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Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi (Urdu: امیر عبداللہ خان نیازی; b. 1915–1 February 2004),, popularly known as A.A.K. Niazi or General Niazi was a former lieutenant-general in the Pakistan Army and the last Governor of East Pakistan, known for commanding the Eastern Command of Pakistani military in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) during the Eastern and the Western Fronts of the Indo-Pakistani war until the unilateral surrendering on the 16 December 1971 to Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command and the Bengali Liberation Forces.
Aakraman is a 1975 Hindi war film, produced by Jagdish Kumar and directed by J. Om Prakash.
Lieutenant-General Abdul Ali Malik was a three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army and an engineering officer in the Corps of Engineers who earned distinction of leading the combat engineering formations to mechanized warfare in Chawinda during the second war with India in 1965, and later commanded the I Corps during the third war with India in 1971.
General Abdul Hamid Khan, (Urdu: عبد الحمید خان), was a four star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, serving as the Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army under President Yahya Khan and led the army during the events in the war with India in 1971.
Abdul Monem Khan (28 July 1899 – 13 October 1971) was a Bengali Pakistani politician who was the governor of East Pakistan.
Abdul Motaleb Malik was the last civilian Governor of East Pakistan.
Air Marshal Abdur Rahim Khan, (عبدالرحیم خان; October 25, 1925 – February 28, 1990),, was a three-star rank air force general who served as the last Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Air Force under President Yahya Khan, from 1969 until 1972.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Ahsan's Formula (or an Admiral Ahsan Mission) was a fact-finding expedition and peace initiative mission dispatched by the Pakistani government to East Pakistan in early 1971.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations involve bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Air commodore (abbreviated as Air Cdre in the RAF, IAF and PAF; AIRCDRE in the RNZAF and RAAF) is a one-star rank and the most junior general rank of the air-officer which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Air Headquarters (AHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Air Force, located at Islamabad.
Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Lance Naik Albert Ekka, PVC (December 27 1942 – December 3 1971) was a soldier in the Indian Army.
Aleksei Alekseievich Rodionov (b. 1922) was a Soviet-Ukrainian diplomat who served as the Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan from 1971 until 1974 and the Ambassador of Ukraine to Canada after the Cold war from 1991-92.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.
Anti-Pakistan sentiment or Pakistan-phobia also known as Pakophobia refers to hatred or hostility towards Pakistan, Pakistanis and Pakistani culture, ranging from criticism of public policies, to fear or an irrational fixation.
The Antonov An-12 (Russian: Антонов Ан-12; NATO reporting name: Cub) is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Archer Kent Blood (March 20, 1923 – September 3, 2004) was an American career diplomat and academic.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
Second Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal, PVC (14 October 1950 – 16 December 1971) born in Pune, Maharashtra, was an officer of the Indian Army and a posthumous recipient of the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest military decoration for valour in face of the enemy.
The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
A "backlash" is an adverse reaction to something which has gained popularity, prominence, or influence.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
Balkanization, or Balkanisation, is a geopolitical term used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bangabandhu International Conference Center formerly known as Bangladesh China Friendship Conference Center is the only international conference center of Bangladesh situated at Sher-e-Bangla, Dhaka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Armed Forces (বাংলাদেশ সশস্ত্র বাহিনী, Bānlādēśa saśastra bāhinī) consists of the three uniformed military services: the Bangladesh Army, the Bangladesh Navy and the Bangladesh Air Force.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated: Bangladesh Jātīẏatābādī Dôl), always abbreviated as BNP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Police (বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ) is the main law enforcement agency of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states.
Bangladesh and India are South Asian neighbours.
Bangladesh and Pakistan are South Asian countries.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
The Battle of Longewala (4–7 December 1971) was one of the first major engagements in the western sector during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, fought between assaulting Pakistani forces and Indian defenders at the Indian border post of Longewala, in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan state in India.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Beechcraft L-23 Seminole (later designated U-8) was the United States Armed Forces designation for the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air aircraft in its inventory.
Bengali Hindus (বাঙালি হিন্দু) are ethnic Bengali adherents of Hinduism, and are native to the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
The Bir Sreshtho (বীরশ্রেষ্ঠ) (The Most Valiant Hero), is the highest military award of Bangladesh.
Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala (विश्वेश्वरप्रसाद कोइराला; 8 September 1914 – 21 July 1982), commonly known as B. P. Koirala, was a Nepali politician and a prolific writer.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
Border is a 1997 Indian war film based on the Battle of Longewala during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, produced and directed by J. P. Dutta.
The Border Guards Bangladesh (Bengali transliteration: বর্ডার গার্ড বাংলাদেশ; translated from English: বাংলাদেশ সীমান্ত রক্ষক; BGB), formerly known as the Bangladesh Rifles, is the oldest uniformed force in Bangladesh.
The Breguet Br.1050 Alizé (French: "Tradewind") was a French carrier-based anti-submarine warfare aircraft.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
The term brown-water navy refers in its broadest sense to any naval force capable of military operations in fluvial or littoral environments, especially those carrying heavy sediment loads from soil runoff or flooding.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.
