442 relations: Abdominal distension, Abraham, Absolution, Acheron, Achilles, Adultery, Aeëtes, Aeneas, Aeneid, Al-Andalus, Alasdair Gray, Alchemy, Alecto, Alexander the Great, Ali, Alichino (devil), Allegory, Allegory in the Middle Ages, Allen Mandelbaum, Aloadae, Amazons, Amphiaraus, Amphitheatre, Anastasius I Dicorus, Anaxagoras, Ancient Rome, Andrea da Barberino, Andrea dei Mozzi, Angel, Anger, Antaeus, Antenor (mythology), Antipodes, Antonio Manetti, Apostles, Argonauts, Aries (constellation), Aristotle, Arthur Goldhammer, Asphodel Meadows, Assassination of Julius Caesar, Astrology, Atropos, Attila, Augustus, Averroes, Avicenna, Avignon, Avignon Papacy, Baptism, ..., Baptismal font, Barbariccia, Bat, Battle of Montaperti, Battle of Roncevaux Pass, Beatrice Portinari, Bertran de Born, Betrayal, Black comedy, Blasphemy, Book of Genesis, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Brunetto Latini, C. H. Sisson, Cacus, Caesar's Civil War, Caiaphas, Camilla (mythology), Capaneus, Castle, Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi, Cato the Younger, Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti, Centaur, Center of mass, Cerberus, Charlemagne, Charles Eliot Norton, Charles S. Singleton, Charon, Chiron, Christian views on Hell, Ciacco, Ciampolo, Ciappo Ubriachi, Cicero, Cinyras, Circe, Classical compass winds, Cleopatra, Cocytus, Colchis, Colonna family, Concentric objects, Conscience, Contrapasso, Contrition, Cornelia Africana, Cornell University Library, Counterfeit money, Creusa (daughter of Creon), Crossing the Rubicon, Crusades, Dante Alighieri, Dante Alighieri and the Divine Comedy in popular culture, Dante's Satan, Dardanus, David, Dīs Pater, Decapitation, Deception, Deidamia (mythology), Democritus, Demon, Devil in Christianity, Dido, Diogenes, Diogenes of Apollonia, Diomedes, Dionysius I of Syracuse, Dionysius II of Syracuse, Dis (Divine Comedy), Disease, Divination, Divine Comedy, Divine retribution, Dog, Dorothy L. Sayers, Dragon, Easter, Edema, Electra (Pleiad), Empedocles, Enzo of Sardinia, Epic poetry, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Epistemology, Erichtho, Erinyes, Euclid, Eurypylus (king of Thessaly), Ezzelino III da Romano, Faenza, Fallen angel, False prophet, Farinata degli Uberti, Feces, Fever, Filippo Argenti, Fineness, Flattery, Florence Baptistery, Florin, Forest, Forgery, Fortune-telling, Fra Alberigo, Fra Dolcino, Francesca da Rimini, Francis of Assisi, Franciscans, Franciscus Accursius, Fraud, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Free will, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gaius Scribonius Curio, Galehaut, Galen, Gallura, Ganelon, Geocentric model, Geryon, Giant, Giants (Greek mythology), Giovanni Boccaccio, Giovanni di Buiamonte, Giovanni Malatesta, Gluttony, Golden Fleece, Golden mean (philosophy), Good Friday, Gospel of John, Gospel of Luke, Gospel of Matthew, Graft (politics), Gray wolf, Greed, Guelphs and Ghibellines, Guido Bonatti, Guido Cavalcanti, Guido I da Montefeltro, Guinevere, Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola, Ham (son of Noah), Harpy, Harrowing of Hell, Harvard Theological Review, Hecatoncheires, Hector, Helen of Troy, Henry Francis Cary, Henry II of England, Henry the Young King, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Heraclitus, Heraldic badge, Hercules, Heresy in Christianity, Hippocrates, Holy Saturday, Holy See, Homage (feudal), Homer, Horace, Hornet, Humanism, Hypocrisy, Hypsipyle, Iacopo Rusticucci, Immurement, Incest, Incontinence (philosophy), Islam, Italian language, Jacopo Alighieri, Jacques Le Goff, Japheth, Jason, Jerusalem, Jesus, John Ciardi, John Keats, Joseph (Genesis), Jousting, Judas Iscariot, Jugular vein, Julia (daughter of Caesar), Julius Caesar, Jupiter (mythology), King Arthur, Laertes, Lancelot, Lancelot-Grail, Latin literature, Latinus, Lavinia, Lemnos, Leopard, Leopon, Lethe, Limbo, Linus (mythology), Lion, List of cultural references in the Divine Comedy, List of impostors, Liturgy of the Hours, Lizard, Loderingo degli Andalò, Lucan, Lucca, Lucifer, Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Lucretia, Lust, Maggot, Magic (supernatural), Malacoda, Malebolge, Malebranche (Divine Comedy), Manto (mythology), Mantua, Marcia (wife of Cato), Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Mark Musa, Mary, mother of Jesus, Maundy Thursday, Medea, Medusa, Megaera, Metamorphoses, Michael Scot, Minos, Minotaur, Modern Language Notes, Moirai, Mordred, Moses, Mosque, Mount Olympus, Muhammad, Murder, Muslim, Myrrha, Neoptolemus, Nessus (mythology), Nicomachean Ethics, Nimrod, Nino Visconti, Noah, Obizzo II