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Indus River

Index Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia. [1]

219 relations: Abyssal fan, Ahmedabad, Alamgirpur, Alexander the Great, Amu Darya, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Arabian Sea, Arabic, Asko Parpola, Assyria, Attock, Avesta, Babur, Baburnama, Bahawalpur, Baloch people, Balochistan, Pakistan, Baltistan, Banni Grasslands Reserve, Beas River, British Raj, Buddhism, Cetacea, Chashma Barrage, Chenab River, China, Chinese language, Chura Sharif, Cotton, Dardic people, Darius I, Dasu, Deforestation, Delhi, Dera Ghazi Khan, Dholavira, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Earthquake, East India Company, Economy of Pakistan, Ecosystem, Euphrates, Gandhara, Gandhara grave culture, Ganges, Ganweriwal, Gar Tsangpo, Ghaggar-Hakra River, ..., Gilgit, Gilgit River, Gilgit-Baltistan, Glacier, Global warming, Gomal River, Government of Sindh, Great Rann of Kutch, Greeks, Guddu Barrage, Gujarat, Gurmukhi script, Harappa, Hazara, Pakistan, Henry Yule, Herodotus, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayas, Hindi, Hindon River, Hindu, Hindu Kush, Hindustan, HMS Indus, Hobson-Jobson, Hunza River, Hunza Valley, Hyderabad, Sindh, Ilish, India, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan peoples, Induan, Indus Basin Project, Indus River Delta, Indus Valley Civilisation, Indus Waters Treaty, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iranian Plateau, Islam, Jacobabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Jamshoro, Jhelum River, Kabul River, Kalabagh Dam, Kalash people, Kalat District, Karachi, Karakoram, Keenjhar Lake, Kho people, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kohistan District, Pakistan, Kori Creek, Kotri, Kotri Barrage, Kunar River, Kurram River, Kushan Empire, Kutch district, Ladakh, Lake Manasarovar, Lake Manchar, Larkana, Levee, List of rivers of Pakistan, Little Rann of Kutch, Lothal, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mahmud of Ghazni, Majha, Mangla Dam, Massif, Megasthenes, Mithankot, Mohenjo-daro, Monsoon, Mount Kailash, Mughal Empire, Muhammad bin Qasim, Muhammad of Ghor, Multan, Muslim, Nadistuti sukta, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Nanga Parbat, National symbol, Nearchus, Nepali language, Nile, Pakistan, Panjnad River, Pashto, Pashtuns, Pattan, Persian Empire, Peshawar, Plain, Pomfret, Prawn, Proto-Iranian language, Punjab, Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabis, Rakhigarhi, Rann of Kutch, Ravi River, Rawalpindi, Rigveda, Rigvedic rivers, Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir, Ror dynasty, Rupnagar, Santri, Sarasvati River, Sauvira Kingdom, Sênggê Zangbo, Scylax of Caryanda, Shahmukhi alphabet, Shigar, Shina people, Shiquanhe, Shyok River, Sindh, Sindh Sagar Doab, Sindhi language, Sindhis, Sindhology, Sindhu Darshan Festival, Sindhu Pushkaram, Sivalik Hills, Skardu, Snowmelt, Soan River, South Asian river dolphin, Standard Tibetan, Stupa, Sugarcane, Sukkur, Sukkur Barrage, Suru River (Indus), Sutkagan Dor, Sutlej, Swat River, Tarbela Dam, Taunsa Barrage, Thatta, The Express Tribune, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan people, Tibetan Plateau, Tidal bore, Tigris, Timur, Triassic, Turki, Wheat, World Bank, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yagra, Zanskar River, Zhob River, Zoroastrianism, 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake, 1974 Hunza earthquake. Expand index (169 more) »

Abyssal fan

Abyssal fans, also known as deep-sea fans, underwater deltas, and submarine fans, are underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition and formed by turbidity currents.

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Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Yamuna River (c. 3300–1300 BC) from the Harappan-Bara period, located in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Asko Parpola

Asko Parpola (born 1941) is a Finnish Indologist and Sindhologist, current professor emeritus of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Attock City (Punjabi, Urdu), formerly Campbellpore or Campbellpur until 1978, is a city located in northern part of Punjab province of Pakistan near the capital of Islamabad in the Panjistan region, and is the headquarters of Attock District.

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Babur (بابر|lit.

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Bāburnāma (Chagatai/بابر نامہ;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur.