The Census in Pakistan (مردم شماری پاکستان), is a decennial census and a descriptive count of Pakistan's population on Census Day, and of their dwellings, conducted and supervised by the Bureau of Statistics of the Ministry of Finance and Statistics.
The Central Command of the Indian Army is one of the seven operational commands of the army.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
Chalunka is a small village in the Shyok River valley, which was on the India-Pakistan border until 1971 when Indian army officer Chewang Rinchen raised the Nubra river valley guards from local men and captured considerable territory along the valley until they got near the village Turtuk where the present border is today.
Chief inspector (Ch Insp) is a rank used in police forces which follow the British model.
The Chief Justice of Pakistan (initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The office of the Chief Martial Law Administrator was a senior government authoritative post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country in an events to ensure the continuity of government.
The Chief of Air Staff (سربراہ پاک فضائيہ) (reporting name: CAS), is a military appointment and a statutory office held by the four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
Chief of General Staff, shortly abbreviated as CGS, is the most coveted position within the Pakistan Army.
The Chief of the Naval Staff ((سربراہ پاک بحریہ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principle military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation. The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces. In Principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 6 October 2017.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head and the commander of the Indian Air Force.
The Chief of the Army Staff is the commander and usually the highest-ranking officer of the Indian Army.
The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to end official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (on Taiwan) and recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) regime on mainland China.
China–United States relations, more often known as U.S.–Chinese relations, Chinese–U.S. relations, or Sino-American relations, refers to international relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Chorbat Valley (وادی چھوربٹ, Balti: སྦལ་ཏིའི་) is a valley in Khaplu tehsil, Ghanche District, in Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan and in south east of Nubra valley Ladakh India.
Charles Elwood "Chuck" Yeager (born, 1923) is a former United States Air Force officer, flying ace, and record-setting test pilot.
The Cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
A coast guard or coastguard is a maritime security organization of a particular country.
The Cold War (1953–1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of flying mission for fighter aircraft.
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
Cox's Bazar (কক্সবাজার) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters in southeastern Bangladesh.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
The Culture of Bangladesh refers to the way of life of the people of Bangladesh.
The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north.
The Dassault Mirage III is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fighter aircraft developed and manufactured by French aircraft company Dassault Aviation.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
The de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou (designated by the United States military as the CV-2 and later C-7 Caribou) is a Canadian-designed and produced specialized cargo aircraft with short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability.
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.
The Delhi Agreement was a trilateral agreement signed between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh on 28 August 1973; and ratified only by India and Pakistan.
Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 (excluding the autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).
Lieutenant general Depinder Singh (born 1930, Punjab British India) was the Overall commander of the IPKF in Sri Lanka from July 1987 to March 1990,He was the military assistant to Sam Manekshaw from 1969-73 during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
In reference to film and television, drama is a genre of narrative fiction (or semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humorous in tone.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East Bengali Refugees refers to the people who left East Bengal following the Partition of Bengal, which was part of the Independence of India and Pakistan in 1947.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
East Pakistan Air Operations covers activity of the Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Army Aviation units in erstwhile East Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War and the interdiction, air defense, ground support, and logistics missions flown by the Bangladesh Air Force, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy Aviation wing in support of the Indian Amry and Mukti Bahini in the eastern theater of the Indo-Pakistani conflict of 1971.
East Pakistan Central Peace Committee (পূর্ব পাকিস্তান কেন্দ্রীয় শান্তি কমিটি; مشرقی پاکستان مرکزی امن کمیٹی), also known as the Nagorik Shanti Committee (Citizen's Peace Committee), or more commonly Peace Committee or Shanti Committee, was one of several committees formed in East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) in 1971 by the Pakistan Army to aid its efforts in crushing the rebellion for Bangladesh independence.
The East Pakistan Provincial Assembly, known as the East Bengal Legislative Assembly between 1947 and 1955, was the legislature of Bangladesh when the country was a province of Pakistan as East Bengal (1947-1955) and East Pakistan (1955-1971).
The Eastern Command of the Indian Army is one of the seven operational commands of the army.
The Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy is one of its three major formations.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.
The English Electric Canberra is a British first-generation jet-powered medium bomber that was manufactured during the 1950s.
Expeditionary warfare is the deployment of a state's military to fight abroad, especially away from established bases.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Indira Gandhi was sworn in as Prime Minister of India for the first time on 24 January 1966.
Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The foreign relations share the Bangladeshi government's policies in its external relations with the international community.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Army located at Rawalpindi.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Genocidal rape is a term used to describe the actions of a group who have carried out acts of mass rape during wartime against their perceived enemy as part of a genocidal campaign.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Bangladesh is a densely-populated, low-lying, mainly riverine country located in South Asia with a coastline of on the northern littoral of the Bay of Bengal.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Ghazi Shaheed is a 1998 thriller drama film based on the disasters that befell the PNS ''Ghazi'' on Bay of Bengal.
Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, abbreviated as Ghost Wars, is a book written by Steve Coll, published in 2004 by Penguin Press, won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction.
General Gopal Gurunath Bewoor, PVSM (11 August 1916 – 24 October 1989) was an officer of the Indian Army who served as the 9th Chief of Army Staff.
The Government of Assam is the provincial governing authority of Assam, a state of India.
The Government of Bihar, known locally as the State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Bihar and its 9 divisions which consist of 38 districts.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Meghalaya also known as the State Government of Meghalaya, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Meghalaya and its 11 districts.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Government of Tripura also known as the State Government of Tripura, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Tripura and its 8 districts.
The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 23 districts.
In United States politics, a government shutdown occurs when Congress fails to pass or the President fails to sign appropriations: legislation funding federal government operations and agencies.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Group captain is a senior commissioned rank in many air forces.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gul Hassan Khan (گل حسن خان) (1921; b. 1921—10 October 1999), was a former lieutenant-general and the last Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army, serving under President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto from 20 December 1971 until 3 March 1972.
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.
Hamidur Rahman (2 February 195328 October 1971) was a sepoy in Bangladesh Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman (حمود الرحمن; 1 November 1910 – 20 December 1981),.
The Hamoodur Rahman Commission (otherwise known as "War Enquiry Commission"), was a judicial inquiry commission that assessed Pakistan's political–military involvement in East-Pakistan from 1947 to 1971.
The Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report (or War Report) contains the Government of Pakistan's official and classified papers of the events leading up to loss of East Pakistan and the 1971 war with India.
Air Marshal Hari Chand Dewan (20 September 1921 – 22 August 2017) was an Indian Air Force officer.
The Hawker Sea Hawk is a British single-seat jet fighter of the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), the air branch of the Royal Navy (RN), built by Hawker Aircraft and its sister company, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft.
The term Headquarter Jail or Headquarter Prison means one of the Jails (usually a Central Jail) in a Circle (a group of prisons) in any province of Pakistan, whose Superintendent or Officer-in-Charge is assigned with the administrative and financial powers of appointment, transfer and promotion of warders for all jails falling in the said Circle.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindustan Ki Kasam (The Oath of Hindustan) is a 1973 war movie based on Operation Cactus Lilly in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 directed by Chetan Anand, who has previously made the popular war film Haqeeqat (1964) on the Sino-Indian War, the film however didn't perform well commercially.
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The history of East Bengal and East Pakistan from 1947 to 1971 covers the period of Bangladesh's history between its independence as a part of Pakistan from British colonial rule in 1947 to its independence from Pakistan in 1971.
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day.
The history of the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) began when it was established in 1947 following the independence of Pakistan.
Colonel Hoshiar Singh Dahiya, PVC (5 May 1937 – 6 December 1998) was born in a Hindu Jat family in Sisana village, Sonipat district, Haryana to Choudhary Hira Singh.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Husain Haqqani (born 1 July 1956, alternately spelled Hussain Haqqani) is a Pakistani journalist, academic, political activist and former ambassador of Pakistan to Sri Lanka and the United States.
For the First World War corps, see I Corps (British India) I Corps, headquartered at Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, is a military field formation of the Indian Army, created in 1965.
The I Corps, also known as I Strike Corps, of the Pakistan Army headquartered in Mangla, Azad Kashimir Territory of Pakistan.
Major General Iftikhar Khan Janjua Shaheed, HJ & Bar, SPk, SQA, (Urdu: افتخار خان جنجوعہ) (died December 9, 1971) of the Pakistan Army is the most senior Pakistani officer to have been killed in action.
II Corps is a corps of the Indian Army, based in Ambala and known as Kharga Corps.
The II Corps, known as II Strike Corps or Army Reserve South, is army corps of Pakistan Army stationed in Multan, Punjab Province of Pakistan.
"Iman, Ittihad, Nazm" (ایمان، اتحاد، نظم; pronounced:; lit. "Faith, Unity, Discipline") is the national motto of Pakistan.
Air Marshal Inamul Haque Khan (Urdu:إنعام الحـــق خان; 23 May 1927 – 10 August 2017), was a three-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force who is known for his role as AOC of the Eastern Air Command of the Pakistan Air Force.
Inderjit Singh Gill (1919–20 May 2001) was a lieutenant general in the Indian army.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
The India–Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals (ছিটমহল chitmôhol) and sometimes called pasha enclaves, were the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya.
India–Iran relations refers to the bilateral relations between the countries India and Iran.
The India and Pakistan Border, known locally as the International Border (IB), is an international border running between India and Pakistan that demarcates the Indian states and the four provinces of Pakistan.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Century (or India's Century) is the possibility that the 21st century will be dominated by India, similarly to how the 20th century is often called the American Century, December 1, 2007.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
The Indo–Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation was a treaty signed between India and the Soviet Union in August 1971 that specified mutual strategic cooperation.
