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Industrial Revolution

Index Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. [1]

546 relations: Abraham Darby I, Abraham Darby II, Abraham Darby III, Abraham Rees, Adit, Age of Discovery, Air pollution, Alice Clark, Alkali, Alkali Act 1863, Alps, American Marketing Association, American system of manufacturing, Ancient Greece, Ancient universities of Scotland, And did those feet in ancient time, Andrew Meikle, Anglican Communion, Aniline, Anthracite, Army, Arnold Toynbee, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Atlantic slave trade, Automation, Automotive industry, Bank of England, Bank of Japan, Baptists, Barilla, Barrington Moore Jr., Bayer, Beam engine, Bell pit, Bengal Subah, Benjamin Huntsman, Bergslagen, Beverly Cotton Manufactory, Birmingham, Blackstone River, Blackstone Valley, Blast furnace, Bleach, Bloomery, Blowing engine, Borinage, Boring (manufacturing), Boston Manufacturing Company, Boulton and Watt, Brass mill, ..., Bricklayer, Bridgewater Canal, Bristol, British Agricultural Revolution, Buddhism, Bulk material handling, Byelaw terraced house, Cabot family, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hypochlorite, Calcium sulfide, Calico Acts, Canal Mania, Cantilever, Capital (economics), Capitalism, Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), Captain Swing, Carboniferous, Carding, Carpentry, Cast iron, Cementation process, Chance Brothers, Charleroi, Charles Tennant, Chartism, Chemical industry, Chemical substance, Child labour, Chinese industrialization, Cholera, Classical antiquity, Claude Louis Berthollet, Clay, Clement Clerke, Coal, Coal dust, Coal mining, Coalbrookdale, Coke (fuel), Colonialism, Combination Act 1799, Commercial Revolution, Concrete, Confucius, Consumer, Continental Europe, Continuous production, Cooperative, Copper, Corn Laws, Cornish engine, Cotton, Cotton gin, Cotton mill, Cottonopolis, Craft production, Crank (mechanism), Crucible steel, Cupola furnace, Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Cylinder blown sheet glass, Daniel Bourn, Daniel Day (manufacturer), David Landes, Deindustrialization, Demography, Demography of England, Derby, Derby Silk Mill, Derbyshire, Descriptions des Arts et Métiers, Didot family, Digital Revolution, Division of labour, Domestication, Drift mining, Dual revolution, Dutch East India Company, Dye, Early Middle Ages, East India Company, Economic growth, Economic history of the United Kingdom, Economies of scale, Electric power industry, Electrical telegraph, Electrification, Eli Whitney, Enclosure, Encyclopédie, Encyclopedia, English Civil War, English Dissenters, English people, Entrepreneurship, Environmental movement, Environmental Protection UK, Eric Hobsbawm, Explosion, Factory, Factory Acts, Factory system, Feudalism, Financial market, Finery forge, Firedamp, Flail, Flying shuttle, Foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan, Francis Cabot Lowell, Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, Frankenstein, Friedrich Engels, Friendly society, Fustian, Gas, Gas lighting, Gautama Buddha, General Electric, General strike, George Stephenson, Ghent, Glasgow, Glassblowing, Glorious Revolution, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium hirsutum, Government debt, Grand Canal (China), Gravel, Great Britain, Great Famine (Ireland), Grinding (abrasive cutting), Guild, Haine, Haitian Revolution, Han Fei, Hangzhou, Hartford, Connecticut, Hay, Henry Bessemer, Henry Cort, Henry Fourdrinier, Henry Maudslay, Henry Phelps Brown, Henry VIII of England, Hilaire Belloc, Hispaniola, History of Belgium, History of coal mining, History of the steel industry (1970–present), History of the world, Horizontal boring machine, Horsehay, Horsepower, Hosiery, Hot blast, Humphry Davy, Hurrying, Hydraulics, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroelectricity, Hydropower, Iain Stewart (geologist), Indian subcontinent, Industrial Age, Industrial society, Industrialisation, Industry 4.0, Information revolution, Initial public offering, Innovation, Interchangeable parts, Ivy Pinchbeck, Iwakura Mission, James Beaumont Neilson, James Fox (engineer), James Hargreaves, James Watt, Jan Verbruggen, Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui, Jeremy Black (historian), Jethro Tull (agriculturist), Joel Mokyr, John Chafee, John Clapham (economic historian), John Cockerill (industrialist), John Harris (writer), John Kay (flying shuttle), John Kay (spinning frame), John Keats, John Lombe, John Loudon McAdam, John Metcalf (civil engineer), John Roebuck, John Smeaton, John Snow, John Wilkinson (industrialist), Jonathan Hornblower, Joseph Aspdin, Joseph Bramah, Joseph Clement, Joseph Hall (metallurgist), Joseph Locke, Joseph Whitworth, Josiah Wedgwood, Judeo-Christian, Karl Marx, Kelp, Ketley, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Kingdom