385 relations: Abscess, Acid, Acid-fastness, Acrocanthosaurus, Actinobacteria, Acute (medicine), Acute bronchitis, Adaptive immune system, Agriculture, Airborne disease, Albert Sabin, Alcohol, Alexander Fleming, Allosaurus, Ambiguity, Aminoglycoside, Anaerobic organism, Anthelmintic, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antifungal, Antigen, Antimicrobial, Antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial stewardship, Antiparasitic, Antiprotozoal, Antiseptic, Antiviral drug, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Apicomplexan life cycle, Arizona State University, Arthropod, Asepsis, Asymptomatic, Asymptomatic carrier, Athlete's foot, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Benignity, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics Resource Centers, Biological hazard, Black Death, Blood plasma, Blood-borne disease, Bone fracture, Botulism, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Burn, ..., Cancer, Carbohydrate, Cephalosporin, Cestoda, Chagas disease, Chemical synthesis, Chemotherapy, Childbirth, Cholera, Chorioamnionitis, Chronic condition, Chronic granulomatous disease, Clostridia, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Clostridium tetani, Coevolution, Coinfection, Colitis, Colony (biology), Commensalism, Complement system, Complication (medicine), Conjunctivitis, Contagious disease, Copenhagen Consensus, Cordon sanitaire, Corynebacterium, Cough, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Crystal violet, CT scan, Cyanosis, Dengue fever, Denotation, Dermatophytosis, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Disease, Disease diffusion mapping, Disinfectant, Dye, Ebola virus disease, Ecological niche, Edward Jenner, Electron microscope, Electrostatics, Embryo, Emerging infectious disease, Encephalitis, Endemic (epidemiology), Entamoeba histolytica, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Epithelium, Eradication of infectious diseases, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Fatigue, Fermentation, Fetus, Fever, Filariasis, Firmicutes, Flea, Fluorescence, Fluorescence microscope, Foodborne illness, Foot-and-mouth disease, Fungus, Gas, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene therapy, Genetic disorder, Genome, Genotype, Genus, Geography, Gerhard Domagk, Giardia, Giemsa stain, Girolamo Fracastoro, Gizmodo, Globalization and disease, Gram stain, Growth medium, Habitat, Hand washing, Health professional, Helminths, Hemagglutinin, Hepatitis B, Herd immunity, Herpesviridae, Herrerasaurus, History of medicine, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hospital-acquired infection, Host (biology), Host–pathogen interaction, Human brain, Human Microbiome Project, Human skin, Hypothesis, Iatrogenesis, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunity (medical), Immunoassay, Immunodeficiency, Immunology, Immunopathology, Immunosuppression, Impetigo, Indication (medicine), Infection, Infection control, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Influenza, Injection (medicine), Injury, Innate immune system, Inoculation, Intercurrent disease in pregnancy, Internal medicine, International Space Station, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Intravenous therapy, Ionizing radiation, Isolation (health care), John Snow, Joint, Jonas Salk, Kirtland Formation, Kiss, Koch's postulates, Large intestine, Latent tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota, List of causes of death by rate, List of diseases caused by insects, List of epidemics, List of infectious diseases, Louis Pasteur, Louse, Lower respiratory tract infection, Macrolide, Major trauma, Malaria, Mammal, Management of HIV/AIDS, Mathematical modelling of infectious disease, Measles, Medical history, Medication, Medicine, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Meningitis, Metabolism, Metagenomics, Mexico, Microbiological culture, Micrograph, Microorganism, Microscopy, Midgut, Mite, Mouth, Mucous membrane, Multicellular organism, Multiplicity of infection, Mutualism (biology), Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium leprae, NASA, Neglected tropical diseases, Nematode, Neurotoxin, Nocardia, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Odontogenic infection, Omics, Onchocerciasis, Opportunistic infection, Opsonin, Optical microscope, Optimal virulence, Organ system, Organ transplantation, Organism, Otitis, Outbreak, Paleopathology, Pandemic, Parasitism, Passive immunity, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Pathognomonicity, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Penetrating trauma, Penicillin, Peritoneum, Pest control, Phagocytosis, Pinworm (parasite), Plague of Justinian, PLOS One, Pneumonia, Poison, Poliomyelitis, Polygyny, Polymerase chain reaction, Polysaccharide, Positron emission tomography, Pregnancy, Preventive healthcare, Primary care, Primer (molecular biology), Prion, Pulmonology, Purpura, Pus, Quarantine, Quinolone antibiotic, Rabies, Rainforest, Rash, Red blood cell, Refrigeration, Renaissance, Research, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Respiratory tract infection, Reverse transcriptase, Rhinorrhea, Ribavirin, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Robert Koch, Root cause, Rotavirus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Salpingitis, Schistosomiasis, Self-limiting (biology), Sepsis, Sequela, Sequence alignment, Serology, Sexually transmitted infection, Skin, Skin infection, Small-world network, Smallpox, Social