364 relations: A, Affix, Agent (grammar), Allah, Alveolar consonant, Amis language, Ancestor, Approximant consonant, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic languages, Arabs, Archbishop, Archipelago, Armed Forces of the Philippines, Armijn Pane, Armin Luistro, Art, Asia, Australia, Austronesian alignment, Austronesian languages, Austronesian peoples, Azab dan Sengsara, B, Back vowel, Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Bahasa, Balikpapan, Balinese language, Bankruptcy, Batavian Republic, BBC, BBC World Service, Belenggu, Benefactive case, Bengali language, Betawi language, Bible, Bishop, Borneo, British Empire, Brunei, Buddhism, Bureaucracy, Burmese language, C, Causative, Cebuano language, Central vowel, ..., Chairil Anwar, Chamorro language, Chinese language, Christian, Christianity, Cinematographer, Circumfix, Classifier (linguistics), Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Clusivity, Coast, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Cognate, Colonization, Colony, Commerce, Communication, Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian, Concept, Constitution of Indonesia, Court, Creole language, Cultural assimilation, Culture of Indonesia, D, De facto, De jure, Demographics of Indonesia, Demonstrative, Department of Education (Philippines), Dharma, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Discourse, Drama, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, E, East Java, East Kalimantan, East Timor, Economics, Education, English language, Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Ethnologue, F, Fictive kinship, Fijian language, Filipino language, First language, Flora, Focus (linguistics), France, Free verse, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fusional language, G, Garin Nugroho, Garuda, Gender, German language, Gilbertese language, Globalization, Glottal consonant, God, Gospel, Governance, Government, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Greater Indonesia, Greek language, Gujarat, H, Hawaiian language, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hinduism, History of the Malay language, Hokkien, I, Ilocano language, India, Indian Ocean, Indigenous language, Indonesia, Indonesian Air Force, Indonesian Army, Indonesian National Awakening, Indonesian National Police, Indonesian Navy, Indonesian slang, Infix, International Phonetic Alphabet, International uniformity of braille alphabets, Intonation (linguistics), Intransitive verb, Islam, Italian language, J, Jakarta, Japanese language, Jatayu, Javanese historical texts, Javanese language, Jesus, Johor Sultanate, Judiciary, K, Kahuripan, Kedukan Bukit inscription, Korean language, L, Labial consonant, Laksamana, Language family, Languages of Asia, Languages of Europe, Languages of Indonesia, Languages Other Than English, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Leeward Islands (Society Islands), Letter case, Lingua franca, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of English words of Indonesian origin, List of Hikayat, List of Indonesian acronyms and abbreviations, List of islands of Indonesia, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of loanwords in Indonesian, Literacy, Loanword, Lumpia, M, Madagascar, Mainland China, Malacca Sultanate, Malagasy language, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Malay trade and creole languages, Malayan languages, Malayic languages, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Malayo-Sumbawan languages, Malaysia, Malaysian language, Maluku Islands, Mantra, Marah Roesli, Maritime Southeast Asia, Marquesan language, Mass media, Māori language, Measure word, Medan, Merari Siregar, Methodology, Minangkabau language, Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia), Modernization theory, Mohammad Husni Thamrin, N, Narrative history, Nasal consonant, National emblem of Indonesia, National identity, Nationalism, Neologism, Netherlands, North Maluku, Novel, Novelist, Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages, Nusantara, O, Object (grammar), Official language, Old Javanese, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, P, Pacific Ocean, Palatal consonant, Palatal nasal, Persian language, Persian people, Philippines, Phonemic orthography, Pidgin, Playwright, Pleonasm, Pluractionality, Plural, Poetry, Policy, Politics, Portugal, Portuguese language, Possessive, Pragmatism, Prakrit, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Prefix, Priest, Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Proto-Austronesian language, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Public administration, Q, Quantity, R, Rakshasa, Reduplication, Register (sociolinguistics), Religion, Republican Spelling System, Riau, Riau Islands, Riau-Lingga Sultanate, Romance film, Rukai language, S, Samoan language, Sanskrit, School, Schwa, Second language, Sengsara Membawa Nikmat, Short story, Simplified Chinese characters, Sitti Nurbaya, Social mobility, Sojomerto inscription, South Africa, Southeast Asia, Spain, Spanish language, Spelling reform, Spice trade, Spread of Islam in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Srivijaya, Standard Chinese, Standard language, Stative verb, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Suharto, Sukarno, Sulu, Sumatra, Sundanese language, Suriname, Syair, Synonym, T, Tagalog language, Tahitian language, Taiwan, Tamil language, Technology, Tetum language, Thai language, Tone (linguistics), Tongan language, Trade, Traditional Chinese characters, Transitive verb, Travel, Trill consonant, Tsou language, Tulis Sutan Sati, U, United Kingdom, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University, V, Van Ophuijsen Spelling System, Varieties of Arabic, Vehicle, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Vietnamese language, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voice of America, Voice of Indonesia, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, W, West Kalimantan, Willibrordus S. Rendra, Workplace, X, Y, Yogyakarta, Youth Pledge, Z. Expand index (314 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amis is the Formosan language of the Amis (or Ami), an indigenous people living along the east coast of Taiwan (see Taiwanese aborigines).
