Communication
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# Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty. [1]

## A Mathematical Theory of Communication

"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon published in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948.

## Abstraction

Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

## Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

## Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

## Anti-information

Information is that which reduces uncertainty, wholly or in part.

## Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

The black hole information paradox is a puzzle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

## CD-ROM

A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

## Classified information

Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.

## Code

In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.

## Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

## Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

In business, a competitive advantage is the attribute that allows an organization to outperform its competitors.

A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.

## Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

## Complexity

Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.

## Computation

Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

## Constraint (information theory)

Constraint in information theory is the degree of statistical dependence between or among variables.

## Context (language use)

In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.

## Control system

A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.

## Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.

## Cultural artifact

A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

## Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.

Information, full name: Dagbladet Information, is a Danish newspaper published Monday through Saturday.

## Data

Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.

## Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making.

## Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

## Data transmission

Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

## Denotation

Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it.

## Digital divide

A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).

## Digital physics

In physics and cosmology, digital physics (also referred to as digital ontology or digital philosophy) is a collection of theoretical perspectives based on the premise that the universe is describable by information.

## Display device

A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).

## DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

## Dynamical system

In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.

## Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

## Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

## Entropy (information theory)

Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.

## Event horizon

In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

## Exabyte

The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

## Exformation

Exformation (originally spelled eksformation in Danish) is a term coined by Danish science writer Tor Nørretranders in his book The User Illusion published in English 1998.

## Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

## Formulation

Formulation is a term used in various senses in various applications, both the material and the abstract or formal.

## Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure

The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure (FFII) is a non-profit organisation based in Munich, Germany, dedicated to establishing a free market in information technology, by the removal of barriers to competition.

## Freedom of information

Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech, a fundamental human right recognized in international law, which is today understood more generally as freedom of expression in any medium, be it orally, in writing, print, through the Internet or through art forms.

## Gregory Bateson

Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields.

## Holographic data storage

Holographic data storage is a potential technology in the area of high-capacity data storage currently dominated by magnetic data storage and conventional optical data storage.

## Holographic principle

The holographic principle is a principle of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.

## Infocommunications

Infocommunications is the natural expansion of telecommunications with information processing and content handling functions including all types of electronic communications (fixed and mobile telephony, data communications, media communications, broadcasting, etc.) on a common digital technology base, mainly through Internet technology.

## Informatics

Informatics is a branch of information engineering.

## Information (formal criminal charge)

An information is a formal criminal charge which begins a criminal proceeding in the courts.

## Information and communications technology

Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

## Information architecture

Information architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.

## Information broker

An information broker or data broker collects information about individuals from public records and private sources including census and change of address records, motor vehicle and driving records, user-contributed material to social networking sites, media and court reports, voter registration lists, consumer purchase histories, most-wanted lists and terrorist watch lists, bank card transaction records, health care authorities, and web browsing histories.

## Information continuum

The term Information continuum is used to describe the whole set of all information, in connection with information management.

## Information geometry

Information geometry is a branch of mathematics that applies the techniques of differential geometry to the field of probability theory.

## Information infrastructure

An information infrastructure is defined by Ole Hanseth (2002) as "an awesome shared, evolving, open, standardized, and heterogeneous installed base" and by Pironti (2006) as all of the people, processes, procedures, tools, facilities, and technology which supports the creation, use, transport, storage, and destruction of information.

## Information management

Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.

## Information mapping

Information mapping is a research-based method for writing clear and user focused information, based on the audience's needs and the purpose of the information.

## Information metabolism

Information metabolism, sometimes referred to as informational metabolism or energetic-informational metabolism, is a psychological theory of interaction between biological organisms and their environment, developed by Polish psychiatrist Antoni Kępiński.

Information overload (also known as infobesity or infoxication) is a term used to describe the difficulty of understanding an issue and effectively making decisions when one has too much information about that issue.

## Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.

## Information processor

An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process.

## Information quality

Information quality (IQ) is the quality of the content of information systems.

## Information science

Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

## Information security

Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.

## Information sensitivity

Information sensitivity is the control of access to information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others.

## Information superhighway

The information superhighway or infobahn was a popular term used through the 1990s to refer to digital communication systems and the Internet telecommunications network.