distancing, Space environment, Spaceflight, Spanish flu, Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler, Specialty (medicine), Species, Spillover infection, Spirochaete, Staining, Staphylococcus, Strain (biology), Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Subclinical infection, Sulfonamide (medicine), Surgery, Syphilis, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, T cell, Taxonomy (biology), Testicle, Tetanus, Tetracycline, Threshold host density, Tick, Time, Tissue (biology), Tooth, Topical medication, Total fertility rate, Toxin, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Transmission (medicine), Transport, Treponema pallidum, Triatominae, Tropical disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosomiasis, Tuberculosis, Typhus, Tyrannosaurus, Ubi pus, ibi evacua, Urbanization, Urinary tract infection, Usage, Vaccination, Vaccine-preventable diseases, Vacuum, Vaginitis, Vector (epidemiology), Vertically transmitted infection, Vibrio cholerae, Viral disease, Viridans streptococci, Viroid, Virulence, Virus, Virus latency, Wart, Waterborne diseases, Whooping cough, Wildlife disease, William Budd, Word sense, World Health Organization, Wound, Wound healing, X-ray, Zidovudine, Zoonosis, 16S ribosomal RNA. 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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.
Acrocanthosaurus (meaning "high-spined lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that existed in what is now North America during the Aptian and early Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) of the lungs.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.
Albert Bruce Sabin (born Albert Saperstein; August 26, 1906 – March 3, 1993) was a Polish American medical researcher, best known for developing the oral polio vaccine which has played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Allosaurus is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D.D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae (at the time of its discovery).
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is the systematic effort to educate and persuade prescribers of antimicrobials to follow evidence-based prescribing, in order to stem antibiotic overuse, and thus antimicrobial resistance.
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing micro-organisms (such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi, and parasites).
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
An asymptomatic carrier (healthy carrier or just carrier) is a person or other organism that has become infected with a pathogen, but who display no signs nor symptoms.
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) are a group of five Internet-based research centers established in 2004 and funded by NIAID (the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), January 10, 2008.
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chorioamnionitis also known as intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is an inflammation of the fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) due to a bacterial infection.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) (also known as Bridges–Good syndrome, chronic granulomatous disorder, and Quie syndrome) is a diverse group of hereditary diseases in which certain cells of the immune system have difficulty forming the reactive oxygen compounds (most importantly the superoxide radical due to defective phagocyte NADPH oxidase) used to kill certain ingested pathogens.
The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
In microbiology, coinfection is the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogen species.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
Copenhagen Consensus is a project that seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics, using cost–benefit analysis.
Cordon sanitaire is a French phrase that, literally translated, means "sanitary cordon".
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Crystal violet or gentian violet (also known as methyl violet 10B or hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride) is a triarylmethane dye used as a histological stain and in Gram's method of classifying bacteria.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease diffusion occurs when a disease is transmitted to a new location.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence has increased in the past 20 years and could increase in the near future.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescence microscope is an optical microscope that uses fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption to study properties of organic or inorganic substances.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (30 October 1895 – 24 April 1964) was a German pathologist and bacteriologist.
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.
Giemsa stain, named after German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa, is used in cytogenetics and for the histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
Gizmodo is a design, technology, science and science fiction website that also features articles on politics.
Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital, and people across political and geographic boundaries, allows infectious diseases to rapidly spread around the world, while also allowing the alleviation of factors such as hunger and poverty, which are key determinants of global health.
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative).
