The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
In computer science, arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple-precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the available memory of the host system.
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In software engineering, busy-waiting, busy-looping or spinning is a technique in which a process repeatedly checks to see if a condition is true, such as whether keyboard input or a lock is available.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
Control-C is a common computer command.
Cooperative multitasking, also known as non-preemptive multitasking, is a style of computer multitasking in which the operating system never initiates a context switch from a running process to another process.
In computer science, cycle detection or cycle finding is the algorithmic problem of finding a cycle in a sequence of iterated function values.
The Cyrix coma bug is a design flaw in Cyrix 6x86, 6x86L, and early 6x86MX processors that allows a non-privileged program to hang the computer.
In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
Debugging is the process of finding and resolving defects or problems within a computer program that prevent correct operation of computer software or a system.
The graphical control element dialog box (also called dialogue box (British English) or just dialog) is a small window that communicates information to the user and prompts them for a response.
In computer science, a computation is said to diverge if it does not terminate or terminates in an (unobservable) exceptional state.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
An email loop is an infinite loop phenomenon, resulting from mail servers, scripts, or email clients that generate automatic replies or responses.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
In computing, a fork bomb (also called rabbit virus or wabbit) is a denial-of-service attack wherein a process continually replicates itself to deplete available system resources, slowing down or crashing the system due to resource starvation.
GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.
In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.
In computing, a hang or freeze occurs when either a computer program or system ceases to respond to inputs.
A computer processor is described as idle when it is not being used by any program.
Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
In computing, kill is a command that is used in several popular operating systems to send signals to running processes.
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements, whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory.
Microsoft Access is a database management system (DBMS) from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools.
In user interface design for computer applications, a modal window is a graphical control element subordinate to an application's main window.
In abstract rewriting, an object is in normal form if it cannot be rewritten any further.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
In computer programming, a return statement causes execution to leave the current subroutine and resume at the point in the code immediately after where the subroutine was called, known as its return address.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).
Signals are a limited form of inter-process communication (IPC), typically used in Unix, Unix-like, and other POSIX-compliant operating systems.
A software bug is an error, flaw, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.
In software, a stack overflow occurs if the call stack pointer exceeds the stack bound.
Stacks in computing architectures are regions of memory where data is added or removed in a last-in-first-out (LIFO) manner.
Structural induction is a proof method that is used in mathematical logic (e.g., in the proof of Łoś' theorem), computer science, graph theory, and some other mathematical fields.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
In computer science, a tail call is a subroutine call performed as the final action of a procedure.
A task manager is a system monitor program used to provide information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer.
The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programming book written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.
In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory resources become saturated, leading to a constant state of paging (rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk), to the exclusion of most application-level processing.
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, an undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is known to be impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.
x86 assembly language is a family of backward-compatible assembly languages, which provide some level of compatibility all the way back to the Intel 8008 introduced in April 1972.
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