d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara, Odysseus, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Omniscience, Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Orpheus, Ottaviano degli Ubaldini, Ovid, Palestrina, Palladium (classical antiquity), Paolo Malatesta, Papé Satàn, papé Satàn aleppe, Paradiso (Dante), Paris (mythology), Pedanius Dioscorides, Penelope, Penthesilea, Perjury, Peter Bondanella, Pharisees, Pharsalia, Philip IV of France, Philosophy, Phlegethon, Phlegyas, Phoenix (mythology), Pholus (mythology), Photinus, Physics (Aristotle), Pietro della Vigna, Pillars of Hercules, Pisces (constellation), Pistoia, Plato, Pluto (mythology), Plutus, Poetic justice, Pontius Pilate, Pope Anastasius II, Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Celestine V, Pope Clement V, Pope Nicholas III, Potiphar and his wife, Prime (liturgy), Priscian, Procuring (prostitution), Prophecy, Psalms, Ptolemy, Ptolemy (son of Abubus), Purgatorio, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Race (human categorization), Rachel, Raphèl mai amècche zabì almi, Reginaldo degli Scrovegni, Reptile, Ripheus, Robert M. Durling, Robert Pinsky, Romagna, Roman Republic, Rota Fortunae, Ruggieri degli Ubaldini, Saint Lucy, Saint Peter, Saladin, Satan, Schism, Scorpion, Seduction, Self-interest, Semiramis, Seneca the Younger, Seraph, Seven Against Thebes, Sextus Pompey, Shem, Shia Islam, Simile, Simon Magus, Simon Thassi, Simony, Sinon, Skiff, Snake, Socrates, Sodom and Gomorrah, Sodomy, Spendthrift, Statius, Styx, Suicide, Sunni Islam, Syracuse, Sicily, Tar, Tears, Telemachus, Terce, Thaïs, Thales of Miletus, The Decameron, Theft, Theseus, Thirst, Tiresias, Tisiphone, Tityos, Torre dei Gualandi, Tower of Babel, Trajan, Treason, Trinity, Tristan, Trojan Horse, Troy, Typhon, Ugolino della Gherardesca, Underworld, Ursa Major, Usury, Vanni Fucci, Vexilla Regis, Violence, Virgil, Virtuous pagan, Visio Karoli Grossi, Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani, Vulcan (mythology), War in Heaven, Wasp, Wickedness, Wound healing, Wyvern, Zeno of Citium, Zeno of Elea, 1 Maccabees. Expand index (392 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Absolution is a traditional theological term for the forgiveness experienced in the Sacrament of Penance.
The Acheron (Ἀχέρων Acheron or Ἀχερούσιος Acherousios; Αχέροντας Acherontas) is a river located in the Epirus region of northwest Greece.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Aeëtes (also spelled Æëtes, Αἰήτης Aiētēs) was a King of Colchis in Greek mythology.
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alasdair Gray (born 28 December 1934) is a Scottish writer and artist.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alecto (Ancient Greek: Ἀληκτώ, English translation: "the implacable or unceasing anger") is one of the Erinyes, or Furies, in Greek mythology.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alichino is one of the devils in the Inferno of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the synthesis of biblical and classical traditions into what would become recognizable as medieval culture.
Allen Mandelbaum (May 4, 1926 – October 27, 2011) was an American professor of literature and the humanities, poet, and translator from Classical Greek, Latin and Italian.
In Greek mythology, the Aloadae or Aloads (Ἀλωάδαι Aloadai) were Otus (or Otos) (Ὦτος) and Ephialtes (Ἐφιάλτης), sons of Iphimedia, wife of Aloeus, by Poseidon, whom she induced to make her pregnant by going to the seashore and disporting herself in the surf or scooping seawater into her bosom.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ἀμαζόνες,, singular Ἀμαζών) were a tribe of women warriors related to Scythians and Sarmatians.
In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus (Ancient Greek: Ἀμφιάραος Amphiaraos, "doubly cursed" or "twice Ares-like") was the king of Argos along with Adrastus and Iphis.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Anastasius I (Flavius Anastasius Augustus; Ἀναστάσιος; 9 July 518) was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Mangiabotti,Geneviève Hasenohr and Michel Zink, eds.
Andrea dei Mozzi (died 1296) was an Italian bishop, from the Mozzi family of bankers.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
Antaeus (Ἀνταῖος, Antaîos, "Opponent”, derived from ἀντάω, antao - I face, I oppose); Änti) was a figure in Greek and Berber mythology. In Greek sources, he was the half-giant son of Poseidon and Gaia. His wife was the goddess Tinge, and he had a daughter named Alceis or Barce. He was famed for his loss to Heracles as part of his 12 Labors.