of Mysore, Labour Party (UK), Lace, Laissez-faire, Lancashire, Laozi, Lathe, Law of the handicap of a head start, Lead, Lead chamber process, Leblanc process, Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Leominster, Letters on the English, Lewis Mumford, Lewis Paul, Lexicon Technicum, Liège, Liberalization, Liberty Fund, Library of Congress Country Studies, Life expectancy, Lime mortar, Limestone, List of watermills in the United Kingdom, Lists of countries by GDP per capita, Liverpool, Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Lock (water navigation), Locomotive, London sewerage system, Lord Byron, Louis-Guillaume Otto, Lowell, Massachusetts, Lunar Society of Birmingham, Lung cancer, Macadam, Machine, Machine Age, Machine industry, Machine tool, Malthusian trap, Manchester, Manchester Ship Canal, Maratha, Marc Isambard Brunel, Mary Shelley, Mass production, Matthew Boulton, Matthew Murray, Max Weber, Medium of exchange, Meiji period, Mencius, Merrimack River, Meuse, Middle Ages, Middle class, Militia, Milling (machining), Millwright, Monasticism, Monopoly, Mons, Moors, Mughal Empire, Mule scavenger, Napoleonic Wars, Ned Ludd, New England, Newburyport, Massachusetts, Newcomen atmospheric engine, Nicholas Crafts, Nicolas Leblanc, Norrland, North West England, Northampton, Northeastern United States, Northern England, Nottingham, Oliver Evans, Open hearth furnace, Open-pit mining, Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Ore, Oxbridge, Oxide, Packhorse, Paper, Paper machine, Papermaking, Patent, Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Penal transportation, Per capita income, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Petroleum, Petroleum Revolution, Phossy jaw, Piece work, Pig iron, Planer (metalworking), Plantation, Plough, Pollution, Port of Manchester, Portland cement, Portsmouth Block Mills, Potash, Potassium carbonate, Pottery, Potting and stamping, Power loom, Pre-industrial society, Presbyterianism, Princeton University, Princeton University Press, Printing, Printing press, Process control, Productivity, Protectionism, Protestant work ethic, Providence, Rhode Island, Public Health Act 1875, Puddling (metallurgy), Purchasing power parity, Putting-out system, Quakers, Quartz (publication), Railway Mania, Rainhill Trials, Rajani Palme Dutt, Raymond Williams, Real income, Redox, Reform Act 1832, Republic of Letters, Reverberatory furnace, Richard Arkwright, Richard Roberts (engineer), Richard Trevithick, Right to property, Rivet, Robert C. Allen, Robert Fulton, Robert Kay (inventor), Robert Lucas Jr., Robert Owen, Robert Southey, Robert Stephenson, Rolling (metalworking), Roy Porter, Royal Arsenal, Royal Exchange, London, Royal Navy, Royal Society of Arts, Ruhr, Safety lamp, Sambre, Samuel Crompton, Samuel Slater, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Savery, Science and invention in Birmingham, Scientific Revolution, Scottish Lowlands, Scottish people, Screw-cutting lathe, Second Industrial Revolution, Seed drill, Seraing, Shackle, Shaft mining, Shaper, Ship canal, Sikh, Sillon industriel, Single- and double-acting cylinders, Sintering, Slater Mill Historic Site, Slavery, Smelting, Smoke, Social change, Sodium carbonate, Sodium sulfate, Soho Foundry, Soho Manufactory, Sough, South Wales, Spinning frame, Spinning jenny, Spinning mule, Spinning wheel, Standard of living, Standard Oil, Starvation, Stationary steam engine, Stationery, Statute of Monopolies, Steam, Steam engine, Steamboat, Steel, Stock market, Stockton and Darlington Railway, Strike action, Sulfuric acid, Swing Riots, T. S. Ashton, Table engine, Tableware, Taoism, Tariff, Territorial evolution of the British Empire, Test Act, Textile, Textile industry, Thames and Severn Canal, Thames Tunnel, The Condition of the Working Class in England, The Crystal Palace, The Economic History Review, The Iron Bridge, The Midlands, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The Servile State, Thomas Blanchard (inventor), Thomas Highs, Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Savery, Thomas Somers, Thomas Telford, Threshing machine, Toll road, Tolpuddle, Tolpuddle Martyrs, Tower of London, Trade union, Treadle, Trip hammer, Turnpike trusts, U.S. Steel, Un-sprung cart, Unitarianism, University of Liège, Urbanization, Utopian socialism, Uxbridge, Massachusetts, Verviers, Viscount Melbourne, Voltaire, Wagonway, Wallonia, Walloon language, Waltham Watch Company, Waltham, Massachusetts, Waltham-Lowell system, War of 1812, Warmley, Warp and weft, Water frame, Water wheel, Watertown, Massachusetts, Watt steam engine, Wealth concentration, Weaving, Wedgwood, William Blake, William Blake Richmond, William Murdoch, William Wordsworth, Wood, Woolwich, Worcester, Massachusetts, Workhouse, Worsley, Wrought iron, Yarn, Yellow River. Expand index (496 more) »