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic, including.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) (Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas, Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines.
Armijn Pane (18 August 1908 – 16 February 1970), also known as Adinata, A. Soul, Empe, A. Mada, A. Banner, and Kartono, was an Indonesian author.
Brother Armin Altamirano Luistro, FSC born December 24, 1961 in Lipa, Batangas, Philippines) is a Filipino Lasallian Brother who served as secretary of the Department of Education of the Philippines under President Benigno Aquino III. Luistro entered De La Salle Scholasticate (the center for academic training of De La Salle Brothers) in Manila on April 1979 while he was studying in De La Salle University (DLSU). He received the religious habit of the congregation on October 1981 at the La Salle Novitiate in Lipa. He professed his first religious vows on October 1982, and his final vows on May 1988. He started teaching as a religion teacher at De La Salle Lipa in 1983. He was made provincial of the De La Salle Brothers Philippine District on April 1997, a post he held until 2003. On August 26, 2000, Luistro co-founded the De La Salle Catholic University of Manado, currently known as De La Salle University, in Indonesia with Josef Suwatan, Roman Catholic Bishop of Manado. On April 2004, he succeeded Andrew Gonzalez as the president of De La Salle University System, consequently making him the president of eight De La Salle institutions. He worked into establishing De La Salle Philippines (DLSP) which replaced the system. The DLSP National Mission Council appointed him DLSP President and Chief Executive Officer on November 29, 2005. He was appointed as the Secretary of Education of the Philippines on June 30, 2010, becoming the second De La Salle brother to hold the post—the other was Gonzalez who was in office from 1998 to 2001. Luistro has the least net worth among Aquino's cabinet. He had ₱89,000 (US$2,060). In contrast, the richest—Cesar Purisima who is Secretary of Finance—had ₱252 million (US$5.84 million). The Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) have expressed skepticism over Luistro's stand on sex education citing his religious background. Nevertheless, the Department of Education has included sex education in its curriculum for grade 5 to fourth year high school. Roman Catholic groups have criticized it for allegedly not covering the emotional, psychological and spiritual dimensions of sexuality. Luistro is a major proponent of the K+12 Basic Education Program in the Philippines. The program seeks to add two years to the current 10-year basic education curriculum. Numerous parties have opposed the plan including Ateneo de Manila University President Bienvenido Nebres and progressive groups of students, teachers and parents.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austronesian alignment, commonly known as the Philippine-type voice system, is a typologically unusual kind of morphosyntactic alignment in which "one argument can be marked as having a special relationship to the verb".
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Azab dan Sengsara (Pain and Suffering) is a 1920 novel written by Merari Siregar and published by Balai Pustaka, Indonesia's major publisher at that time.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (The Language Development and Fostering Agency), formerly Pusat Bahasa (Language Center) is the institution responsible for designing and regulating the growth of the Indonesian language in Indonesia.
Bahasa, bhasa, basa, or phasa is the word for "language" in many Asian languages, which derives from the Sanskrit word भाषा "speech, spoken language".
Balikpapan is a seaport city on the east coast of the island of Borneo, in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan.
Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
Belenggoe (Perfected Spelling: Belenggu; translated to English as Shackles) is a novel by Indonesian author Armijn Pane.