Antenor (Ἀντήνωρ, Antḗnōr) was a counselor to King Priam of Troy in the legendary Greek accounts of the Trojan War.
In geography, the antipode of any spot on Earth is the point on Earth's surface diametrically opposite to it; the antipodes of a region similarly represent the area opposite it.
Antonio Manetti (6 July 1423 – 26 May 1497) was an Italian mathematician and architect from Florence.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Argonauts (Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who in the years before the Trojan War, around 1300 BC, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.
Aries is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Goldhammer (born November 17, 1946) is an American academic and translator.
The Asphodel Meadows is a section of the ancient Greek underworld where ordinary souls were sent to live after death.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Atropos or Aisa (Ἄτροπος "without turn"), in Greek mythology, was one of the three Moirai, goddesses of fate and destiny.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for baptism.
Barbariccia is one of the demons in the Inferno of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The Battle of Montaperti was fought on 4 September 1260 between Florence and Siena in Tuscany as part of the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
The Battle of Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) in 778 saw a large force of Basques ambush a part of Charlemagne's army in Roncevaux Pass, a high mountain pass in the Pyrenees on the present border between France and Spain, after his invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
Beatrice "Bice" di Folco Portinari (pronounced, 1265 – 8 June 1290) was an Italian woman who has been commonly identified as the principal inspiration for Dante Alighieri's Vita Nuova, and is also commonly identified with the Beatrice who appears as one of his guides in the Divine Comedy (La Divina Commedia) in the last book, Paradiso, and in the last four cantos of Purgatorio.
Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century.
Betrayal is the breaking or violation of a presumptive contract, trust, or confidence that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations.
Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
Brunetto Latini (c. 1220–1294) (who signed his name Burnectus Latinus in Latin and Burnecto Latino in Italian) was an Italian philosopher, scholar, notary, and statesman.
Charles Hubert Sisson, CH (22 April 1914 – 5 September 2003), usually cited as C. H. Sisson, was a British writer, best known as a poet and translator.
In Roman mythology, Cacus was a fire-breathing giant and the son of Vulcan.
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Joseph Caiaphas, known simply as Caiaphas (Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest who organized the plot to kill Jesus.
In Virgil's Aeneid, Camilla of the Volsci is the daughter of King Metabus and Casmilla.
In Greek mythology, Capaneus (Καπανεύς, Kapaneús) was a son of Hipponous and either Astynome (daughter of Talaus) or Laodice (daughter of Iphis), and husband of Evadne, with whom he fathered Sthenelus.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi was a Florentine nobleman who lived in the late 13th century around the time of Giotto and Dante.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.
Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti (flourished c. 1250; died c. 1280) was a Florentine Epicurean philosopher and father of Guido Cavalcanti, a close friend of Dante Alighieri.
A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
In Greek mythology, Cerberus (Κέρβερος Kerberos), often called the "hound of Hades", is the monstrous multi-headed dog that guards the gates of the Underworld to prevent the dead from leaving.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Eliot Norton (November 16, 1827 – October 21, 1908) was an American author, social critic, and professor of art.
Charles S. Singleton (1909–1985) was an American scholar, writer, and critic of literature.
In Greek mythology, Charon or Kharon (Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers Styx and Acheron that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead.
In Greek mythology, Chiron (also Cheiron or Kheiron; Χείρων "hand") was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs".
In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which by God's definitive judgment unrepentant sinners pass either immediately after death (particular judgment) or in the general judgment.
Ciacco is one of the characters in the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri that were not yet well defined by historians.
Ciampolo (also Giampolo, "John Paul") is the accepted name of a character in Dante's Divine Comedy.
Ciappo Ubriachi was a Florentine nobleman who lived in the late 13th century around the time of Giotto and Dante.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In Greek mythology, Cinyras (Κινύρας – Kinyras) was a famous hero and king of Cyprus.
Circe (Κίρκη Kírkē) is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, witch, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology.
In the ancient Mediterranean world, the classical compass winds were names for the points of geographic direction and orientation, in association with the winds as conceived of by the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Cocytus or Kokytos (Κωκυτός, literally "lamentation") is a river in the underworld in Greek mythology.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian noble family.
In geometry, two or more objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
Contrapasso (or, in modern Italian,Enciclopedia Dantesca, Biblioteca Treccani, 2005, vol. 7, article Contrapasso. contrappasso) is derived from the Latin contra and patior, which mean "suffer the opposite".
In Christian theology, contrition or contriteness (from the Latin contritus 'ground to pieces', i.e. crushed by guilt) is repentance for sins one has committed.
Cornelia Africana (c. 190 – c. 100 BC) was the second daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the hero of the Second Punic War, and Aemilia Paulla.