Abraham Darby I

Abraham Darby, in his later life called Abraham Darby the Elder, now sometimes known for convenience as Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and best known of several men of that name.

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Abraham Darby II

Abraham Darby, in his lifetime called Abraham Darby the Younger, referred to for convenience as Abraham Darby II (12 May 1711 – 31 March 1763) was the second man of that name in an English Quaker family that played an important role in the early years of the Industrial Revolution.

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Abraham Darby III

Abraham Darby III (24 April 1750 – 1789) was an English ironmaster and Quaker.

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Abraham Rees

Abraham Rees (1743 – 9 June 1825) was a Welsh nonconformist minister, and compiler of Rees's Cyclopædia (in 45 volumes).

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An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Alice Clark

Alice Clark (1 August 1874 – 11 May 1934) Retrieved 13 March 2013.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alkali Act 1863

Under the British Alkali Act 1863, an alkali inspector and four subinspectors were appointed to curb discharge into the air of muriatic acid gas (gaseous hydrochloric acid) from Leblanc alkali works.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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American Marketing Association

The American Marketing Association (AMA) is a professional association for marketing professionals with 30,000 members as of 2012.

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American system of manufacturing

The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient universities of Scotland

The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day.

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And did those feet in ancient time

"And did those feet in ancient time" is a poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton: A Poem in Two Books, one of a collection of writings known as the Prophetic Books.

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Andrew Meikle

Andrew Meikle (5 May 1719 – 27 November 1811) was a Scottish mechanical engineer credited with inventing the threshing machine, a device used to remove the outer husks from grains of wheat.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.

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Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.

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An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.

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Arnold Toynbee

Arnold Toynbee (23 August 18529 March 1883) was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.

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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.

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Automotive industry

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of Japan

The is the central bank of Japan.

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Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Barilla refers to several species of salt-tolerant (halophyte) plants that, until the 19th Century, were the primary source of soda ash and hence of sodium carbonate.

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Barrington Moore Jr.

Barrington Moore Jr. (12 May 1913 – 16 October 2005) was an American political sociologist, and the son of forester Barrington Moore.

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Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.

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Beam engine

A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod.

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Bell pit

A bell pit is a primitive method of mining coal, iron ore or other minerals where the coal or ore lies near the surface.

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Bengal Subah

The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.

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Benjamin Huntsman

Benjamin Huntsman (4 June 170420 June 1776) was an English inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.

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Bergslagen is a historically, culturally, and linguistically distinct mining district located north of Lake Mälaren in northern Svealand, Sweden.

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Beverly Cotton Manufactory

Beverly Cotton Manufactory was the first cotton mill built in America, and the largest cotton mill to be built during its era.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Blackstone River

The Blackstone River is a river in the U.S. states of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

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Blackstone Valley

The Blackstone Valley or Blackstone River Valley is a region of Massachusetts and Rhode Island.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.

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A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.

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Blowing engine

A blowing engine is a large stationary steam engine or internal combustion engine directly coupled to air pumping cylinders.

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The Borinage is an area in the Walloon province of Hainaut in Belgium.

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Boring (manufacturing)

In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast) by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools), such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder.

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Boston Manufacturing Company

The Boston Manufacturing Company was a business that operated the first factory in America.

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Boulton and Watt

* Boulton & Watt was an early British engineering and manufacturing firm in the business of designing and making marine and stationary steam engines.

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Brass mill

A brass mill is a mill which processes brass.

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A bricklayer, which is related to but different from a mason, is a craftsman who lays bricks to construct brickwork.

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Bridgewater Canal

The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn, Manchester and Leigh, in North West England.

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Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.

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British Agricultural Revolution

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulk material handling

Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered on the design of equipment used for the handling of dry materials such as ores, coal, cereals, wood chips, sand, gravel and stone in loose bulk form.

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Byelaw terraced house

A byelaw terraced house is a type of dwelling built to comply with the Public Health Act 1875.

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Cabot family

The Cabot family was part of the Boston Brahmin, also known as the "first families of Boston.".

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium hypochlorite

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.

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Calcium sulfide

Calcium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula CaS.

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Calico Acts

The Calico Acts (1700, 1721) banned the import of most cotton textiles into England, followed by the restriction of sale of most cotton textiles.

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Canal Mania

Canal Mania was the period of intense canal building in England and Wales between the 1790s and 1810s, and the speculative frenzy that accompanied it in the early 1790s.

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A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory)

In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies.

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Captain Swing

"Captain Swing" was the name appended to several threatening letters during the rural English Swing Riots of 1830, when labourers rioted over the introduction of new threshing machines and the loss of their livelihoods.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing.

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Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Cementation process

The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron.

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Chance Brothers

Chance Brothers and Company was a glassworks originally based in Spon Lane, Smethwick, West Midlands (formerly in Staffordshire), in England.

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Charleroi (Tchålerwè) is a city and a municipality of Wallonia, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

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Charles Tennant

Charles Tennant (3 May 1768 – 1 October 1838) was a Scottish chemist and industrialist.

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Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Chinese industrialization

In the 1960s, about 60% of the Chinese Labor Force were employed in agriculture.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Claude Louis Berthollet

Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 in Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 in Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Clement Clerke

Sir Clement Clerke, 1st Baronet (died 1693) was an important (but financially unsuccessful) English entrepreneur, whose greatest achievement was the application of the reverberatory furnace (cupola) to smelting lead and copper, and to remelting pig iron for foundry purposes.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coal dust

Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Coalbrookdale is a village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Combination Act 1799

The Combination Act 1799...

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Commercial Revolution

The Commercial Revolution consisted in the creation of a European economy based on trade, which began in the 11th century and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century.

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Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.

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Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Continuous production

Continuous production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption.

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A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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Cornish engine

A Cornish engine is a type of steam engine developed in Cornwall, England, mainly for pumping water from a mine.

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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Cotton gin

A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.

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Cotton mill

A cotton mill is a factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution when the early mills were important in the development of the factory system.

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Cottonopolis was a 19th century nickname for Manchester, as it was a metropolis and the centre of the cotton industry.

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Craft production

Craft production is the process of manufacturing by hand with or without the aid of tools.

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Crank (mechanism)

A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.

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Crucible steel

Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron (cast iron), iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.

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Cupola furnace

A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, Ni-resist iron and some bronzes.