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Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور; Punjabi), is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Baltistan (بلتستان, script also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet (script), is a mountainous region on the border of Pakistan and India in the Karakoram mountains just south of K2 (the world's second-highest mountain). Baltistan borders Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang (China) in the north, Ladakh on the southeast and the Kashmir Valley on the southwest. Its average altitude is over. Prior to 1947, Baltistan was part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, having been conquered by Raja Gulab Singh's armies in 1840. Baltistan and Ladakh were administered jointly under one wazarat (district) of the state. Baltistan retained its identity in this set-up as the Skardu tehsil, with Kargil and Leh being the other two tehsils of the district. After the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, Gilgit Scouts overthrew the Maharaja's governor in Gilgit and (with Azad Kashmir's irregular forces) captured Baltistan. The Gilgit Agency and Baltistan have been governed by Pakistan ever since. The Kashmir Valley and the Kargil and Leh tehsils were retained by India. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, was incorporated into Ladakh after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The region is inhabited primarily by Balti people of Tibetan descent. Millennia-old Tibetan culture, customs, norms, language and script still exist, although the vast majority of the population follows Islam. Baltistan is strategically significant to Pakistan and India; the Kargil and Siachen Wars were fought there. The region is the setting for Greg Mortenson's book, Three Cups of Tea.

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Banni Grasslands Reserve

Banni Grasslands Reserve or Banni grasslands form a belt of arid grassland ecosystem on the outer southern edge of the desert of the marshy salt flats of Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat State, India.

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Beas River

The Beas River also known as the Biás or Bias, (Sanskrit: विपाशा Vipāśā; Hyphasis), is a river in north India.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Chashma Barrage

Chashma Barrage is a barrage on the River Indus in Mianwali District of the Punjab province of Pakistan 304 km NW of Lahore and 56 km downstream of Jinnah Barrage.

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Chenab River

The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chura Sharif

Chura Sharif (District Attock) Tehsil Jand, Attock, is situated 102 km from Rawalpindi to Kohat road.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Dardic people

The Dards are a group of Indo-Aryan peoples found predominantly in northern Pakistan, north-western India, and eastern Afghanistan.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Dasu or Dassu (Abasin Kohistani/Pashto/Urdu: داسو) is the district headquarters of Upper Kohistan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan (ڈيره غازي خان), abbreviated as D. G. Khan, is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village south of it.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Economy of Pakistan

The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Gandhara grave culture

The Gandhara grave culture, also called Swat culture, emerged c. 1600 BC, and flourished c. 1500 BC to 500 BC in Gandhara, which lies in modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Ganweriwala (گنویريوالا. گنیریوالا) is an Indus Valley Civilization site in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Gar Tsangpo

Gar Tsangpo or Gar River is in Ngari, Tibet, China.

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Ghaggar-Hakra River

The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent, endorheic river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.

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Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.

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Gilgit River

Gilgit River is a tributary of the Indus River, and flows past the town of Gilgit.

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Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Gomal River

Gomal River (دریائے گومل, ګومل سیند، ګومل دریاب) is a 400 km long river in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Government of Sindh

The Government of Sindh (سنڌ سرڪار) is the provincial government of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Great Rann of Kutch

The Great Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat, India.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Guddu Barrage

Guddu Barrage (گڈو بیراج)is a barrage on the Indus River near Kashmore in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

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Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Gurmukhi script

Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).

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Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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Hazara, Pakistan

Hazara (Hindko/ہزارہ, هزاره) is a region in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

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Henry Yule

Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.

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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindon River

Hindon River, a tributary of Yamuna river, is a river in India that originates in the Saharanpur District, from Upper Shivalik in Lower Himalayan Range.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.

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HMS Indus

Five ships and two establishments of the Royal Navy, and one ship of the Royal Indian Navy have borne the name HMS Indus, after the Indus River.

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Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive is a historical dictionary of Anglo-Indian words and terms from Indian languages which came into use during the British rule of India.

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Hunza River

Hunza River (دریائے ہنزہ) is the principal river of Hunza in Gilgit–Baltistan,Pakistan.

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Hunza Valley

Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi, and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.

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Hyderabad, Sindh

Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.

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Tenualosa ilisha (ilish, hilsa, hilsa herring "ইলিশ" in Bangla, or hilsa shad) is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.

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The Induan is, in the geologic timescale, the first age of the Early Triassic epoch or the lowest stage of the Lower Triassic series.

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Indus Basin Project

The Indus Basin Project is a water control project that resulted from a treaty, Indus Waters Treaty, signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 that guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River independent from upstream control by India.

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Indus River Delta

The Indus River Delta (سندھ ڈیلٹا, سنڌو ٽِڪور), forms where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea, mostly in the Southern Sindh province of Pakistan with a small portion in the Kutch Region of the Western tip of India.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Indus Waters Treaty

The Indus Waters Treaty (English) or सिंधु जल संधि (Hindi) or "سندھ طاس معاہدہ" (Urdu) is a water-shareing treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by the first Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and then President of Pakistan Ayub Khan.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jacobabad or Khangarh (Sindhi and جيڪب آباد) is a city in Sindh, Pakistan, serving as both the capital city of Jacobabad District and the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district.