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University.
Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.
In Greek mythology, Creusa (/kriːˈuːsə/; Ancient Greek: Κρέουσα Kreousa "princess") or Glauce (Ancient Greek: Γλαυκή "blue-gray"), Latin Glauca, was the daughter of King Creon of Corinth, Greece, in whose favor Jason abandoned Medea.
Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river was an event in 49 BC that precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator for life and the rise of the imperial era of Rome.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The works of Dante Alighieri – particularly the Divine Comedy, widely considered his masterpiece – have been a source of inspiration for various artists since their publications in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
In Dante's Inferno, Satan is portrayed as a giant demon, frozen mid-breast in ice at the center of Hell.
In Greek mythology, Dardanus (Greek: Δάρδανος, Dardanos) was a son of Zeus (in Illyrius) and Electra (daughter of Atlas) and founder of the city of Dardanus at the foot of Mount Ida in the Troad.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades (Hades was Greek).
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Deception is the act of propagating a belief that is not true, or is not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).
In Greek mythology, Deidamia (Δηϊδάμεια, Deidameia) is the daughter of King Lycomedes of Scyros.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
In mainstream Christianity, the Devil (or Satan) is a fallen angel who rebelled against God.
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.
Diogenes (Διογένης, Diogenēs), also known as Diogenes the Cynic (Διογένης ὁ Κυνικός, Diogenēs ho Kunikos), was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy.
Diogenes of Apollonia (Διογένης ὁ Ἀπολλωνιάτης; fl. 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, and was a native of the Milesian colony Apollonia in Thrace.
Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or) or Diomede (God-like cunning, advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.
Dionysius I or Dionysius the Elder (Διονύσιος ὁ Πρεσβύτερος; c. 432367 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse, in what is now Sicily, southern Italy.
Dionysius the Younger (Διονύσιος ὁ Νεώτερος, 343 BC), or Dionysius II, was a Greek politician who ruled Syracuse, Sicily from 367 BC to 357 BC and again from 346 BC to 344 BC.
In Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy, the City of Dis (Dite) encompasses the sixth through the ninth circles of Hell.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dorothy Leigh Sayers (13 June 1893 – 17 December 1957) was a renowned English crime writer and poet.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
The Pleiad Electra (Ēlektra "amber") of Greek mythology was one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Enzo (or Enzio; – 14 March 1272) was an illegitimate son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, who appointed him 'King of Sardinia' in 1238.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
In Roman literature, Erichtho (from) is a legendary Thessalian witch who appears in several literary works.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
In Greek mythology, Eurypylus (Εὐρύπυλος Eurypylos) was a Thessalian king.
Ezzelino III da Romano (April 25, 1194, Tombolo – October 7, 1259) was an Italian feudal lord, a member of the Ezzelino family, in the March of Treviso (in the modern Veneto).
Faenza (Faventia; Fènza or Fẽza) is an Italian city and comune, in the province of Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, situated southeast of Bologna.
Fallen angels are angels who were expelled from Heaven.
In religion, a false prophet is one who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or who uses that gift for evil ends.
Farinata degli Uberti (Florence, 1212 – Florence, 11 November 1264), real name Manente degli Uberti, was an Italian aristocrat and military leader, considered by some of his contemporaries to be a heretic.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Filippo Argenti or Filippo Argente (13th century), a politician and a citizen of Florence, was a member of the Cavicciuoli branch of the aristocratic family of Adimari, according to Boccaccio.
The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.
Flattery (also called adulation or blandishment) is the act of giving excessive compliments, generally for the purpose of ingratiating oneself with the subject.
The Florence Baptistery (Battistero di San Giovanni), also known as the Baptistery of Saint John, is a religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica.
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
Friar Alberigo (died c. 1307) was a 13th-century Italian from Faenza.
Fra Dolcino (c. 1250 – 1307) was the second leader of the Dulcinian reformist movement who was burned at the stake in Northern Italy in 1307.
Francesca da Rimini or Francesca da Polenta (1255–ca. 1285) was the daughter of Guido da Polenta, lord of Ravenna.
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franciscus Accursius (Francesco d'Accorso) (1225–1293) was an Italian lawyer, the son of the celebrated jurist and glossator Accursius.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gaius Scribonius Curio was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Galehaut (or Gallehault) is a fictional knight in the Arthurian Legend.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gallura is a region in the northeast of the island of Sardinia, Italy.
In the Matter of France, Ganelon is the knight who betrayed Charlemagne's army to the Muslims, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
In Greek mythology, Geryon (or;. Collins English Dictionary also Geryone; Γηρυών,Also Γηρυόνης (Gēryonēs) and Γηρυονεύς (Gēryoneus). genitive: Γηρυόνος), son of Chrysaor and Callirrhoe, the grandson of Medusa and the nephew of Pegasus, was a fearsome giant who dwelt on the island Erytheia of the mythic Hesperides in the far west of the Mediterranean.