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Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences

Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century.

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Cylinder blown sheet glass

Cylinder blown sheet is a type of hand-blown window glass.

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Daniel Bourn

Daniel Bourn was an English inventor, who took out a patent for a carding machine with rotating cylinders in 1748.

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Daniel Day (manufacturer)

Daniel Day (1767 in Mendon Massachusetts – October 26, 1848 at Uxbridge, Worcester County, Massachusetts at age 81) was an American pioneer in woolen manufacturing.

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David Landes

David Saul Landes (usually cited as David S. Landes; April 29, 1924 – August 17, 2013) was a professor of economics and of history at Harvard University.

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Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.

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Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Demography of England

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation.

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Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England.

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Derby Silk Mill

Derby Silk Mill, formerly known as Derby Industrial Museum, is a museum of industry and history in Derby, England.

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Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.

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Descriptions des Arts et Métiers

Descriptions des Arts et Métiers, faites ou approuvées par messieurs de l'Académie Royale des Sciences (French for "Descriptions of the Arts and Trades, made under the direction of the gentlemen of the Royal Academy of Sciences"), is a collection of books on crafts that was published by the Parisian Royal Academy of Sciences between 1761 and 1788.

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Didot family

Didot is the name of a family of French printers, punch-cutters and publishers.

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Digital Revolution

The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.

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Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Drift mining

Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.

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Dual revolution

The Dual Revolution was a term first coined by Eric Hobsbawm.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Economic history of the United Kingdom

The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

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Electric power industry

The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.

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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

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Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.

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Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin.

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Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English Dissenters

English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

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Environmental movement

The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.

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Environmental Protection UK

Environmental Protection UK is a UK environmental Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) working to improve the quality of the local environment - specialising in the subjects of air quality, noise management and land quality.

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Eric Hobsbawm

Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.

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An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.

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A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Factory Acts

The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.

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Factory system

The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Financial market

A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.

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Finery forge

A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.

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Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.

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A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating grains from their husks.

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Flying shuttle

The flying shuttle was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan

The foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan, known in Japanese as oyatoi gaikokujin (Kyūjitai: 御雇ひ外國人, Shinjitai: 御雇い外国人, "hired foreigners"), were those foreign advisors hired by the Japanese government for their specialized knowledge to assist in the modernization of Japan at the end of the Bakufu and during the Meiji period.

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Francis Cabot Lowell

Francis Cabot Lowell (April 7, 1775 – August 10, 1817) was an American businessman for whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, is named.

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Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater

Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (21 May 1736 – 8 March 1803), known as Lord Francis Egerton until 1748, was a British nobleman from the Egerton family.

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Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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Friendly society

A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society, fraternal organization or ROSCA) is a mutual association for the purposes of insurance, pensions, savings or cooperative banking.

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Fustian is a variety of heavy cloth woven from cotton, chiefly prepared for menswear.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas lighting

Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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General strike

A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.

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George Stephenson

George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.

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Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble (or parison), with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube).

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Gossypium barbadense

Gossypium barbadense, also known as extra-long staple (ELS) cotton, is a species of cotton plant that has been cultivated to have ELS fibres – fibres longer than – which are associated with high quality cotton cloth.

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Gossypium hirsutum

Gossypium hirsutum, also known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton, is the most widely planted species of cotton in the United States, constituting some 95% of all cotton production there.

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Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Grinding (abrasive cutting)

Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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The Haine is a river in southern Belgium (Hainaut) and northern France (Nord), right tributary of the river Scheldt.

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Haitian Revolution

The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.

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Han Fei

Han Fei (233 BC), also known as Han Fei Zi, was a Chinese philosopher of the Warring States period "Chinese Legalist" school.

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Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.

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Henry Bessemer

Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English inventor, whose steelmaking process would become the most important technique for making steel in the nineteenth century for almost one century from year 1856 to 1950.

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Henry Cort

Henry Cort (c. 1740 – 23 May 1800) was an English ironmaster.

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Henry Fourdrinier

Henry Fourdrinier (11 February 1766 – 3 September 1854) was a British paper-making entrepreneur.

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Henry Maudslay

Henry Maudslay (pronunciation and spelling) (22 August 1771 – 14 February 1831) was a British machine tool innovator, tool and die maker, and inventor.

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Henry Phelps Brown

Sir Ernest Henry Phelps Brown, MBE, FBA (10 February 1906 – 15 December 1994) was a prominent British economist.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Hilaire Belloc

Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.

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Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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History of Belgium

The history of Belgium predates the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830.

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History of coal mining

The history of coal mining goes back thousands of years.

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History of the steel industry (1970–present)

The global steel industry has been going through major changes since 1970.

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History of the world

The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.

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Horizontal boring machine

A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction.

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Horsehay is a village on the western outskirts of Dawley, which, along with several other towns and villages, now forms part of the new town of Telford in Shropshire, England.

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Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done).

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Hosiery, also referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs.

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Hot blast

Hot blast refers to the preheating of air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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A hurrier, also sometimes called a coal drawer or coal thruster, was a child or woman employed by a collier to transport the coal that they had mined.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

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Iain Stewart (geologist)

Iain Simpson Stewart, MBE FGS FRSE (born 1964) is a Scottish geologist, a Fellow of the Geological Society of London, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and President of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Industrial Age

The Industrial Age is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.

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Industrial society

In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.

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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is a name for the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies.

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Information revolution

The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution.

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Initial public offering

Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges.