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hemagglutinin or haemagglutinin (British English)p refers to a substance that causes red blood cells (RBCs) to agglutinate.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
Herrerasaurus was one of the earliest dinosaurs.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) research initiative to improve understanding of the microbial flora involved in human health and disease.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Immunopathology is a branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with disease.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
An intercurrent (or concurrent, concomitant or, in most cases, pre-existing) disease in pregnancy is a disease that is not directly caused by the pregnancy (in contrast to a complication of pregnancy), but which may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy (such as causing pregnancy complications).
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation).
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist.
The Kirtland Formation (originally the Kirtland Shale) is a sedimentary geological formation.
A kiss is the touch or pressing of one's lips against another person or an object.
Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (LTB), also called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) means a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the patient does not have active tuberculosis.
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.
Invertebrates are very common vectors of disease.
This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
Infectious diseases arranged by name.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Mathematical models can project how infectious diseases progress to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
In microbiology, the multiplicity of infection or MOI is the ratio of agents (e.g. phage or more generally virus, bacteria) to infection targets (e.g. cell).
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus spirilly, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are especially common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
An odontogenic infection is an infection that originates within a tooth or in the closely surrounding tissues.
The English-language neologism omics informally refers to a field of study in biology ending in -omics, such as genomics, proteomics or metabolomics.
Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Optimal virulence is a concept relating to the ecology of hosts and parasites.
In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Otitis is a general term for inflammation or infection of the ear, in both humans and other animals.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic and sometimes misspelled as pathomnemonic) is a term, often used in medicine, that means characteristic for a particular disease.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2a, sold under the brand name Pegasys among others, is medication used to treat hepatitis C and hepatitis B. For hepatitis C it is typically used together with ribavirin and cure rates are between 24 and 92%.
Pegylated interferon alfa-2b, sold under the brand name PegIntron among others, is a medication used to treat hepatitis C and melanoma.
Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
The pinworm (species Enterobius vermicularis), also known as threadworm (in the United Kingdom and Australasia) or seatworm, is a parasitic worm.
The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
A root cause is an initiating cause of either a condition or a causal chain that leads to an outcome or effect of interest.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Salmonella enterica subsp.
Salpingitis is an infection and inflammation in the Fallopian tubes.
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
In biology, a self-limiting organism or colony of organisms limits its own growth by its actions.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Infection of the skin is distinguished from dermatitis, Stating: "Excludes:...
A small-world network is a type of mathematical graph in which most nodes are not neighbors of one another, but the neighbors of any given node are likely to be neighbors of each other and most nodes can be reached from every other node by a small number of hops or steps.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Social distancing is a term applied to certain nonpharmaceutical infection control actions that are taken by public health officials to stop or slow down the spread of a highly contagious disease.
Space environment is a branch of astronautics, aerospace engineering and space physics that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that affect the design and operation of spacecraft.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
The Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler (STEM) is a free software available through the Eclipse Foundation.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spillover infection, also known as pathogen spillover and spillover event, occurs when a reservoir population with a high pathogen prevalence comes into contact with a novel host population.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus (GAS).
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
A subclinical infection (sometimes called a preinfection) is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms).
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive, invariably fatal, conditions that affect the brain (encephalopathies) and nervous system of many animals, including humans.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.
The members of Triatominae, a subfamily of Reduviidae, are also known as conenose bugs, kissing bugs (so called from their habit of feeding on the lips of human victims),https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kissing_bug assassin bugs, or vampire bugs.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
Trypanosoma cruzi is a species of parasitic euglenoids.
Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.
Ubi pus, ibi evacua is a Latin aphorism or adage, often cited in medicine, meaning "where pus, there evacuate ". It refers to what clinicians should do when there is a collection of pus in the body; that is, to create an opening for it to evacuate.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal streptococcal Gram-positive bacteria species that are either α-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin "vĭrĭdis", green), or nonhemolytic.
Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
Warts are typically small, rough, and hard growths that are similar in color to the rest of the skin.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
Wildlife, domestic animals and humans share a large and increasing number of infectious diseases, known as zoonoses.
William Budd (14 September 1811 – 9 January 1880) was an English physician and epidemiologist known for recognizing that infectious diseases were contagious.
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.
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