Giants (from Latin and Ancient Greek: "gigas", cognate giga-) are beings of human appearance, but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.
In Greek and Roman Mythology, the Giants, also called Gigantes (jye-GAHN-tees or gee-GAHN-tees; Greek: Γίγαντες, Gígantes, Γίγας, Gígas) were a race of great strength and aggression, though not necessarily of great size, known for the Gigantomachy (Gigantomachia), their battle with the Olympian gods.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni di Buiamonte was a Florentine nobleman who lived in the late 13th century around the time of Giotto and Dante.
Giovanni Malatesta (died 1304), known, from his lameness, as Gianciotto, or Giovanni, lo Sciancato, was the eldest son of Malatesta da Verucchio of Rimini.
Gluttony (gula, derived from the Latin gluttire meaning "to gulp down or swallow") means over-indulgence and over-consumption of food, drink, or wealth items.
In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece (χρυσόμαλλον δέρας chrysómallon déras) is the fleece of the gold-haired winged ram, which was held in Colchis.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Graft, as understood in American English, is a form of political corruption, being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Guido Bonatti (died between 1296 and 1300) was an Italian mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, who was the most celebrated astrologer of the 13th century.
Guido Cavalcanti (between 1250 and 1259 – August 1300) was an Italian poet and troubadour, as well as an intellectual influence on his best friend, Dante Alighieri.
Guido da Montefeltro (1223 – September 29, 1298) was an Italian military strategist and lord of Urbino.
Guinevere (Gwenhwyfar; Gwenivar), often written as Guenevere or Gwenevere, is the wife of King Arthur in Arthurian legend.
Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola (1244 – 1291) was the son of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England.
Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, a harpy (plural harpies,, harpyia,; harpȳia) was a half-human and half-bird personification of storm winds, in Homeric poems.
In Christian theology, the Harrowing of Hell (Latin: Descensus Christi ad Inferos, "the descent of Christ into hell") is the triumphant descent of Christ into Hell (or Hades) between the time of his Crucifixion and his Resurrection when he brought salvation to all of the righteous who had died since the beginning of the world.
The Harvard Theological Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1908 and published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Harvard Divinity School.
The HecatoncheiresDepending on the method of transliteration, the Ancient Greek ἑκατόν may be latinised as and χείρ may be transliterated as, or even.
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
The Reverend Henry Francis Cary (6 December 1772 – 14 August 1844) was a British author and translator, best known for his blank verse translation of The Divine Comedy of Dante.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183), was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
A heraldic badge, emblem, impresa, device, or personal device worn as a badge indicates allegiance to, or the property of, an individual or family.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Holy Saturday (Sabbatum Sanctum), the Saturday of Holy Week, also known as Holy and Great Saturday, the Great Sabbath, Black Saturday, Joyous Saturday, or Easter Eve, and called "Joyous Saturday" or "the Saturday of Light" among Coptic Christians, is the day after Good Friday.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character or inclinations, especially with respect to religious and moral beliefs; hence in a general sense, hypocrisy may involve dissimulation, pretense, or a sham.
Hypsipyle (Ὑψιπύλη) was the Queen of Lemnos, daughter of Thoas and Myrina in Greek mythology.
Iacopo Rusticucci was a 13th-century Florentine politician.
Immurement (from Latin im- "in" and murus "wall"; literally "walling in") is a form of imprisonment, usually for life, in which a person is placed within an enclosed space with no exits.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Incontinence ("a want of continence or self-restraint") is often used by philosophers to translate the Greek term Akrasia (ἀκρασία).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jacopo Alighieri (1289–1348) was an Italian poet, the son of Dante Alighieri, whom he followed in his exile.
Jacques Le Goff (1 January 1924 – 1 April 2014) was a French historian and prolific author specializing in the Middle Ages, particularly the 12th and 13th centuries.
Japheth (Ἰάφεθ; Iafeth, Iapheth, Iaphethus, Iapetus), is one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis, where he plays a role in the story of Noah's drunkenness and the curse of Ham, and subsequently in the Table of Nations as the ancestor of the peoples of Europe and Anatolia.
Jason (Ἰάσων Iásōn) was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Anthony Ciardi (June 24, 1916 – March 30, 1986) was an Italian-American poet, translator, and etymologist.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
Joseph (יוֹסֵף meaning "Increase", Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis.
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.
Judas Iscariot (died AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.
The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.
Julia Caesaris Filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA), c. 76 BC–54 BC, was the daughter of Roman dictator Julius Caesar by his first wife Cornelia, and his only child from his three marriages.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
In Greek mythology, Laertes (Λαέρτης, Laértēs), also spelled Laërtes, was the son of Arcesius and Chalcomedusa.
Sir Lancelot du Lac (meaning Lancelot of the Lake), alternatively also written as Launcelot and other spellings, is one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend.
The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend written in French.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Latinus (Lătīnŭs; Λατῖνος) was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology.