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Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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Interchangeable parts

Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical.

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Ivy Pinchbeck

Ivy Pinchbeck, (9 April 1898 – 10 May 1982) was a British economic and social historian, specialising in the history of women.

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Iwakura Mission

The Iwakura Mission or Iwakura Embassy (岩倉使節団, Iwakura Shisetsudan) was a Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe conducted between 1871 and 1873 by leading statesmen and scholars of the Meiji period.

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James Beaumont Neilson

James Beaumont Neilson (22 June 1792 – 18 January 1865) was a Scottish inventor whose hot-blast process greatly increased the efficiency of smelting iron.

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James Fox (engineer)

James Fox, (fl 1780–1830), machine tool maker, was originally a butler in the service of the Rev.

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James Hargreaves

James Hargreaves (c. 1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and inventor in Lancashire, England.

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James Watt

James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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Jan Verbruggen

Jan Verbruggen (1712 – 27 October 1781) was a Dutch master gun-founder in the Netherlands and later at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, London.

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Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui

Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui (November 21, 1798 – January 28, 1854) was a French economist.

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Jeremy Black (historian)

Jeremy Black MBE (born 30 October 1955) is a British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter.

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Jethro Tull (agriculturist)

Jethro Tull (1674 – 21 February 1741, New Style) was an English agricultural pioneer from Berkshire who helped bring about the British Agricultural Revolution.

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Joel Mokyr

Joel Mokyr (born 26 July 1946) is a Netherlands-born American-Israeli economic historian.

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John Chafee

John Lester Hubbard Chafee (October 22, 1922 – October 24, 1999) was an American politician.

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John Clapham (economic historian)

Professor Sir John Harold Clapham, CBE, LittD, FBA (13 September 1873 – 29 March 1946) was a British economic historian.

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John Cockerill (industrialist)

John Cockerill (3 August 1790 – 9 June 1840) was an English-born Belgian entrepreneur.

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John Harris (writer)

John Harris (c. 1666 – 7 September 1719) was an English writer, scientist, and Anglican priest.

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John Kay (flying shuttle)

John Kay (17 June 1704 – c. 1779) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution.

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John Kay (spinning frame)

John Kay was a clockmaker from Warrington, Lancashire, England, associated with the scandal surrounding invention of the spinning frame in 1767, an important stage in the development of textile manufacturing in the Industrial Revolution.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Lombe

John Lombe (1693 in Norwich – November 20, 1722 in Derby) was a silk spinner in the 18th century Derby, England.

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John Loudon McAdam

John Loudon McAdam (23 September 1756 – 26 November 1836) was a Scottish engineer and road-builder.

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John Metcalf (civil engineer)

John Metcalf (1717–1810), also known as Blind Jack of Knaresborough or Blind Jack Metcalf, was the first professional road builder to emerge during the Industrial Revolution.

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John Roebuck

John Roebuck of Kinneil FRS FRSE (1718 – 17 July 1794) was an English inventor and industrialist who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who is known for developing the industrial-scale manufacture of sulphuric acid.

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John Smeaton

John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses.

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John Snow

John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.

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John Wilkinson (industrialist)

John "Iron-Mad" Wilkinson (1728 – 14 July 1808) was an English industrialist who pioneered the manufacture of cast iron and the use of cast-iron goods during the Industrial Revolution.

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Jonathan Hornblower

Jonathan Hornblower (Chacewater, 5 July 1753 – Penryn, 23 February 1815) was a British pioneer of steam power.

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Joseph Aspdin

Joseph Aspdin (December 1778 – 20 March 1855) was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.

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Joseph Bramah

Joseph Bramah (13 April 1748 – 9 December 1814), born Stainborough Lane Farm, Stainborough, Barnsley Yorkshire, was an English inventor and locksmith.

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Joseph Clement

Joseph Clement (13 June 1779 – 28 February 1844) was a British engineer and industrialist, chiefly remembered as the maker of Charles Babbage's first difference engine, between 1824 and 1833.

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Joseph Hall (metallurgist)

Joseph Hall 1789 – 1862, the inventor of 'Wet Puddling', was born in 1789 and apprenticed in 1806 as a puddler to use Henry Cort's puddling process.

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Joseph Locke

Joseph Locke (9 August 1805 – 18 September 1860) was a notable English civil engineer of the nineteenth century, particularly associated with railway projects.

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Joseph Whitworth

Sir Joseph Whitworth, 1st Baronet (21 December 1803 – 22 January 1887) was an English engineer, entrepreneur, inventor and philanthropist.

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Josiah Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.

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Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

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Ketley is a suburb of the new town of Telford in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England.

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Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society

Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society is a book by the Welsh Marxist academic Raymond Williams published in 1976 by Croom Helm.

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Kingdom of Mysore

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand.

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.

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Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.

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A lathe is a tool that rotates the workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

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Law of the handicap of a head start

The law of the handicap of a head start (original Dutch: Wet van de remmende voorsprong) or dialectics of lead is a theory that suggests that an initial head start in a given area may result in a handicap in the long term.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lead chamber process

The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.

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Leblanc process

The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.

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Leeds and Liverpool Canal

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal is a canal in Northern England, linking the cities of Leeds and Liverpool.

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.

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Leominster is a market town in Herefordshire, England, and is located at the confluence of the River Lugg and its tributary the River Kenwater, approximately north of the city of Hereford and approx 7 miles south of the Shropshire border, 11 miles from Ludlow in Shropshire.