The Inter-Services Public Relations (بین الخدماتی تعلقات عامہ; Reporting name:ISPR), is the media wing of the Pakistan Armed Forces which broadcasts and coordinates military news and information to the country's civilian media and the civic society.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh) (ICT of Bangladesh) is a domestic war crimes tribunal in Bangladesh set up in 2009 to investigate and prosecute suspects for the genocide committed in 1971 by the Pakistan Army and their local collaborators, Razakars, Al-Badr and Al-Shams during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The IV Corps is a military field formation of the Indian Army, created in 1961.
The IV Corps is one of military administrative corps of Pakistan Army.
Lieutenant General Jack Farj Rafael "J.
Jyoti Prakash Dutta (born 3 October 1949) is an Indian Bollywood film producer and director.
Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora, PVSM (13 February 1916 – 3 May 2005) was an Indian army officer, and a later a politician who was the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of the Eastern Command during the third war with Pakistan in 1971.
Jagjivan Ram (5 April 1908 – 6 July 1986), known popularly as Babuji, was an Indian independence activist and politician from Bihar.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jigme Dorji Wangchuck (Wylie: 'jigs med rdo rje dbang phyug; 2 May 1929 – 21 July 1972) was the Druk Gyalpo of Bhutan.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
Jingoism is nationalism in the form of aggressive foreign policy, such as a country's advocacy for the use of threats or actual force, as opposed to peaceful relations, in efforts to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests.
The Joint Staff Headquarters (reporting name:JS HQ), is the combatant joint-field operations secretariat and principal headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee established after Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 in Rawalpindi.It is situated neighborhood to GHQ.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Jussi M. Hanhimäki (born February 3, 1965 in Espoo) is a Finnish historian, specializing in the history of the Cold War, American foreign policy, transatlantic relations, international organizations and refugees.
Air Commodore Kaiser Tufail TI(M), (قیصر طفیل) is a retired fighter pilot of the Pakistan Air Force and is better-known as an aviation historian, particularly with regard to the largely unbiased coverage of the Indo-Pakistani Wars.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Khadim Hussain Raja (b. Haranpur, Jhelum District, British India 1922/11/23; d. 1999/12/09, Islamabad, Pakistan) was a Pakistani army officer who attained the rank of Major General.
Lt General Khem Karan Singh was Lt General of Indian Army.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Lieutenant General Kunhiraman Palat Candeth (23 October 1916 – 19 May 2003) was a Three Star General in the Indian army.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lance naik (L/Nk) is the equivalent rank to lance corporal in the Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indian Armies and before 1947, in the British Indian Army, ranking below naik.
The Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolôn) was a political movement in former East Bengal (currently Bangladesh) advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of the then-Dominion of Pakistan in order to allow its use in government affairs, the continuation of its use as a medium of education, its use in media, currency and stamps, and to maintain its writing in the Bengali script.
The Legal Framework Order, 2002 was issued by Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf in August 2002.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Rear-Admiral Leslie Norman Mungavin (b. 1923–1995), was a two-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, and a defence diplomat.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republics and the Russian Federation to Pakistan.
This is a list of cities in Pakistan.
This is a list of wars and conflicts in Asia, particularly East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Russia.
The Indian Air Force currently operates seven Air Commands.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest and apex court in the judicial hierarchy in Pakistan.
Following is a list of newspapers in Pakistan.
A squadron in air force, army aviation, or naval aviation is mainly a unit comprising a number of military aircraft and their aircrews, usually of the same type, typically with 12 to 24 aircraft.
The position of Prime Minister of Nepal (नेपालको प्रधानमन्त्री; Nēpālakō pradhānamantrī) in modern form was called by different names at different times of Nepalese history.
Bhutan was founded and unified as a country by Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche in the mid–17th century.
This is a list of television channels in Pakistan.
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin).
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft.
A love triangle (also called a romantic love triangle or a romance triangle or an eternal triangle) is usually a romantic relationship involving three people.
Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani (মহম্মদ আতাউল গণি ওসমানী; 1 September 1918 – 16 February 1984), also known as Bangabir (the Hero of Bengal), was the commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Forces during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Manohar Lal Chibber (born 1927) is an Indian Army officer and writer, known for his involvement in the Siachen conflict of 1986.
The Martin B-57 Canberra is an American-built, twinjet tactical bomber and reconnaissance aircraft that entered service with the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1953.
Matiur Rahman (29 October 194120 August 1971) was a flight lieutenant of Pakistan Air Force and a recipient of Bir Sreshtho, Bangladesh's highest military gallantry award for his actions during the Liberation War of Bangladesh.
Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan.
Meherpur (মেহেরপুর জেলা, pron: meɦeɾpuɾ) is a district in South-western Bangladesh.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
The Minister of Defence is the head of the Ministry of Defence of the Government of India.
The Minister of External Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India.
The Indian Army had no standby force ready in 1971 with the specific task of attacking West Pakistan, one of the many reasons why India did not immediately intervene after Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight in March 1971.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Ruhul Amin (রুহুল আমিন), better known as Shaheed Mohammad Ruhul Amin (born 1935), was an engine room artificer in the Bangladesh Navy who was posthumously awarded the nation's highest bravery award, Bir Sreshtho, for his service during the Liberation War.