In Roman mythology, Lavinia (Lāuīnĭa) is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
A leopon is a hybrid resulting from the crossing of a male leopard with a lioness.
In Greek mythology, Lethe (Greek: Λήθη, Lḗthē) was one of the five rivers of the underworld of Hades.
In Catholic theology, Limbo (Latin limbus, edge or boundary, referring to the "edge" of Hell) is a speculative, non-scriptural idea about the afterlife condition of those who die in original sin without being assigned to the Hell of the Damned.
In Greek mythology, Linus (Λῖνος Linos "flax") may refer to the following personages.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is a long allegorical poem in three parts (or canticas): the Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise), and 100 cantos, with the Inferno having 34, Purgatorio having 33, and Paradiso having 33 cantos.
An impostor (also spelled imposter) is a person who pretends to be somebody else, often through means of disguise.
The Liturgy of the Hours (Latin: Liturgia Horarum) or Divine Office (Latin: Officium Divinum) or Work of God (Latin: Opus Dei) or canonical hours, often referred to as the Breviary, is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer".
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Loderingo degli Andalò (1210–1293) was an Italian nobleman from a Bolognese Ghibelline family.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Lucifer is a name that, according to dictionaries of the English language, refers either to the Devil or to the planet Venus when appearing as the morning star.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
According to Roman tradition, Lucretia or Lucrece (Lucretia; died) was a noblewoman in ancient Rome whose rape by Sextus Tarquinius (Tarquin), an Etruscan king's son, was the cause of a rebellion that overthrew the Roman monarchy and led to the transition of Roman government from a kingdom to a republic.
Lust is a craving, it can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, lust for money or the lust for power.
A maggot is the larva of a fly (order Diptera); it is applied in particular to the larvae of Brachycera flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies, rather than larvae of the Nematocera, such as mosquitoes and Crane flies.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Malacoda is a character in Dante Alighieri's Inferno (Cantos 21-2), where he features as the leader of the Malebranche, the twelve demons who guard Bolgia Five of Malebolge, the eighth circle of Hell.
In Dante Alighieri's Inferno, part of the Divine Comedy, Malebolge is the eighth circle of Hell.
The Malebranche ("Evil Claws"Dorothy L. Sayers, Hell: notes on Cantos XXI and XXII, Penguin, 1949,.) are the demons in the Inferno of Dante's Divine Comedy who guard Bolgia Five of the Eighth Circle (Malebolge).
There are several distinct figures in Greek mythology named Manto (Μαντώ), the most prominent being the daughter of Tiresias.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcia was the second wife of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (Cato the Younger) and the daughter of Lucius Marcius Philippus.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Mark Louis Musa (1934–December 31, 2014) was a translator and scholar of Italian literature.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great and Holy Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter.
In Greek mythology, Medea (Μήδεια, Mēdeia, მედეა) was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Megaera (Ancient Greek: Μέγαιρα, English translation: "the jealous one") is one of the Erinyes, Eumenides or "Furies" in Greek mythology.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Michael Scot (Latin: Michael Scotus; 1175 –) was a mathematician and scholar in the Middle Ages.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Μῑνώταυρος, Minotaurus, Etruscan: Θevrumineś) is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull".
Modern Language Notes is an academic journal established in 1886 at the Johns Hopkins University, where it is still edited and published, with the intention of introducing continental European literary criticism into American scholarship.
In Greek mythology, the Moirai or Moerae or (Μοῖραι, "apportioners"), often known in English as the Fates (Fata, -orum (n)), were the white-robed incarnations of destiny; their Roman equivalent was the Parcae (euphemistically the "sparing ones").
Mordred or Modred (Medrawt) is a character in the Arthurian legend, known as a notorious traitor who fought King Arthur at the Battle of Camlann, where he was killed and Arthur was fatally wounded.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myrrha (Greek: Μύρρα, Mýrra), also known as Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνα, Smýrna), is the mother of Adonis in Greek mythology.
Neoptolemus (Greek: Νεοπτόλεμος, Neoptolemos, "new warrior"), also called Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos, "red", for his red hair), was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamia in Greek mythology, and also the mythical progenitor of the ruling dynasty of the Molossians of ancient Epirus.
In Greek mythology, Nessus (Ancient Greek: Νέσσος) was a famous centaur who was killed by Heracles, and whose tainted blood in turn killed Heracles.
The Nicomachean Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.
Ugolino Visconti (died 1298), better known as Nino, was the Giudice of Gallura from 1275 or 1276 to his death.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Obizzo II d'Este (c. 1247 – 13 February 1293) was Marquis of Ferrara and the March of Ancona.
Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Frati della Beata Gloriosa Vergine Maria; Ordo Militiae Mariae Gloriosae), also called the Order of Saint Mary of the Tower or the Order of the Knights of the Mother of God, commonly the Knights of Saint Mary, was a military order founded in 1261.
Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς, classical pronunciation) is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Ottaviano or Attaviano degli Ubaldini (Florence, 1214 – 1273) was an Italian cardinal, often known in his own time as simply Il Cardinale (The Cardinal).
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Palestrina (ancient Praeneste; Πραίνεστος, Prainestos) is an ancient city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 21,000, in Lazio, about east of Rome.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas.
Paolo Malatesta (c. 1246 – 1285) was the third son of Malatesta da Verucchio, lord of Rimini.
"Papé Satàn, papé Satàn aleppe" is the opening line of Canto VII of Dante Alighieri's Inferno.
Paradiso (Italian for "Paradise" or "Heaven") is the third and final part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno and the Purgatorio.
Paris (Πάρις), also known as Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros), the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends.
Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, Pedianos Dioskorides; 40 – 90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of De Materia Medica (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances (a pharmacopeia), that was widely read for more than 1,500 years.
In Homer's Odyssey, Penelope (Πηνελόπεια, Pēnelópeia, or Πηνελόπη, Pēnelópē) is the wife of Odysseus, who is known for her fidelity to Odysseus while he was absent, despite having many suitors.
Penthesilea (Πενθεσίλεια, Penthesileia) was an Amazonian queen in Greek mythology, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe.
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.
Peter Bondanella (1943-2017) was Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Italian, Comparative Literature, and Film Studies at Indiana University, United States.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
De Bello Civili (On the Civil War), more commonly referred to as the Pharsalia, is a Roman epic poem by the poet Lucan, detailing the civil war between Julius Caesar and the forces of the Roman Senate led by Pompey the Great.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
In Greek mythology, the river Phlegethon (Φλεγέθων, English translation: "flaming") or Pyriphlegethon (Πυριφλεγέθων, English translation: "fire-flaming") was one of the five rivers in the infernal regions of the underworld, along with the rivers Styx, Lethe, Cocytus, and Acheron.
Phlegyas (Φλεγύας), son of Ares and Chryse or Dotis, was king of the Lapiths in Greek mythology.
In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.
In Greek mythology, Pholus (Φόλος) was a wise centaur and friend of Heracles who lived in a cave on or near Mount Pelion.
Photinus (Greek Φωτεινός; died 376), was a Christian heresiarch and bishop of Sirmium in Pannonia Secunda (today the town Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia), best known for denying the incarnation of Christ.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Pietro della Vigna, (also Pier delle Vigne, Petrus de Vineas or de Vineis; c. 1190–1249), was an Italian jurist and diplomat, who acted as chancellor and secretary (logothete) to Emperor Frederick II.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac.
Pistoia is a city and comune in the Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of a province of the same name, located about west and north of Florence and is crossed by the Ombrone Pistoiese, a tributary of the River Arno.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pluto (Latin: Plūtō; Πλούτων) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology.
Plutus (Πλοῦτος, Ploutos, literally "wealth") was the god of wealth in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Poetic justice is a literary device in which ultimately virtue is rewarded and viciousness is punished.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
Pope Anastasius II (died 19 November 498) was Pope from 24 November 496 to his death in 498.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Pope Celestine V (Caelestinus V; 1215 – 19 May 1296), born Pietro Angelerio (according to some sources Angelario, Angelieri, Angelliero, or Angeleri), also known as Pietro da Morrone, Peter of Morrone, and Peter Celestine, was pope for five months from 5 July to 13 December 1294, when he resigned.
Pope Clement V (Clemens V; c. 1264 – 20 April 1314), born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Guoth and de Goth), was Pope from 5 June 1305 to his death in 1314.
Pope Nicholas III (Nicolaus III; c. 1225 – 22 August 1280), born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.
Potiphar is a person known only from the Book of Genesis's account of Joseph.
Prime, or the First Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office (Canonical Hours), said at the first hour of daylight (approximately 6:00 a.m.), between the morning Hour of Lauds and the 9 a.m. Hour of Terce.
Priscianus Caesariensis, commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian and the author of the Institutes of Grammar which was the standard textbook for the study of Latin during the Middle Ages.
Procuring or pandering is the facilitation or provision of a prostitute or sex worker in the arrangement of a sex act with a customer.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Ptolemy was the son of Abubus.
Purgatorio (Italian for "Purgatory") is the second part of Dante's Divine Comedy, following the Inferno, and preceding the Paradiso.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Rachel (meaning ewe) was a Biblical figure best known for her infertility.
"Raphèl mai amècche zabì almi" is a verse from Dante's ''Inferno'', XXXI.67.
Reginaldo degli Scrovegni was a Paduan nobleman of the Guelph faction who lived in the early 14th century around the time of Giotto and Dante.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ripheus (also Rifeo and Rupheo) was a Trojan hero and the name of a figure from the Aeneid of Virgil.
Robert M. Durling was an American scholar and translator, known for his translations of Petrarch's Rime Sparse and (with Ronald Martinez) of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy.
Robert Pinsky (born October 20, 1940) is an American poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator.