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Letters on the English

Letters on the English (or Letters Concerning the English Nation; French: Lettres philosophiques) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain).

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Lewis Mumford

Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.

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Lewis Paul

Lewis Paul (died 1759) was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.

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Lexicon Technicum

Lexicon Technicum: or, Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves was in many respects the first alphabetical encyclopedia written in English.

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Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.

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Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.

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Liberty Fund

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lime mortar

Lime mortar is composed of lime and an aggregate such as sand, mixed with water.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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List of watermills in the United Kingdom

The use of water power in Britain was at its peak just before the Industrial Revolution.

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Lists of countries by GDP per capita

There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.

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Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.

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Liverpool and Manchester Railway

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was a railway opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in England.

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Lock (water navigation)

A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.

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A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.

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London sewerage system

The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London, England.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Louis-Guillaume Otto

Louis-Guillaume Otto, comte de Mosloy (7 August 1754, Kork, Baden – 9 November 1817, Paris) was a Germano-French diplomat.

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Lowell, Massachusetts

Lowell is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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Lunar Society of Birmingham

The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Macadam is a type of road construction, pioneered by Scottish engineer John Loudon McAdam around 1820, in which single-sized crushed stone layers of small angular stones are placed in shallow lifts and compacted thoroughly.

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A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.

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Machine Age

The Machine Age is an era that includes the early 20th century, sometimes also including the late 19th century.

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Machine industry

The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.

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Machine tool

A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.

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Malthusian trap

The Malthusian trap or population trap is a condition whereby excess population would stop growing due to shortage of food supply leading to starvation.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manchester Ship Canal

The Manchester Ship Canal is a inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea.

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The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.

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Marc Isambard Brunel

Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in England.

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Mary Shelley

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Matthew Boulton

Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.

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Matthew Murray

Matthew Murray (1765 – 20 February 1826) was an English steam engine and machine tool manufacturer, who designed and built the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin cylinder Salamanca in 1812.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.

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Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.

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Merrimack River

The Merrimack River (or Merrimac River, an occasional earlier spelling) is a river in the northeastern United States.

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The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Milling (machining)

Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.

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A millwright is a high precision craftsman or tradesman who installs, dismantles, repairs, reassembles, and moves machinery in factories, power plants, and construction sites.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mule scavenger

Scavengers were employed in 18th and 19th century in cotton mills, predominantly in the UK and the United States, to clean and recoup the area underneath a spinning mule.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Ned Ludd

Ned Ludd, possibly born Edward Ludlam,Palmer, Roy (1998) The Sound of History: Songs and Social Comment, Oxford University Press,, p. 103Chambers, Robert (2004) Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Part 1, Kessinger,, p. 357 is the person from whom, it is popularly claimed, the Luddites took their name.

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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Newburyport, Massachusetts

Newburyport is a small coastal, scenic, and historic city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, northeast of Boston.

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Newcomen atmospheric engine

The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine.

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Nicholas Crafts

Nicholas Francis Robert Crafts CBE (born 9 March 1949 in Nottingham, England) is Professor of Economics and Economic History at the University of Warwick, a post he has held since 2005.

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Nicolas Leblanc

Nicolas Leblanc (6 December 1742 – 16 January 1806) was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda ash from common salt.

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Norrland ("Northland", originally Norrlanden or "the Northlands") is the northernmost, largest, least populated and least densely populated of the three traditional lands of Sweden, consisting of nine provinces.

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North West England

North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.

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Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.

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Northeastern United States

The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.

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Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.

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Oliver Evans

Oliver Evans (September 13, 1755 – April 15, 1819) was an American inventor, engineer and businessman born in rural Delaware and later rooted commercially in Philadelphia.

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Open hearth furnace

Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.

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Open-pit mining

Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.

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Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&M) opened on 15 September 1830.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Oxbridge is a portmanteau of "Oxford" and "Cambridge"; the two oldest, most prestigious, and consistently most highly-ranked universities in the United Kingdom.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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A packhorse or pack horse refers to a horse, mule, donkey, or pony used to carry goods on its back, usually in sidebags or panniers.

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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Paper machine

A paper machine (or paper-making machine) is an industrial machine used in the Pulp and paper industry to create paper in large quantities at high speed.

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The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Pawtucket, Rhode Island

Pawtucket is a city in Providence County, Rhode Island, United States.

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Penal transportation

Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.

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Per capita income

Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum Revolution

The Petroleum Revolution (Valencian: La Revolució del Petroli) was a workers' revolt of a libertarian and syndicalist nature, which took place in Alcoy, Alicante, Spain in 1873.

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Phossy jaw

Phossy jaw, formally known as phosphorus necrosis of the jaw, was an occupational disease of those who have worked with white phosphorus (also known as yellow phosphorus) without proper safeguards.

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Piece work

Piece work (or piecework) is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit produced or action performed regardless of time.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.

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Planer (metalworking)

A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to cut the work piece.

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A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Port of Manchester

The Port of Manchester was a port in North West England, until its closure in 1982.

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Portland cement

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.

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Portsmouth Block Mills

The Portsmouth Block Mills form part of the Portsmouth Dockyard at Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, and were built during the Napoleonic Wars to supply the British Royal Navy with pulley blocks.

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Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.

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Potassium carbonate

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Potting and stamping

Potting and stamping is a modern name for one of the 18th century processes for refining pig iron without the use of charcoal.

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Power loom

A power loom is a mechanized loom, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Pre-industrial society

Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850.