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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.

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Jamshoro (ڄام شورو), (جامشورو), is a city and capital of Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Jhelum River

The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.

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Kabul River

The Kabul River (کابل سیند, دریای کابل), the classical Cophes, is a long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.

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Kalabagh Dam

The Kalabagh Dam (کالا باغ ڈيم), is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh in the Mianwali District of Punjab Province in Pakistan.

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Kalash people

The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa; Nuristani: Kasivo; کالاش), or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch. They are considered unique among the peoples of Pakistan. They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious community, practising a religion which some scholars characterise as a form of animism, and other academics as "a form of ancient Hinduism". The neighbouring Nuristani people of the adjacent Nuristan (historically known as Kafiristan) province of Afghanistan once practised the faith adhered to by the Kalash. By the late 19th century, much of Nuristan had been converted to Islam, although some evidence has shown the people continued to practice their customs. Over the years, the Nuristan region has also been the site of much war activity that has led to the death of many endemic Nuristanis and has seen an inflow of surrounding Afghans to claim the vacant region, who have since admixed with the remaining natives. The Kalash of Chitral maintained their own separate cultural traditions.Newby, Eric. A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush. 2008.

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Kalat District

Qalat or Kalat (قلات; قلات) is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

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Keenjhar Lake

Keenjhar Lake (کیننجھر جھیلکینجھر ڍنڍ) commonly called Kalri Lake (کلری جھیل,کلڙي ڍنڍ) is in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Kho people

The Kho (کھو) are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Dardistan region.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.

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Kohistan District, Pakistan

Kohistan (اباسين کوهستان; "Land of Mountains"), also called Abasin Kohistan or Indus Kohistan, was an administrative district within Hazara Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan, covering an area of; it had a population of 472,570 at the 1998 Census.

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Kori Creek

Kori Creek The Kori Creek is a tidal creek in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Kotri (ڪوٽڙي, کوٹری) a small city and the headquarters of the Kotri taluka of Jamshoro district of Sindh province in Pakistan.

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Kotri Barrage

Kotri Barrage is a barrage on the Indus River between Jamshoro and Hyderabad in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

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Kunar River

The Kunar River (Urdu,کونړ سيند), also called the Chitral River (چترال سيند) or the Kama River (کامه سيند), is about 480 km long, located in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and eastern Afghanistan.

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Kurram River

Kurram River (د کورمې سيند) is located in Paktia and Khost provinces of Afghanistan and Kurram Agency, North Waziristan Agency and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

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Kutch district

Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India.

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Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

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Lake Manasarovar

Lake Manasarovar (Chinese: -zh玛旁雍錯 (simplified), -zh瑪旁雍錯(traditional)), also called Mapam Yumtso, is a high altitude freshwater lake fed by the Kailash Glaciers near Mount Kailash in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

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Lake Manchar

Lake Manchar (منڇر ڍنڍ) is the largest freshwater lake in Pakistan and one of Asia's largest.

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Larkana (لاڑکانہ; لاڙڪاڻو) is a city in the north-west of the Sindh province of Pakistan, where the historic Indus River flows in south of the city.

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List of rivers of Pakistan

This is a list of rivers wholly or partly in Pakistan, organised geographically by river basin, from west to east.

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Little Rann of Kutch

Little desert of Kutch is a salt marsh located near the Great Rann of Kutch in Kutch district, Gujarat, India.

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Lothal is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited 3700 BCE.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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Mahmud of Ghazni

Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.

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The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost.

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Mangla Dam

The Mangla Dam (منگلا بند) is a multipurpose dam located on the Jhelum River in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan.

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In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.

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Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

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Mithankot (مِٹھّن کوٹ), is a city in southern Punjab, Pakistan (Rajanpur District).

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Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Mount Kailash

Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; s (simplified); t (traditional)), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön and Jainism.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Muhammad bin Qasim

‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.

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Muhammad of Ghor

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (معز الدین محمد غوری), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.

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Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Nadistuti sukta

The Nadistuti sukta (Sanskrit: नदिस्तुति सूक्त), "hymn of praise of rivers", is hymn 10.75 of the Rigveda.

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Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, consisting primarily of a lake and ambient marshes, is situated about 64 km to the west of Ahmedabad near Sanand Village, in the Gujarat state of India.

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Nanga Parbat

Nanga Parbat (Urdu), locally known as Diamer, is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.

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National symbol

A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.

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Nearchus or Nearchos (Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great.

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Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Panjnad River

Panjnad River (Urdu/Punjabi Shahmukhi: پنجند, (panj.

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Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Pattan is a town and a municipal committee in Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.

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Pomfrets are perciform fishes belonging to the family Bramidae.