Admiral Mohammad Shariff Khan (Urdu: ايڈمرل محمد شريف; b.1920–7 July 2015,, was a four-star rank admiral and a memoirist who was at the center of all the major decisions made in Pakistan in the events involving the war with India in 1971, the enforcement of martial law in the country in 1977, and the decision in covertly intervening against Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Gaining commission in the Royal Indian Navy, he participated in the World War II on behalf of Great Britain before joining the Pakistan Navy in 1947 as one of the senior staff officer. In 1969, he was appointed Flag Officer Commanding of the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military in the East-Pakistan and led by the Eastern Naval Command during the civil war in East, followed by the foreign intervention by India in 1971. After the war, he was taken as war prisoner alongside with Lieutenant-General A.A.K Niazi after conceding of the surrender of Eastern Command to the Indian Army. He resumed his active military service in the Navy after his repatriation from India and was appointed the Chief of Naval Staff in 1975 after the sudden death of Vice-Admiral Hasan Ahmed. He has the distinction of being the first four-star admiral in the navy and was the first admiral to be appointed as Chairman joint chiefs committee in 1978 until 1980. As the Chairman Joint Chiefs Committee, he continued to advocate for an aggressive foreign policy and a strong nuclear deterrent against the foreign intervention. After retiring from the military in 1980, Shariff was appointed as chairman of Federal Public Service Commission while he continued his role as military adviser to President Zia-ul-Haq until 1988 when he retired from public service. After living a quiet life in Islamabad, he announced to publish his memoirs, "Admiral's Diary", on providing further accounts, causes, and failure of military crackdown in East Pakistan.
Captain Mohiuddin Jahangir (মহিউদ্দীন জাহাঙ্গীর) was an officer in the Pakistan Army and joined the Mukti Bahini during the 1971 Liberation War.
The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.
The Moscow–Washington hotline (formally known in the United States as the Washington–Moscow Direct Communications Link; r) is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and the Russian Federation.
Muhammad Mustafa (মুহাম্মদ মুস্তফা), better known as Shaheed Sipahi Muhammad Mustafa was a sepoy in the Bangladesh Army during the Liberation War.
Major Muhammad Akram (Urdu: محمد اکرم; c. 1941–1971), was a Pakistan Army officer who was killed at the Battle of Hilli and was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider for his actions.
Sowar Muhammad Hussain was a soldier on the Pakistan Army and the first soldier to be awarded Nishan-e-Haider.
Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz (born 25 October 1944) was a Pakistani soldier, who was awarded the Nishan-i-Haider, the highest military award of Pakistan, he was killed during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Rear-Admiral Mujeeb Ahmad Khan Lodhi (Urdu:مجيب احمد خان لودهى; b. 1921),, best known as M.A.K. Lodhi, is a retired two-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, a memoirist, and a defence analyst, writing in the ''News International''.
Mujibnagar (মুজিবনগর), formerly known as Baidyanathtala (Boiddonathtola) and Bhoborpara, is a town in the Meherpur District of Bangladesh.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Munshi Abdur Rouf (মুন্সী আবদুর রউফ; 8 May 1943 – 8 April 1971) was a Lance Nayek in the East Pakistan Rifles during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Muslim nationalism in South Asia is the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of South Asia.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Vice-Admiral Muzzafar Hassan (مظفر حسن; b. 1920–24 May 2012), was a three-star rank admiral who served as the last Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Navy from 1969 until 1972, serving under first President Yahya Khan and then under President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Defense University (NDU) is an institution of higher education funded by the United States Department of Defense, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy.
The National Finance Commission Award or NFC is a series of planned economic program enacted since 1951.
The National Security Council (شورا قومی حفاظتی) (reporting name: NSC) is a federal institutional and consultative body chaired by the Prime Minister of Pakistan as its chairman.
The Nationalization process in Pakistan (or historically simply regarded as the "Nationalization in Pakistan") was a policy measure programme in the economic history of Pakistan, first introduced, promulgated and implemented by people-elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party to lay the foundation of socialist economics reforms to improve the growth of national economy of Pakistan.
Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 at Karachi.
Although the Netherlands does not have weapons of mass destruction made by itself, the country participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering United States nuclear weapons.
Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (p, Микола Вікторович Підгорний; – 12 January 1983) was a Soviet Ukrainian statesman during the Cold War.
Vice Admiral Nilakanta Krishnan DSC, PVSM (1919 – January 1982), was the Flag Officer Commanding in Chief of the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War.
Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon, PVC (17 July 1943 – 14 December 1971) was an officer of the Indian Air Force.
Nishan-e-Haider (نشان حیدر) (abbreviated as "NH") is Pakistan's highest military gallantry award.
This was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule.
The Northern Command is a Command of the Indian Army.