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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Process control

Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.

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Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Protestant work ethic

The Protestant work ethic, the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic is a concept in theology, sociology, economics and history which emphasizes that hard work, discipline and frugality are a result of a person's subscription to the values espoused by the Protestant faith, particularly Calvinism.

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Providence, Rhode Island

Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States.

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Public Health Act 1875

The Public Health Act 1875 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, one of the Public Health Acts, and a significant step in the advance of public health in Britain.

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Puddling (metallurgy)

Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Putting-out system

The putting-out system is a means of subcontracting work.

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Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Quartz (publication)

Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.

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Railway Mania

Railway Mania was an instance of speculative frenzy in Britain in the 1840s.

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Rainhill Trials

The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October 1829 for the nearly completed Liverpool and Manchester Railway.

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Rajani Palme Dutt

Rajani Palme Dutt (19 June 1896 – 20 December 1974), generally known as R. Palme Dutt, was a leading journalist and theoretician in the Communist Party of Great Britain.

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Raymond Williams

Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.

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Real income

Real income is income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Republic of Letters

The Republic of Letters (Respublica literaria) is the long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and America.

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Reverberatory furnace

A reverberatory furnace is a metallurgical or process furnace that isolates the material being processed from contact with the fuel, but not from contact with combustion gases.

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Richard Arkwright

Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Richard Roberts (engineer)

Richard Roberts (22 April 1789 – 11 March 1864) was a British patternmaker and engineer whose development of high-precision machine tools contributed to the birth of production engineering and mass production.

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Richard Trevithick

Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England.

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Right to property

The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.

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A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.

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Robert C. Allen

Robert (Bob) Carson Allen (born 10 January 1947 in Salem, Massachusetts) is Global Distinguished Professor of Economic History at New York University Abu Dhabi.

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Robert Fulton

Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 25, 1815) was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat called The North River Steamboat of Clermonts.

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Robert Kay (inventor)

Robert Kay (1728–1802) was an English inventor, best known for designing a drop box to improve the capability of weaving looms.

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Robert Lucas Jr.

Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.

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Robert Owen

Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement.

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Robert Southey

Robert Southey (or 12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the "Lake Poets" along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and England's Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843.

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Robert Stephenson

Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway and civil engineer.

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Rolling (metalworking)

In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.

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Roy Porter

Roy Sydney Porter, FBA (31 December 1946 – 3 March 2002) was a British historian known for his important work on the history of medicine.

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Royal Arsenal

The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing, and explosives research for the British armed forces at a site on the south bank of the River Thames in Woolwich in south-east London, England, United Kingdom.

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Royal Exchange, London

The Royal Exchange in London was founded in the 16th century by the merchant Thomas Gresham on the suggestion of his factor Richard Clough to act as a centre of commerce for the City of London.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Royal Society of Arts

The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.

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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Safety lamp

A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp that provides illumination in coal mines and is designed to operate in air that may contain coal dust or gases both of which are potentially flammable or explosive.

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The Sambre is a river in northern France and in Wallonia, Belgium.

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Samuel Crompton

Samuel Crompton (3 December 1753 – 26 June 1827) was an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry.

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Samuel Slater

Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) was an early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution" (a phrase coined by Andrew Jackson) and the "Father of the American Factory System".

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

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Savery is a surname.

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Science and invention in Birmingham

Birmingham is one of England's principal industrial centres and has a history of industrial and scientific innovation.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Scottish Lowlands

The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.

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Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

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Screw-cutting lathe

A screw-cutting lathe is a machine (specifically, a lathe) capable of cutting very accurate screw threads via single-point screw-cutting, which is the process of guiding the linear motion of the tool bit in a precisely known ratio to the rotating motion of the workpiece.

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Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.

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Seed drill

A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.

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Seraing is a Walloon municipality of Belgium in Province of Liege.

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A shackle, also known as a gyve, is a U-shaped piece of metal secured with a clevis pin or bolt across the opening, or a hinged metal loop secured with a quick-release locking pin mechanism.

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Shaft mining

Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

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A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath.

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Ship canal

A ship canal is a canal especially intended to accommodate ships used on the oceans, seas or lakes to which it is connected, as opposed to a barge canal intended to carry barges and other vessels specifically designed for river and/or canal navigation.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sillon industriel

The Sillon industriel ("industrial furrow") is the former industrial backbone of Belgium.

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Single- and double-acting cylinders

Reciprocating engine cylinders are often classified by whether they are single- or double-acting, depending on how the working fluid acts on the piston.

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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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Slater Mill Historic Site

The Slater Mill is a historic textile mill complex on the banks of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, modeled after cotton spinning mills first established in England.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.

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Social change

Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium sulfate

Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.

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Soho Foundry

Soho Foundry is a factory created in 1795 by Matthew Boulton and James Watt and their sons Matthew Robinson Boulton and James Watt Jr. at Smethwick, West Midlands, England, for the manufacture of steam engines.

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Soho Manufactory

The Soho Manufactory was an early factory which pioneered mass production on the assembly line principle, in Soho, Birmingham, England, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

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A sough is an underground channel for draining water out of a mine.

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South Wales

South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.

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Spinning frame

The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanised way.

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Spinning jenny

The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Spinning mule

The spinning mule is a machine used to spin cotton and other fibres.

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Spinning wheel

A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.

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Standard Oil

Standard Oil Co.

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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

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Stationary steam engine

Stationary steam engines are fixed steam engines used for pumping or driving mills and factories, and for power generation.