## Information system

An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.

## Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

## Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

## Information visualization

Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition.

## Information warfare

Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.

## Infosphere

Infosphere is a neologism composed of information and sphere.

## Internet forum

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

## Jacob Bekenstein

Jacob David Bekenstein (יעקב בקנשטיין; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.

## Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology

The Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JAIST) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of information science published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Association for Information Science and Technology.

## Knowledge

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

## Knowledge management

Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation.

## Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.

## Knowledge worker

Knowledge workers are workers whose main capital is knowledge.

## Language interpretation

Interpretation or interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final translation on the basis of a one-time exposure to an utterance in a source language.

## Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

## Lexicographic information cost

Lexicographic information cost is a concept within the field of lexicography.

## Library science

Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.

## Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

## Lossy compression

In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.

## Luciano Floridi

Luciano Floridi (born 16 November 1964) is currently Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the University of Oxford, Oxford Internet Institute, Professorial Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford,, Senior Member of the Faculty of Philosophy, Research Associate and Fellow in Information Policy at the Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, and Distinguished Research Fellow of the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics.

## Marshall McLuhan

Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.

## Mass noun

In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.

## Mathematical universe hypothesis

In physics and cosmology, the mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH), also known as the ultimate ensemble theory, is a speculative "theory of everything" (TOE) proposed by the cosmologist Max Tegmark.

## Maxwell's demon

In the philosophy of thermal and statistical physics, Maxwell's demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violated.

## Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

## Media (communication)

Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

## Message

A message is a discrete unit of communication intended by the source for consumption by some recipient or group of recipients.

## Michael Buckland

Michael Keeble Buckland (born 1941) is an emeritus professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information and co-director of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative.

## Multiverse

The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.

## Nat (unit)

The natural unit of information (symbol: nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of ''e'', rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms, which define the bit.

## Newspaper

A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.

## Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

## Observation

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

## Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

## Organizational memory

Organizational memory (OM) (sometimes called institutional or corporate memory) is the accumulated body of data, information, and knowledge created in the course of an individual organization's existence.

## Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

## Pattern theory

Pattern theory, formulated by Ulf Grenander, is a mathematical formalism to describe knowledge of the world as patterns.

## Paul Beynon-Davies

Paul Beynon-Davies (born 1957) is a British academic, author and consultant.

## Perception

Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

## Pheromone

A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

## Philosophy of information

The philosophy of information (PI) is a branch of philosophy that studies topics relevant to computer science, information science and information technology.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

## Pragmatics

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

## Prediction

A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.

## Propaganda model

The propaganda model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain how propaganda and systemic biases function in corporate mass media.

## Proposition

The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.

## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

## Quantum information

In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system.

## Question

A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.

In statistics, a receiver operating characteristic curve, i.e. ROC curve, is a graphical plot that illustrates the diagnostic ability of a binary classifier system as its discrimination threshold is varied.

## Records management

Records management, also known as records and information management, is an organizational function devoted to the management of information in an organization throughout its life cycle, from the time of creation or inscription to its eventual disposition.

## Relevance

Relevance is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic in a way that makes it useful to consider the second topic when considering the first.

## Satisficing

Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

## Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

## Semiotics

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.

## Shape

A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.

## Sign

A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else.

## Sign (semiotics)

In semiotics, a sign is anything that communicates a meaning that is not the sign itself to the interpreter of the sign.

## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

## Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

## Stimulation

Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally.

## Symbol

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.

## Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

## System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

## Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

## Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

## The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood is a book by science history writer James Gleick published in March 2011 which covers the genesis of our current information age.

## Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

## Thermodynamic state

For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.

## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

## Transmission (telecommunications)

In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.

## Triangle of reference

The triangle of reference (also known as the triangle of meaning and the semiotic triangle) is a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent.

## Uncertainty

Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

## Understanding

Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.

## Units of information

In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels.

## University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

## University of California, Berkeley School of Information

The UC Berkeley School of Information or the I School is a graduate school offering three degree programs: a professional master's degree in information management (MIMS), a professional master's degree in data science (MIDS), and an academic doctoral degree.

## University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

## Void (astronomy)

Cosmic voids are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the universe), which contain very few or no galaxies.