The Northrop F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter and the F-5E and F-5F Tiger II are part of a supersonic light fighter family, initially designed in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nur Mohammad Sheikh (নূর মোহাম্মদ শেখ; 26 February 1936 – 5 September 1971) was a Lance Nayek in East Pakistan Rifles during the Liberation War.
Nurul Amin (English IPA:nʊɾul əmin, নূরুল আমীন, نورالامین; 1893–1974), referred to as the Patriot of Pakistan, was a prominent Pakistani leader, and a jurist.
Okha is a coastal town in Devbhoomi Dwarka district of Gujarat state in India.
General Om Prakash "OP" Malhotra, PVSM (6 August 1922 – 29 December 2015) was an Indian Army General.
The One Unit (ایک وحدت) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954.
Operation Barisal was a code-name of naval operation conducted by Pakistan Navy intended to free the city of Barisal, East Pakistan from Mukti Bahinis and the dissidents of the Pakistan Defence Forces.
Operation Chengiz Khan was the code name assigned to the preemptive strikes carried out by the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) on the forward airbases and radar installations of the Indian Air Force (IAF) on the evening of 3 December 1971, and marked the formal initiation of hostilities of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Operation Focus (מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967.
Operation Python, a follow-up to Operation ''Trident'', was the code name of a naval attack launched on West Pakistan's port city of Karachi by the Indian Navy during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971, which the Pakistani state justified on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.
Operation Trident was an offensive operation launched by the Indian Navy on Pakistan's port city of Karachi during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
The Project 205 Moskit (mosquito) more commonly known by their NATO reporting name Osa, are a class of missile boats developed for the Soviet Navy in the late 1950s.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
The P-15 Termit (П-15 "Термит"; termite) is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Murid Airbase is a Pakistan Air Force Base located at Murid, Punjab, Pakistan.
PAF Base Mushaf (formerly PAF Base Sargodha) is a Pakistan Air Force airbase at Sargodha in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
Pakistan Armed Forces deployments include all Pakistani military deployments that are stationed outside Pakistan and serving in other countries.
The Eastern Military High Command of the Pakistan Armed Forces was a field-level military command headed by an appointed senior 3-star officer, who was designated the Unified Commander of the Eastern Military High Command.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Marines (Urdu); English IPA: pɑkʰ məriːniz (or/ simply Marines سمندریوں); reporting name PM), is an expeditionary and naval warfare uniform service branch of the Pakistan Navy that consists of active duty, high-ranking officers and other personnel of the Navy. The Pakistan Marines are responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of the Pakistan Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. Established in 1990, it is estimated to comprise about 3,200 active-duty personnel from the Navy as of 2017. In the Pakistani military leadership structure, the Marines are a component of the Pakistan Navy, often working closely with the Navy for training, executing expeditionary operations and logistics purposes. They are not a separate branch of the armed forces. The Marines were first formed as an amphibious battalion on 1 June 1971, in East-Pakistan as naval infantry to execute operations; however after poor performance in the 1971 war with India, they were disbanded in 1974. In 1990, the Marines were re-established by Commander Obaidullah; since then they have been a part of Navy, often conducting operations with other Pakistani naval forces. Pakistan Marines are primarily tasked with defending naval installations while also guarding and monitoring the disputed Sir Creek border with India. During their training at the Marines Training School, military exercises are occasionally conducted in conjunction with the United States Marine Corps. As befits their close association with the Navy, the PM share the same ranks as the rest of the Pakistan Navy but, their military codes and training are the same as in the Pakistan Army. In 2010, Marines, in close co-ordination with the Pakistan Army, Navy, and Air Force, were working around the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan Navy (rtl; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Television Corporation (پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, with headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Soviet Union–Pakistan relations (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик -Пакистан; or USSR-Pakistan relations) refers to historical, political, international, and cultural relationships between the state of Pakistan and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Pakistan–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Pakistan and the United States.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, heritage and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.
Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies (پاکستانیات) is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal established in 2009, which covers research on Pakistan studies.
The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration, awarded for displaying distinguished acts of valour during wartime.
The federal paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various uniformed organisations largely equipped with light infantry weapons and charged with a range of internal and external duties.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pathankot Air Force Station is a military airport located 3 km from Pathankot, India, on the Pathankot – Majra Road.
Air Commodore Patrick Desmond Callaghan (born 16 July 1926) is a one-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force who is credited for his pioneering work in Flight safety in Pakistan.
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Periods of Stagflation (or also attribute as Stagflation in Pakistan, Pakistan Stagflation or Inflation and unemployment in Pakistan), is a generic on-going period of economic, political and social stagflation in the economic context, which had been affecting the national economic growth of Pakistan in its successive decades of its history.
Air Chief Marshal Parvaiz Mehdi Qureshi (Urdu: پرویز مهدی قریشی; b. 1 October 1943), best known as PQ Mehdi, is a retired four-star rank air force general and a former fighter pilot who served as the eighth Chief of Air Staff (CAS) of the Pakistan Air Force, appointed in 1997 until retiring in 2000.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pilot officer (Plt Off officially in the RAF; PLTOFF in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly P/O in all services, and still often used in the RAF) is the lowest commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries.
