120 relations: Abortion-rights movements, Acrosome reaction, Adeno-associated virus, Adrenal gland, Advanced maternal age, Allele, Amenorrhea, Anovulation, Anti-thyroid autoantibodies, Antisperm antibodies, Aromatase inhibitor, Assisted reproductive technology, Azoospermia, Basal body temperature, Beginning of pregnancy controversy, Catholic Church, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centriole, Cervical cap, Cervix, Childlessness, Chlamydia infection, Chlamydia trachomatis, Clomifene, Coeliac disease, Conception device, Confidence interval, Cystic fibrosis, Diabetes mellitus, DNA, Embryo, Embryo transfer, Endometriosis, European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, Eusociality, Fallopian tube, Fallopian tube obstruction, Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, Fecundity, Female infertility, Fertilisation, Fertility awareness, Fertility medication, Folate, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Gamete intrafallopian transfer, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, Gonorrhea, Gynaecology, ..., Haplodiploidy, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypopituitarism, In vitro, In vitro fertilisation, In vivo, Inherited sterility in insects, Insemination, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Male infertility, Mary Warnock, Baroness Warnock, Medical ethics, Medical tourism, Menotropin, Menstrual cycle, Metformin, Multiple birth, Mycoplasma genitalium, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Natural selection, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Odds ratio, Oligospermia, Oncofertility, Ovulation, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pesticide, Physician, Pixar, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polymorphism (biology), Pregnancy, Pregnancy rate, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Preterm birth, Primary ciliary dyskinesia, Prostatitis, Reference range, Reproduction and pregnancy in speculative fiction, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Robertsonian translocation, Semen, Semen quality, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual intercourse, Sexual reproduction, Silicone, Solvent, Sterility (physiology), Steroidogenic factor 1, Surrogate marriage, Testicular cancer, Thyroid, Tobacco smoking, Toxin, Tubal ligation, Tuberculosis, Tuboplasty, TUNEL assay, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Up (2009 film), Urology, Varicocele, Women's health nurse practitioner, World Health Organization, Zygote intrafallopian transfer. Expand index (70 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion-rights movements, also referred to as pro-choice movements, advocate for legal access to induced abortion services.
During fertilization, a sperm must first fuse with the plasma membrane and then penetrate the female egg in order to fertilize it.
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Advanced maternal age, in a broad sense, is the instance of a woman being of an older age at a stage of reproduction, although there are various definitions of specific age and stage of reproduction.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.
Antithyroid autoantibodies (or simply anti-thyroid antibodies) are autoantibodies targeted against one or more components on the thyroid.
Antisperm antibodies are antibodies produced against sperm antigens.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.
Basal body temperature (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep).
Controversy over the beginning of pregnancy occurs in different contexts, particularly as it is discussed within the abortion debate in the United States.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle composed mainly of a protein called tubulin.
The cervical cap is a form of barrier contraception.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Childlessness is the state of people – men and women – not having children.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
A conception device is a medical device which is used to assist in the achievement of a pregnancy, often, but not always, by means other than sexual intercourse (natural insemination, or NI).
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) was founded in 1985 by Robert Edwards (University of Cambridge) and J. Cohen (Paris), who felt that the study and research in the field of reproduction needed to be encouraged and recognized.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
Fallopian tube obstruction is a major cause of female infertility.
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) is a United States labor law requiring covered employers to provide employees with job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fertility awareness (FA) refers to a set of practices used to determine the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle.
Fertility medication, better known as fertility drugs, are drugs which enhance reproductive fertility.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is a tool of assisted reproductive technology against infertility.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom.
Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.
Hypopituitarism is the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The inherited sterility in insects is induced by substerilizing doses of ionizing radiation.
Insemination is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female animal or plant for the purpose of impregnating or fertilizing the female for sexual reproduction.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.
Helen Mary Warnock, Baroness Warnock, (née Wilson; born 14 April 1924) is an English philosopher of morality, education and mind, and writer on existentialism.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.
Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.
A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring.
Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System which provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.
Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility.
Oncofertility is a subfield that bridges oncology and reproductive research to explore and expand options for the reproductive future of cancer survivors.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar, is an American computer animation movie studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also called immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear), fallopian tube, and flagella of sperm cells.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons (for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen).
Because speculative genres explore variants of reproduction, as well as possible futures, SF writers have often explored the social, political, technological, and biological consequences of pregnancy and reproduction.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
Robertsonian translocation (ROB) is a rare form of chromosomal rearrangement where the participating chromosomes break at their centromeres and the long arms fuse to form a single, large chromosome with a single centromere.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sterility is the physiological inability to effect sexual reproduction in a living thing, members of whose kind have been produced sexually.
The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands.
A surrogate marriage describes the arrangement where a woman is infertile or dies young and her family substitutes another woman to bear children for the husband.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one's "tubes tied") is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and block and sealed, either of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for implantation.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tuboplasty refers to a number of surgical operations that attempt to restore patency and functioning of the Fallopian tube(s) so that a pregnancy could be achieved.
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a method for detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the 3′- hydroxyl termini in the double-strand DNA breaks generated during apoptosis.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
Up is a 2009 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum.
A women's health nurse practitioner (WHNP) is a nurse practitioner that specializes in continuing and comprehensive healthcare for women across the lifespan with emphasis on conditions unique to women from menarche through the remainder of their life cycle.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) is an infertility treatment used when a blockage in the fallopian tubes prevents the normal binding of sperm to the egg.
Barren (womb), Barrenness, Difficulty becoming pregnant, Fertility disturbance, Fertility disturbances, Fertility issues, Fertility problems, Impotentia procreandi, Infertile, Infertility test, Infertitlity, Primary infertility, Secondary infertility, Subfertile, Subfertility, Time to pregnancy, Time-to-pregnancy, Unfertility.