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Prawn is a common name for small aquatic crustaceans with an exoskeleton and ten legs (i.e. a member of the order decapoda), some of which can be eaten.

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Proto-Iranian language

Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab, India

Punjab is a state in northern India.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.

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Rakhigarhi, (राखीगढ़ी) or Rakhi Garhi (Rakhi Shahpur + Rakhi Khas), is a village in Hisar District in the state of Haryana in India, situated 150 kilometers to the northwest of Delhi.

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Rann of Kutch

The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Rigvedic rivers

Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.

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Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir

The State of Jammu and Kashmir has many lakes, rivers, and glaciers.

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Ror dynasty

The Ror dynasty (روهڙا راڄ) was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC.

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Rupnagar (formerly known as Ropar or Rupar), is a city and a municipal council in Rupnagar district in the Indian state of Punjab.

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The Santri is a cultural 'stream' of people within the population of Javanese who practice a more orthodox version of Islam, in contrast to the abangan classes.

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Sarasvati River

Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी, IAST: sárasvatī nadī) is one of the Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.

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Sauvira Kingdom

Sauvīra was an ancient kingdom of the lower Indus Valley mentioned in the Late Vedic and early Buddhist literature and the Hindu epic Mahabharata.

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Sênggê Zangbo

Sênggê Zangbo, Sênggê River (meaning "Lion Fountain") is the name of the Indus river in Tibetan.

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Scylax of Caryanda

Scylax of Caryanda (Σκύλαξ ο Καρυανδεύς) was a renowned Greek explorer and writer of the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE.

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Shahmukhi alphabet

Shahmukhi (Gurmukhi: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used by Muslims in Punjab to write the Punjabi language.

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Shigar is a district in the Baltistan division of Gilgit–Baltistan near Skardu in northern Pakistan.

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Shina people

The Shina, also known as the Shin are a Dardic tribe residing in southern Gilgit–Baltistan, Chitral and the western part of the Kohistan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as the Dras Valley and Kishenganga Valley in the northern region of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Sênggêzangbo (named after Sênggê Zangbo, a river in Ngari), or Shiquanhe (i.e. "Lion Spring River Town"), is the main town of Ngari Prefecture, Tibet.

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Shyok River

The Shyok River (دریائے شیوک; literally "The River of Death" in Yarkandi Uyghur) flows through northern Ladakh in India and the Ghangche District of Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan spanning some.

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Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.

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Sindh Sagar Doab

The Sindh Sagar Doab (سندھ ساگر دوآب) is the tract of land in Pakistan lying between the Indus River and the Jhelum River It is one of the five major doabs of the Punjab and forms the north western portion of the Punjab plain.

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Sindhi language

Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.

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Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.

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Sindhology (سنڌولوجي) is a field of study and academic research that covers the history, society, culture, and literature of Sindh, a province of Pakistan.

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Sindhu Darshan Festival

Sindhu Darshan Festival is a festival of India held every year on full moon day (on Guru Purnima) in June.

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Sindhu Pushkaram

Sindhu Pushkaram is a festival of River Sindhu normally occurs once in 12 years.

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Sivalik Hills

The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.

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Skardu (سکردو, script) is a city in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, and serves as the capital of Skardu District.

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In hydrology, snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow.

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Soan River

The Soan River (سواں), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.

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South Asian river dolphin

The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sukkur is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.

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Sukkur Barrage

Sukkur Barrage (سکر بئراج, سکھر بیراج) is a barrage on the River Indus near the city of Sukkur in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

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Suru River (Indus)

The Suru River (سرو دریا), a tributary of Indus River, is a river in the Kargil district of Ladakh region, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Sutkagan Dor

Sutkagan Dor (or Sutkagen Dor) is the westernmost known archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization.

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The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.

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Swat River

The Swat River (دریائے سوات, سوات سیند) is a perennial river in the northern region of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.

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Tarbela Dam

Tarbela Dam (Urdu/Pashto: تربیلا بند) is an earth fill dam on the Indus River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.

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Taunsa Barrage

Taunsa Barrage is a barrage on the River Indus in Taunsa Tehsil of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Thatta (ٺٽو) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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The Express Tribune

The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tidal bore

A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current.

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Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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The Turki language is a Turkic literary language active from the 13th to the 19th centuries, used by different (predominantly but not exclusively) Turkic peoples.

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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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Yagra is a village and township in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, not far from the base of the sacred mountain, Mount Kailash.

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Zanskar River

The Zanskar River is a north-flowing tributary of the Indus.

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Zhob River

Zhob River (ژوب سيند) is located in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake

The 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake occurred at about 18:45 to 18:50 local time on 16 June.

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1974 Hunza earthquake

The 1974 Hunza earthquake occurred in the rugged and isolated Hunza, Hazara and Swat districts of northern Pakistan at 12:11 UTC on 28 December.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_River

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