PNS Ghazi (previously USS Diablo (SS-479); reporting name: Ghazi),, was a diesel-electric and the first fast-attack submarine of the Pakistan Navy, leased from the United States in 1963.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view".
The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the constitution.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The Port of Karachi (کراچی بندرگاہ Bandar gāh Karāchī) is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum) located in Karachi, Pakistan.
Air-to-air combat is the engagement of flying machines in warfare in which one or more aircraft tries to destroy one or more other aircraft.
Air Chief Marshal Pratap Chandra Lal (6 December 1916 – August 1982) was the Chief of Air Staff (India) of the Indian Air Force during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
Lieutenant General Premindra Singh Bhagat, VC, PVSM (14 October 1918 – 23 May 1975) was a General officer in the Indian Army and an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. The Victoria Cross was conferred on him for his actions in the Sudan theatre during World War II. General Bhagat is an alumnus of the famous Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, Dehradun.
The President of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি —) is the Head of State of Bangladesh.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (नेपालको राष्ट्रपति, Nēpālakō rāṣṭrapati) is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A press pool is a group of news gathering organizations that combine their resources in the collection of news.
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (translit) is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Pakistani prisoners of war during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 were the servicemen deployed in the Eastern Command of the Pakistan armed forces who were held in by the Indian Army.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971.
Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Rameshwarnath Kao (10 May 1918 – 20 January 2002) was a spymaster and the first chief of India's external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) from its founding in 1969 to 1977.
The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan published on 17 August 1947 upon the Partition of India.
Ram Baran Yadav (रामवरण यादव; born 4 February 1948) is a Nepalese politician and physician who served as the First President of Nepal following the declaration of a republic in 2008.
Rao Farman Ali (Urdu: راؤ فرمان علی; English IPA: Rəoʊ Fərmən ɑlɪ; 1 January 1923 – 20 January 2004), was a two-star general in the Pakistan Army and former political figure who is widely accused as a "conspirator" of the civil war in East Pakistan and one of directly responsible of committing the mass atrocities in East Pakistan.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rear-Admiral Rashid Ahmed (Urdu:رشيد احمد; b. 1918–2005),, was a two-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is known for serving as Chief of Staff under Commander in Chief Vice-Admiral Muzaffar Hassan and led the Navy during the fateful events in the war with India in 1971.
Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas or Rashid Minhas Shaheed,, PAF (راشد منہاس شہید.) (February 17, 1951 – August 20, 1971) was a Pilot in the Pakistan Air Force (PAF).
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Razakar (رضاکار, literally "volunteer"; রাজাকার) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary force organised by the Pakistan Army in Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China (officially the People's Republic of China or PRC) was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and China.
The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
Lieutenant General Sagat Singh, PVSM (14 July 1918 – 26 September 2001) was a three-star General in the Indian Army notable for his participation in liberation of Goa and later in Bangladesh. He held many prestigious command and staff appointments throughout his military career.
Sahabzada Yaqub Ali Khan (Urdu: صاحبزادہ یعقوب خان; born 23 December 1920 – 26 January 2016) SPk, was a Pakistani statesman, diplomat, military figure, pacifist, linguist, and a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army.
Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw, MC (3 April 1914 – 27 June 2008), popularly known as Sam Bahadur ("Sam the Brave"), was the Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and the first Indian Army officer to be promoted to the rank of field marshal.
Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda, PVSM, AVSM (10 October 1915 – 11 May 2009) was a four-star Admiral of the Indian Navy who served as the 8th Chief of the Naval Staff from 1 March 1970 until 28 February 1973.
Lieutenant General Sartaj Singh (died 23 April 1998) was a senior officer in the Indian Army.
Sarwar is a city and a sub division in Ajmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
There are some separatist movements in Pakistan which are based on ethnic/regional nationalism though only a few are of much significance.
Shabbir Sharif (28 April 1943 – 6 December 1971) was a Pakistani Army officer who was killed in Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and was awarded Nishan-e-Haider for his actions.
Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ;,; born 28 September 1947) is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh, in office since January 2009.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (শেখ মুজিবুর রহমান);; (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975), shortened as Sheikh Mujib or just Mujib, was a Bengali politician and statesman.
The Shenyang J-6 (Chinese: 歼-6; designated F-6 for export versions; NATO reporting name: "Farmer") is the Chinese-built version of the Soviet MiG-19 'Farmer' fighter aircraft.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Sistàn o Balòčestàn)(استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
The Six Point Movement was a movement in East Pakistan, spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which called for greater autonomy for East Pakistan.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
Sourendra Nath Kohli (21 June 1916 – 21 January 1997) was an Indian Navy admiral who served as the 9th Chief of the Naval Staff from 1 March 1973 until 29 February 1976.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southern Command is a formation of the Indian Army, active since 1895.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
A squadron, or naval squadron, is a significant group of warships which is nonetheless considered too small to be designated a fleet.
