101 relations: Accelerometer, Adam Air Flight 574, Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere, Air data computer, Aircraft, Airliner, Analog computer, Angular velocity, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo Abort Guidance System, Apollo Guidance Computer, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo PGNCS, Apollo program, Attitude and heading reference system, Attitude control, Azimuth, Backscatter, Barcode, Cer-Vit, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Computer, Coriolis force, DARPA, Dead reckoning, Degrees of freedom (mechanics), Delco Carousel, Estimation theory, Fibre optic gyroscope, Flight management system, Fort Bliss, Fused quartz, General Electric Company, Gimbal, Gimbal lock, Global Positioning System, GPS/INS, Graphite, Great circle, Guidance system, Gyroscope, Hemispherical resonator gyroscope, Honeywell, Huntsville, Alabama, Image stabilization, Inertial frame of reference, Inertial measurement unit, Inertial platform, Initial condition, Integral, ..., J. Halcombe Laning, Kalman filter, Korean Air Lines Flight 007, Laser, LGM-30 Minuteman, Light-emitting diode, Linear variable differential transformer, LN-3 inertial navigation system, Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetometer, Microelectromechanical systems, Missile, Motion capture, Moving parts, Navigation, North east down, Numerical integration, Numerical stability, Operation Paperclip, Pedometer, Peenemünde, Photodiode, PIGA accelerometer, Position sensor, Precession, Pressure reference system, Printed circuit board, Q-guidance, Quantum compass, Quaternion, Radar jamming and deception, Rate integrating gyroscope, Remotely operated underwater vehicle, Required navigation performance, Ring laser gyroscope, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Sagnac effect, San Diego, Satellite navigation, Schuler tuning, Ship, Solar cell, Spacecraft, Submarine, Velocity, Vibrating structure gyroscope, Voskhod Spacecraft "Globus" IMP navigation instrument, Wernher von Braun, World War II, Zerodur. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
Adam Air Flight 574 (KI574 or DHI574) was a scheduled domestic passenger flight operated by Adam Air between the Indonesian cities of Surabaya and Manado that broke up in mid-air and crashed into the Makassar Strait near Polewali in Sulawesi on 1 January 2007.
The Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere (AIRS) is a highly accurate inertial guidance system designed for use in the LGM-118A Peacekeeper ICBM which was intended for precision nuclear strikes against Soviet missile silos.
An air data computer (ADC) is an essential avionics component found in modern glass cockpits.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
The Apollo Abort Guidance System (AGS, also known as Abort Guidance Section) was a backup computer system providing an abort capability in the event of failure of the Lunar Module's primary guidance system (Apollo PGNCS) during descent, ascent or rendezvous.
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) (pronounced pings) was a self-contained inertial guidance system that allowed Apollo spacecraft to carry out their missions when communications with Earth were interrupted, either as expected, when the spacecraft were behind the Moon, or in case of a communications failure.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) consists of sensors on three axes that provide attitude information for aircraft, including roll, pitch and yaw.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.
Cer-Vit CerVit or Cervit or Cer-Vit C-101 (from 'ceramic-vitreous'), is a glass-ceramic material made up of oxides of silicon, aluminium and lithium, with ultra low coefficient of thermal expansion, used for telescope mirrors and lenses.
Draper is an American not-for-profit research and development organization, headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts; its official name is "The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc".
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course.
In physics, the degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters that define its configuration.
The Delco Carousel was a popular INS-based navigation automation system for aircraft developed by Delco Electronics.
Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.
A fibre optic gyroscope (FOG) senses changes in orientation using the Sagnac effect, thus performing the function of a mechanical gyroscope.
A flight management system (FMS) is a fundamental component of a modern airliner's avionics.
Fort Bliss is a United States Army post in the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas, with its headquarters located in El Paso, Texas.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
The General Electric Company, or GEC, was a major UK-based industrial conglomerate involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications, and engineering.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
Gimbal lock is the loss of one degree of freedom in a three-dimensional, three-gimbal mechanism that occurs when the axes of two of the three gimbals are driven into a parallel configuration, "locking" the system into rotation in a degenerate two-dimensional space.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
GPS/INS is the use of GPS satellite signals to correct or calibrate a solution from an inertial navigation system (INS).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
The Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG), also called wine-glass gyroscope or mushroom gyro, is made using a thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
Image stabilization (IS) is a family of techniques that reduce blurring associated with the motion of a camera or other imaging device during exposure.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures and reports a body's specific force, angular rate, and sometimes the magnetic field surrounding the body, using a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes, sometimes also magnetometers.
An inertial platform, also known as a gyroscopic platform or stabilized platform, is a system using gyroscopes to maintain a platform in a fixed orientation in space despite the movement of the vehicle that it is attached to.
In mathematics and particularly in dynamic systems, an initial condition, in some contexts called a seed value, is a value of an evolving variable at some point in time designated as the initial time (typically denoted t.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
Kalman filtering, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more accurate than those based on a single measurement alone, by estimating a joint probability distribution over the variables for each timeframe.
Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007)KAL 007 was used by air traffic control, while the public flight booking system used KE 007 was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage, Alaska.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), in service with the Air Force Global Strike Command.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) (also called linear variable displacement transformer, linear variable displacement transducer, or simply differential transformer) is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement (position).
The LN-3 inertial navigation system is an inertial navigation system (INS) that was developed in the 1960s by Litton Industries.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Motion capture (Mo-cap for short) is the process of recording the movement of objects or people.
The moving parts of a machine are those parts of it that move.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
North east down (NED), also known as local tangent plane (LTP), is a geographical coordinate system for representing state vectors that is commonly used in aviation.
In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations.
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, numerical stability is a generally desirable property of numerical algorithms.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
A pedometer is a device, usually portable and electronic or electromechanical, that counts each step a person takes by detecting the motion of the person's hands or hips.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
A PIGA (Pendulous Integrating Gyroscopic Accelerometer) is a type of accelerometer that can measure acceleration and simultaneously integrates this acceleration against time to produce a speed measure as well.
A position sensor is any device that permits position measurement.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Pressure reference system (PRS) is an enhancement of the inertial reference system and attitude and heading reference system designed to provide position angles measurements which are stable in time and does not suffer by long term drift caused by the sensors imperfections.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Q-guidance is a method of missile guidance used in some U.S. ballistic missiles and some civilian space flights.
A quantum compass is a compass which measures relative position using clouds of ions.
In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
Radar jamming and deception (electronic countermeasures) is the intentional emission of radio frequency signals to interfere with the operation of a radar by saturating its receiver with noise or false information.
A Rate integrating gyroscope is a rate gyro with a built in integrator.
A remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) is a tethered underwater mobile device.
Required navigation performance (RNP) is a type of performance-based navigation (PBN) that allows an aircraft to fly a specific path between two 3D-defined points in space.
A ring laser gyroscope (RLG) consists of a ring laser having two independent counter-propagating resonant modes over the same path; the difference in the frequencies is used to detect rotation.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
Schuler tuning is a design principle for inertial navigation systems that accounts for the curvature of the Earth.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
A vibrating structure gyroscope, defined by the IEEE as a Coriolis vibratory gyroscope (CVG), is a gyroscope that uses a vibrating structure to determine the rate of rotation.
Globus IMP instruments were spacecraft navigation instruments used in Soviet and Russian manned spacecraft.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zerodur (notation of the manufacturer: ZERODUR®), a registered trademark of Schott AG, is a lithium-aluminosilicate glass-ceramic produced by Schott AG since 1968.
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