The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Betawi Malay, also known as Jakartan Malay or Batavian Malay, is the spoken language of the Betawi people in Jakarta, Indonesia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Chairil Anwar (26 July 1922 – 28 April 1949) was an Indonesian poet and member of the "1945 Generation" of writers.
Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image.
A circumfix (abbreviated) or confix is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Malaysian and Indonesian are two standardised registers of the Malay language, used in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
The Constitution of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of Indonesia.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The population of Indonesia according to the 2010 national census was 237.64 million, and it was estimated to reach 255.4 million in 2015.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
East Java (Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia.
East Kalimantan (Indonesian) is a province of Indonesia.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan, abbreviated EYD), also called the Perfected Spelling System (PSS), is the spelling system used for the Indonesian language.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties.
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Garin Nugroho Riyanto (born 6 June 1961), better known as Garin Nugroho, is an award-winning Indonesian film director.
The Garuda is a legendary bird or bird-like creature in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain mythology.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Taetae ni Kiribati or Gilbertese, also Kiribati (sometimes Kiribatese), is a Micronesian language of the Austronesian language family.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
Greater Indonesia, or in Indonesian and Malaysian, Indonesia Raya or Melayu Raya, was a political concept that sought to bring the so-called Malay race, only part of which were the actual Malays, together by uniting the British territories of Malaya and Borneo with the Dutch East Indies.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian language family.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian Air Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara, TNI AU) is the air force branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
The Indonesian Army (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel.
The Indonesian National Awakening (Kebangkitan Nasional Indonesia) is a term for the period in the first half of the 20th century, during which people from many parts of the archipelago first began to develop a national consciousness as "Indonesians".
The Indonesian National Police (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, "POLRI") is the national police force of Indonesia.
The Indonesian Navy (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut, TNI-AL) was founded on 10 September 1945.
Indonesian slang (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokém) is an informal language in Indonesia.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The goal of braille uniformity is to unify the braille alphabets of the world as much as possible, so that literacy in one braille alphabet readily transfers to another.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Jatayu is the youngest son of Aruṇa.
Javanese literature has a very large historical component.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau or Johor-Riau-Lingga or Johor Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Kahuripan (also spelt Kuripan) later Kediri was an 11th-century Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom with its capital located around the estuarine of Brantas River valley in East Java.
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, Indonesia, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
The Laksamana (Jawi: لقسامان) is a position within the armed forces, similar to the position of admiral in Malay sultanates and in present-day countries like Indonesia and Malaysia.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.
LOTE or Languages Other Than English is the name given to language subjects, other than English, at Australian, New York, and other schools.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Leeward Islands (Îles Sous-le-vent; Fenua Raro Mata’i, literally "Islands Under-the-Wind") are the western part of the Society Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the South Pacific.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
The following is a partial list of English words of Indonesian origin; they are English language loanwords (kata serapan) that can be found in Indonesian, but many of them were borrowed directly from Malay during the British colonial period in British Malaya, or during short period of British rule in Java.
Hikayat (Jawi: حكاية) - an Arabic word that literally translates to "stories" - is a form of Malay literature, which relate the adventures of national heroes of Malayan kingdoms, or royal chronicles.
ABK (anak buat kapal) - ship's crew ABRI (Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia) - Military of Indonesia (New Order Era) AMD (ABRI Masuk Desa) - A social responsibility program by Indonesian army (ABRI), such as providing free medical service, repairing/building roads and public utilities.
The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
The Indonesian language has absorbed many loanwords from other languages, including Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese and other Austronesian languages.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lumpia is a spring roll commonly found in Indonesia and the Philippines.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate.
The Malay or Malayan languages are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines.
The Malayic languages are a branch of the Austronesian family.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
The Malayo-Sumbawan languages are a proposed subgroup of the Austronesian languages that unites the Malayic and Chamic languages with the languages of Java and the western Lesser Sunda Islands, except for Javanese itself.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
Marah Roesli (full name: Marah Rusli bin Abu Bakar) was an Indonesian writer.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Marquesan is a collection of East-Central Polynesian dialects, of the Marquesic group, spoken in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.
Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
Merari Siregar (13 July 1896 Sipirok, North Sumatra - 23 April 1941, Kalianget, Madura, East Java) was an Indonesian writer and also the author of the first novel written in Indonesian.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.
The Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemdikbud; Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan) is a government ministry which organises early childhood education, elementary education, secondary education and community education affairs and the management of culture within the Indonesian government.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Mohammad Husni Thamrin (16 February 1894 – 11 January 1941) was an Indonesian political thinker and National Hero.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Narrative history is the practice of writing history in a story-based form.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
North Maluku (Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a putative branch of the Austronesian family, proposed by Wouk & Ross (2002), that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi.
Nusantara is a Javanese term for the Indonesian Archipelago.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Pleonasm is the use of more words or parts of words than are necessary or sufficient for clear expression: for example black darkness or burning fire.
Pluractionality, or verbal number, if not used in its aspectual sense, is a grammatical device that indicates that the action or participants of a verb is/are plural.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer (EYD: Pramudya Ananta Tur) (6 February 1925 – 30 April 2006) was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics and histories of his homeland and its people.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945.
The Proto-Austronesian language (PAN) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families.
The Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language (PMP) is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch (by current speakers) of the Austronesian language family.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A Rakshasa (राक्षस) is a mythological being in Hindu mythology.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Republican Spelling System (in Indonesian: Ejaan Republik, when written in the current spelling system, or edjaan Republik, when written in this spelling system) was the orthography used by Indonesian from 17 March 1947.
Riau (Jawi), is a province of Indonesia.
Riau Islands (Indonesian; Kepulauan Riau, acronym; Kepri), is a province of Indonesia.
Riau-Lingga Sultanate (Malay/Indonesian: Kesultanan Riau-Lingga, Jawi: كسلطانن رياو-ليڠڬ), also known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention.
Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for broadcast in theaters and on TV that focus on passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic involvement of the main characters and the journey that their genuinely strong, true and pure romantic love takes them through dating, courtship or marriage.
Rukai is a Formosan language spoken by the Rukai people in Taiwan.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Sengsara Membawa Nikmat (English: Blessing in Disguise) is an Indonesian novel written by Tulis Sutan Sati.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Sitti Nurbaya: Kasih Tak Sampai (Sitti Nurbaya: Unrealized Love, often abbreviated Sitti Nurbaya or Siti Nurbaya; original spelling Sitti Noerbaja) is an Indonesian novel by Marah Rusli.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
The Sojomerto inscription is an inscription discovered in Sojomerto village, Reban, Batang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
The history of arrival and spread of Islam in Indonesia is unclear.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Sulu (Tausūg: ولايا سين سوگ, Wilāya sin Sūg) is a province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Syair (Jawi: شعير) is a form of traditional Malay poetry that made up of four-line stanzas or quatrains.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tahitian (autonym Reo Tahiti, part of Reo Mā'ohi, languages of French Polynesia)Reo Mā'ohi correspond to “languages of natives from French Polynesia”, and may in principle designate any of the seven indigenous languages spoken in French Polynesia.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tsou is a divergent Austronesian language spoken by the Tsou people of Taiwan.
Tulis Sutan Sati (Bukittinggi, Sumatra Barat, 1898 – 1942) was one of Indonesian prominent writers of the Balai Pustaka Generation.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Van Ophuijsen Spelling System was used as the orthography for the Indonesian language from 1901 to 1947.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
RRI World Service, Voice of Indonesia (VOI) is an autonomous division under Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI).
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat, Malay: كليمنتان بارت,; Hakka: Sî-Kâ-lí-màn-tân; Teochew: Sai-Gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia.
Willibrordus Surendra Broto Rendra (7 November 1935 - 6 August 2009), widely known as Rendra or W. S. Rendra, was an Indonesian dramatist, poet, activist, performer, actor and director.
A workplace is a location where someone works for his or her employer, a place of employment.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
The Youth Pledge (Sumpah Pemuda) was a declaration made on 28 October 1928 by young Indonesian nationalists in the Second Youth Congress (Kongres Pemuda Kedua).
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
B. Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia language, Bahasa Indonesian, Basa Indonesia, Basaha Indonesian, Bhasa Indonesia, History of the Indonesian language, ISO 639:id, ISO 639:ind, Indonesia language, Indonesian (language), Indonesian Language, Indonesian Malay, Indonesian-language, Malay-Indonesian.