Squadron leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF; SQNLDR in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly sometimes S/L in all services) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
State-sponsored terrorism is government support of violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism.
Steve Coll (born October 8, 1958) is an American journalist, academic and executive.
The Structure of the Pakistan Army can be broken down two ways, administrative, and operational.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Suhrawardy Udyan (সোহরাওয়ার্দী উদ্যান) formerly known as Ramna Race Course ground is a national memorial located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.
Sardar Swaran Singh was an Indian politician.
Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan (ﺴﻴﺩ ﻣﺤﻣﺪ ﺍﺣﺴﻦ b. 1920 – d. 1989), often known as S. M. Ahsan, was a three-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, politician, and the Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Navy, serving under President Ayub Khan from 1966 until 1969.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
Tajuddin Ahmad (তাজউদ্দীন আহমদ; 23 July 1925 – 3 November 1975) was a Bangladeshi statesman and freedom fighter.
General Tapishwar Narain Raina PVSM, MVC (1921 – 19 May 1980) was a former Chief of the Army Staff of the Indian Army.
Targeted killings in Pakistan (Urdu: نشانی قاتلوں or ہدفی ہلاکتو) have been a rising form of violence and have contributed to security instability in the country.
Tariq Ali (Punjabi, طارق علی; born 21 October 1943) is a British Pakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual.
The US Task Force 74 was a US Navy task force of the United States Seventh Fleet that was deployed to the Bay of Bengal by Nixon administration in December 1971, at the height of the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War.
The Ghazi Attack (Ghazi in Telugu) is a 2017 Indian war film written, and directed by Sankalp Reddy.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
General Tikka Khan (ٹِکّا خان), (February 1915 – 28 March 2002),, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army who served as the first chief of army staff from 3 March 1972 till retiring on 1 March 1976.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Bangladesh Liberation War started on 26 March 1971 and ended on 16 December 1971.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Raja Tridiv Roy (راجہ تری دیو راۓ), sometimes spelled Tridev Roy, (14 May 1933 – 17 September 2012) was the former 50th Raja of the Chakma tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region of present-day Bangladesh from 2 May 1953, until his abdication in 1971 following the Bangladesh Liberation War.
In human resources context, turnover is the act of replacing an employee with a new employee.
Turtuk is a village in the Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir It is located in the Nubra tehsil, 205 km from the Leh town, on the banks of the Shyok River.
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
A United Nations resolution (UN resolution) is a formal text adopted by a United Nations (UN) body.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations Security Council "veto power" refers to the power of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and United States) to veto any "substantive" resolution.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
The United States is known to have possessed three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of Calcutta (informally known as Calcutta University or CU) is a public state university located in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (10 August 1894 – 24 June 1980), commonly known as V. V. Giri, was the fourth president of India from 24 August 1969 to 24 August 1974.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag and Waltair is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,340,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016. Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947. The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches. It is referred to by many nicknames such asThe City of Destiny and The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it is the third cleanest city in India.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
A votebank (also spelled vote-bank or vote bank) is a loyal bloc of voters from a single community, who consistently back a certain candidate or political formation in democratic elections.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama.
West Pakistan (مغربی پاکستان,; পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.
Western Command is a formation of the Indian Army, active since 1947.
The Western Naval Command is a formation of the Indian Navy.
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is the principle of international law that each nation-state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.
Will, generally, is that faculty of the mind which selects, at the moment of decision, the strongest desire from among the various desires present.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X Corps is an active military administrative corps of the Pakistan Army, currently assigned in Rawalpindi, Punjab Province of Pakistan.
XII Corps is a corps of the Indian Army.
XV Corps was first established in 1942, as part of the British Indian Army, during World War II.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ji-yaur Rôhman; 19 January 1936 – 30 May 1981) was the 7th President of Bangladesh.
Mohammed Zillur Rahman (মোঃ জিল্লুর রহমান; 9 March 1929 – 20 March 2013) was the 19th President of Bangladesh from 2008 to 2013.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
Air Chief Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی خان; December 10, 1930 – March 8, 2005), was a four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force and a diplomat.
The 1964 East Pakistan Riots refer to the massacre and ethnic cleansing of Bengali Hindus from East Pakistan in the wake of an alleged theft of what was believed to be the Prophet's hair from the Hazratbal shrine in Jammu and Kashmir in India.
1969 uprising in East Pakistan (ঊনসত্তরের গণঅভ্যুত্থান) was a democratic political movement in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) that took place in 1969.
1971 is a 2007 Indian Hindi war drama film directed by Amrit Sagar, and written by Piyush Mishra and Amrit Sagar, based on a true story of prisoners of war after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
In 1971 the Pakistan Army and their local collaborators, most notably the extreme right wing Islamist militia groups Al-Badr, engaged in the systematic execution of Bengali pro-liberation intellectuals during the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971, a war crime.
1971: Beyond Borders is a 2017 Indian war drama film written and directed by Major Ravi.
In March 1972, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, president of Pakistan, visited the Soviet Union.
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