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
In medieval and ancient philosophy the Wheel of Fortune, or Rota Fortunae, is a symbol of the capricious nature of Fate.
Ruggieri degli Ubaldini (fl. 1271 – 15 September 1295, Viterbo) was an Italian archbishop.
Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also known as Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia (Sancta Lucia), was a Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
A schism (pronounced, or, less commonly) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like; to corrupt, to persuade or induce to engage in sexual behaviour.
Self-interest generally refers to a focus on the needs or desires (interests) of the self.
Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram,; Σεμίραμις, Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary Lydian-Babylonian wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
A seraph ("the burning one"; pl. seraphs or seraphim, in the King James Version also seraphims (plural); Hebrew: שָׂרָף śārāf, plural שְׂרָפִים śərāfîm; Latin: seraphim and seraphin (plural), also seraphus (-i, m.); σεραφείμ serapheím Arabic: مشرفين Musharifin) is a type of celestial or heavenly being in Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
Seven Against Thebes (Ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ Θήβας, Hepta epi Thēbas) is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC.
Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC), was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
Shem (שֵׁם Šēm; Σήμ Sēm; Ge'ez: ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic: سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah in the Hebrew Bible as well as in Islamic literature.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A simile is a figure of speech that directly compares two things.
Simon the Sorcerer, or Simon the Magician (Latin: Simon Magus, Greek Σίμων ὁ μάγος), is a religious figure whose confrontation with Peter is recorded in Acts.
Simon Maccabeus (also referred to as Simon Thassi, שמעון התסי Šiməōn HaṮasī; died 135 BCE) was the second son of Mattathias and thus a member of the Hasmonean family.
Simony is the act of selling church offices and roles.
In Greek mythology, Sinon (Greek: "Σίνων", from the verb "σίνομαι"—sinomai, "to harm, to hurt") a son of Aesimus (son of Autolycus), or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War.
The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boat.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Sodom and Gomorrah were cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis and throughout the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and in the deuterocanonical books, as well as in the Quran and the hadith.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
A spendthrift (also profligate or prodigal) is someone who spends money prodigiously and who is extravagant and recklessly wasteful, often to a point where the spending climbs well beyond his or her means.
Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45c. 96 AD) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).
In Greek mythology, Styx (Στύξ) is a deity and a river that forms the boundary between Earth and the Underworld, often called "Hades" which is also the name of its ruler.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Tearing, lacrimation, or lachrymation is the secretion of tears, which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes.
Telemachus (Τηλέμαχος, Tēlemakhos, literally "far-fighter") is a figure in Greek mythology, the son of Odysseus and Penelope, and a central character in Homer's Odyssey.
Terce, or Third Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the Divine Office in almost all the Christian liturgies.
Thaïs (Θαΐς) was a famous Greek hetaera who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
In Greek mythology, Tiresias (Τειρεσίας, Teiresias) was a blind prophet of Apollo in Thebes, famous for clairvoyance and for being transformed into a woman for seven years.
Tisiphone, or Tilphousia, was one of the three Erinyes or Furies.
Tityos or Tityus (Τιτυός) was a giant from Greek mythology.
The Torre dei Gualandi (also known as the Muda Tower) is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dell'Orologio.
The Tower of Babel (מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Tristan (Latin & Brythonic: Drustanus; Trystan), also known as Tristram, is a Cornish knight of the Round Table and the hero of the Arthurian Tristan and Iseult story.
The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Typhon (Τυφῶν, Tuphōn), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs), was a monstrous serpentine giant and the most deadly creature in Greek mythology.
Count Ugolino della Gherardesca (March 1289), count of Donoratico, was an Italian nobleman, politician and naval commander.
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
Usury is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender.
Vanni Fucci di Pistoia is a minor character in Inferno, the first part of Dante Alighieri's epic poem the Divine Comedy, appearing in Cantos XXIV & XXV.
The "Vexilla Regis" is a Latin hymn in long metre by the Christian poet and saint Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virtuous pagan is a concept in Christian theology that addressed the problem of pagans who were never evangelized and consequently during their lifetime had no opportunity to recognize Christ, but nevertheless led virtuous lives, so that it seemed objectionable to consider them damned.
The Visio Karoli Crassi or Visio Karoli Grossi (meaning "Vision of Charles the Fat"), also called the Visio Karoli (Tertii) Imperatoris ("Vision of Charles III"), is an anonymous work of Latin prose from around 900.
Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani was a Paduan nobleman who lived in the late 13th century around the time of Giotto and Dante.
Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.
The Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven between angels led by the Archangel Michael against those led by "the dragon"—identified as "the devil or Satan"—who are defeated and thrown down to the earth.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
Wickedness, is generally considered a synonym for evil or sinfulness.
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.
A wyvern (sometimes spelled wivern) is a legendary creature with a dragon's head and wings, a reptilian body, two legs, and a tail often ending in a diamond- or arrow-shaped tip.
Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
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