মাহমূদ আলম); 6 July 1935 – 18 March 2013) was a Pakistani fighter pilot who was credited by the Pakistanis with having downed nine Indian Air Force aircraft during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, including five Hawker Hunter aircraft on one sortie on 7 September 1965. He was a F-86 Sabre flying ace as per Pakistan records and one-star general in the Pakistan Air Force. He was awarded the Sitara-e-Jurat ("The star of courage"), the nation's third highest military award and Bar for his actions during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
General Muhammad Musa Khan Hazara (جنرل محمد موسی خان ہزارہ, جنرال محمد موسی خان هزاره) (1908 – 12 March 1991),, was a four-star rank army general, politician, and the Commander in Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1958 until 1966.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The Naval War College Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the United States Navy's Naval War College.
Nishan-e-Haider (نشان حیدر) (abbreviated as "NH") is Pakistan's highest military gallantry award.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Office of the Historian is an office of the United States Department of State within the Bureau of Public Affairs.
In NATO, the officer in tactical command (OTC) is the naval officer exercising tactical command of a group of ships in a tactical formation such as a task unit, task group, or task force.
Operation Dwarka was a naval operation by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 September 1965.
Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule.
Operation Grand Slam was a key operation of the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War.
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British field gun and howitzer during the Second World War, possessing a 3.45-inch (87.6 mm) calibre.
PAF Museum, Karachi (پاک فضائیہ متحف) is an Air Force museum and park situated near Karsaz Flyover on Shahrah-e-Faisal in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
The Eastern Military High Command of the Pakistan Armed Forces was a field-level military command headed by an appointed senior 3-star officer, who was designated the Unified Commander of the Eastern Military High Command.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration, awarded for displaying distinguished acts of valour during wartime.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pasrur (پسرُور), is a city of Sialkot District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Pathankot is a city in the Punjab state of India.
The Pir Panjal Range is a group of mountains in the Inner Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir where the average elevation varies from to.
PNS Ghazi (previously USS Diablo (SS-479); reporting name: Ghazi),, was a diesel-electric and the first fast-attack submarine of the Pakistan Navy, leased from the United States in 1963.
Poonch (also referred to as Punch) is a town and a municipal council in Poonch District in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Air-to-air combat is the engagement of flying machines in warfare in which one or more aircraft tries to destroy one or more other aircraft.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank that was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan published on 17 August 1947 upon the Partition of India.
Major Raja Abdul-Aziz Bhatti (راجہ عزیز بھٹی; 1928 – 12 September 1965) usually known as Aziz Bhatti was a Staff officer in the Pakistan Army who received Pakistan's highest award for valor.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
Richard H. Shultz, Jr. (born 1947) is an American scholar of international security studies.
Rounaq Jahan (রওনক জাহান; born 1944) is a Bangladeshi political scientist, feminist leader and author.
The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britain's most successful tank gun.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
Commodore Sheikh Mohammad Anwar (Urdu: شيخ محمد انور; b. 19 September 1920– 24 January 1977),, popularly known as SM Anwar, was a one-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who is known for his role as officer in tactical command of the 25th Destroyer Squadron that attack and raided the radar station in Dwarka in Gujarat during the second war with India in 1965.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
Sargodha (Punjabi and سرگودھا) is the 11th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1.5 million.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Sialkot District (Punjabi and ضِلع سيالكوٹ), is one of the districts of the Punjab provinces of Pakistan.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
Sir Creek is a 96 km (60 mi) tidal estuary on the border of India and Pakistan.
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Service Group (SSG) (عساکرء خدمات خصوصی) is the primary special operations force of the Pakistan Army.
Squadron leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF; SQNLDR in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly sometimes S/L in all services) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
Stanley Wolpert (born December 23, 1927) is an American historian, Indologist, and author on the political and intellectual history of modern India and PakistanDr.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
Steve Coll (born October 8, 1958) is an American journalist, academic and executive.
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan (ﺴﻴﺩ ﻣﺤﻣﺪ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ b. 1920 – d. 1989), often known as S. M. Ahsan, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, politician, and the Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1966 until 1969.
A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to engage enemy tanks.
General Tariq Majid, (Urdu: طارق مجید; born 23 August 1950; NI(M), afwc, fsc(m), psc) is a retired four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who held prestigious four-star assignment as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 2007 to 2010, the principal and highest-ranking military advisier in the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The India-Pakistan Air War of 1965 is a 2005 aviation history book written by PVS Jagan Mohan and Samir Chopra.
The Nation is an English-language daily newspaper based in Lahore, Pakistan since 1986.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tribune or Tribune is the name of various newspapers.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
Western Command is a formation of the Indian Army, active since 1947.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XI Corps of the Indian Army is based in Jalandhar and is a part of Western Command.
XV Corps was first established in 1942, as part of the British Indian Army, during World War II.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Zero Point railway station (زیرو پوائنٹ ریلوے اسٹیشن, ذڪر صفر اسٹیشن) is the eastern terminus of the Hyderabad–Khokhrapar Branch Line.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
12th Infantry Division is a Pakistani Army Largest infantry division currently based in Murree, Punjab close to Azad Kashmir.
The 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry was a regular cavalry regiment in the British Indian Army.
The 1st Armoured Division is an armoured division of the Indian Army.
The 2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff was a military standoff between India and Pakistan that resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the border and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir.
Years in politics: 2002-2003-2004-2005-2006 - list of years in politics.
The 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) is one of the oldest and most highly decorated armoured regiments of the Indian Army.
The 3rd Cavalry is a cavalry regiment of the Indian Army formed from the 5th and 8th Cavalry regiments in 1922.
The 3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouth's Regiment of Horse.
The 4th Indian Infantry Division, also known as the Red Eagle Division, is the infantry division name the Indian Army retained after the present India adopted its entire rank and structure from its parent Army, the British Army.
The 6th Armoured Division is a Pakistan Army armoured division currently based in Gujranwala, in Punjab Province.
The 6th Lancers is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army.
The 7th Infantry Division, also known as the Golden Arrow (after its formation sign) and Peshawar Division, (after its garrison city) is the Pakistan Army's oldest and most battle-hardened division.
The 7th Light Cavalry previously the 28th Light Cavalry, was a regular army cavalry regiment in the British Indian Army.
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