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Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous form paper, and other office supplies.

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Statute of Monopolies

The Statute of Monopolies was an Act of the Parliament of England notable as the first statutory expression of English patent law.

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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stock market

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

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Stockton and Darlington Railway

The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863.

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Strike action

Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Swing Riots

The Swing Riots were a widespread uprising in 1830 by agricultural workers in southern and eastern England, in protest of agricultural mechanisation and other harsh conditions.

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T. S. Ashton

Thomas Southcliffe Ashton (1889–1968) was an English economic historian.

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Table engine

A table engine is a variety of stationary steam engine where the cylinder is placed on top of a table-shaped base, the legs of which stand on the baseplate which locates the crankshaft bearings.

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Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

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Territorial evolution of the British Empire

The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century.

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Test Act

The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.

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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Textile industry

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.

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Thames and Severn Canal

The Thames and Severn Canal is a canal in Gloucestershire in the south of England, which was completed in 1789.

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Thames Tunnel

The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London, connecting Rotherhithe and Wapping.

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The Condition of the Working Class in England

The Condition of the Working Class in England (German: Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England) is an 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England.

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The Crystal Palace

The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.

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The Economic History Review

The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.

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The Iron Bridge

The Iron Bridge is a bridge that crosses the River Severn in Shropshire, England.

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The Midlands

The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.

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The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is a book written by Max Weber, a German sociologist, economist, and politician.

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The Servile State

The Servile State is a book written by Hilaire Belloc in 1912 about economics.

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Thomas Blanchard (inventor)

Thomas Blanchard (June 24, 1788 – April 16, 1864) was an American inventor who lived much of his life in Springfield, Massachusetts, where in 1819, he pioneered the assembly line style of mass production in America, and also invented the major technological innovation known as interchangeable parts.

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Thomas Highs

Thomas Highs (1718–1803), of Leigh, Lancashire, was a reed-maker and manufacturer of cotton carding and spinning engines in the 1780s, during the Industrial Revolution.

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Thomas Newcomen

Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Thomas Savery

Thomas Savery (c. 1650 – 1715) was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury, Devon, England.

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Thomas Somers

Thomas Somers was one of the original investors and architects for the Beverly Cotton Manufactory in Beverly, Massachusetts.

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Thomas Telford

Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE (9 August 1757 – 2 September 1834) was a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder.

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Threshing machine

A threshing machine or thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, it removes the seeds from the stalks and husks.

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Toll road

A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.

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Tolpuddle is a village in Dorset, England, on the River Piddle east of Dorchester, the county town, and west of Poole.

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Tolpuddle Martyrs

The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of six 19th-century Dorset agricultural labourers who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers.

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Tower of London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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A treadle is a part of a machine which is operated by the foot to produce reciprocating or rotary motion in a machine such as a weaving loom (reciprocating) or grinder (rotary).

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Trip hammer

Saint-Hubert (Belgium). A trip hammer, also known as a tilt hammer or helve hammer, is a massive powered hammer used in.

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Turnpike trusts

Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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U.S. Steel

United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe.

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Un-sprung cart

The un-sprung cart was a simple, sturdy, one-horse, two-wheeled vehicle used by roadmen, farmers and the like for small loads of relatively dense material like road metal or dung.

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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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University of Liège

The University of Liège (ULiège), in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Utopian socialism

Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.

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Uxbridge, Massachusetts

Uxbridge is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts first settled in 1662 and incorporated in 1727.

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Verviers (Vervî) is a Walloon city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.

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Viscount Melbourne

Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland held by the Lamb family.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Wagonways (or Waggonways) consisted of the horses, equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons, which preceded steam-powered railways.

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Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.

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Walloon language

Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language that is spoken in much of Wallonia in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France (near Givet) and in the northeast part of WisconsinUniversité du Wisconsin: collection de documents sur l'immigration wallonne au Wisconsin, enregistrements de témoignages oraux en anglais et wallon, 1976 until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada.

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Waltham Watch Company

The Waltham Watch Company, also known as the American Waltham Watch Co. and the American Watch Co., produced about 40 million watches, clocks, speedometers, compasses, time fuses, and other precision instruments between 1850 and 1957.

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Waltham, Massachusetts

Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, and was an early center for the labor movement as well as a major contributor to the American Industrial Revolution.

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Waltham-Lowell system

The Waltham-Lowell system was a labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th century.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Warmley is a village in South Gloucestershire, England.

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Warp and weft

Warp and weft are terms for the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric.

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Water frame

A water frame is a water-powered spinning frame designed for the production of cotton thread, first used in 1768.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Watertown, Massachusetts

The Town of Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Watt steam engine

The Watt steam engine (alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine) was the first type of steam engine to make use of a separate condenser.

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Wealth concentration

Wealth concentration is a process by which created wealth, under some conditions, can become concentrated by individuals or entities.

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Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, commonly known as Wedgwood, is a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759 by English potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William Blake Richmond

Sir William Blake Richmond KCB, RA, PPRBSA (29 November 1842 – 11 February 1921), was a portrait painter and a designer of stained glass and mosaic, whose works include mosaic decorations below the dome and in the apse of St Paul's cathedral in London.

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William Murdoch

William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor.

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William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Woolwich is a district of south-east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich.

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Worcester, Massachusetts

Worcester is a city and the county seat of Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.

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In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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Worsley is a town in the metropolitan borough of the City of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England.

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Wrought iron

puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).

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Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution

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