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Information technology

Index Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. [1]

97 relations: Analog computer, Analog device, Antikythera mechanism, Association for Computing Machinery, Bell Labs, Broadcasting, Cambridge, Cathode ray tube, CD-ROM, Character encoding, Colossus computer, Communication protocol, Computer, Computer hardware, Computer programming, Computer science, Computing, Cuneiform script, Data (computing), Data mining, Data processing, Data transmission, Data warehouse, Database schema, Decision support system, Decision-making, Delay line memory, Digital data, Document Object Model, Drum memory, E-commerce, Edgar F. Codd, Electromechanics, Electronics, Exabyte, Ferranti Mark 1, File system, First-order logic, Hard disk drive, Harold Leavitt, Harvard Business Review, Health information technology, Hierarchical database model, HTTP cookie, IBM, IBM 305 RAMAC, IBM Information Management System, Information, Information and communications technology, Information management, ..., Information system, Information Technology Association of America, International Data Corporation, James Gleick, Journal of Cases on Information Technology, Knowledge society, List of the largest information technology companies, Machine, Manchester Baby, Mechanical calculator, Mesopotamia, Moore's law, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Nazi Germany, Norbert Wiener, Oracle Corporation, Outline of information technology, Oxford University Press, Pantheon Books, Punched tape, Radar, Random-access memory, Relational algebra, Relational database, Relational database management system, Relay, Science (journal), Security hacker, Set theory, SOAP, Spamming, Spyware, SQL, Standard Generalized Markup Language, Statistics, Stored-program computer, Sumer, Tally stick, Telecommunication, Telecommunications equipment, Television, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, Transistor, Valve, Williams tube, XML, Z3 (computer). Expand index (47 more) »

Analog computer

An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

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Analog device

Analog device is usually a combination of both analog machine and analog media that can together measure, record, reproduce, or broadcast continuous information, for example, the almost infinite number of grades of transparency, voltage, resistance, rotation, or pressure.

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Antikythera mechanism

The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.

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Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

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Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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CD-ROM

A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data.

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Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

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Colossus computer

Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.

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Communication protocol

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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Data processing

Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.

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Data transmission

Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

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Data warehouse

In computing, a data warehouse (DW or DWH), also known as an enterprise data warehouse (EDW), is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence.

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Database schema

The database schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS).

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Decision support system

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.

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Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Document Object Model

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document.

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Drum memory

Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.

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E-commerce

E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.

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Edgar F. Codd

Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.

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Electromechanics

In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.

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Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Exabyte

The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.

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File system

In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.

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First-order logic

First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Harold Leavitt

Harold J. Leavitt (1922 – 2007) was an American psychologist of management.

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Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.

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Health information technology

Health information technology (HIT) is information technology applied to health and health care.

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Hierarchical database model

A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.

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HTTP cookie

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 305 RAMAC

The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive (magnetic disk storage) for secondary storage.

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IBM Information Management System

IBM Information Management System (IMS) is a joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities.

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Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Information and communications technology

Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

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Information management

Information management (IM) concerns a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.

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Information system

An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.

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Information Technology Association of America

The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), formerly the Association of Data Processing Service Organizations (ADAPSO), was a leading industry trade group for information technology companies.

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International Data Corporation

International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.

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James Gleick

James Gleick (born August 1, 1954) is an American author and historian of science whose work has chronicled the cultural impact of modern technology.

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Journal of Cases on Information Technology

The Journal of Cases on Information Technology (JCIT) is a quarterly peer-reviewed applied research academic journal which focuses on information technology.

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Knowledge society

A knowledge society generates, shares and makes available to all members of the society knowledge that may be used to improve the human condition.

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List of the largest information technology companies

This is not a list of the largest information technology companies, but rather a list of the world's largest technology companies by market cap from Fortune Global 500 magazine.

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Machine

A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.

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Manchester Baby

The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.

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Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Moore's law

Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

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Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

Morgan Kaufmann Publishers is a Burlington, Massachusetts (San Francisco, California until 2008) based publisher specializing in computer science and engineering content.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

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Oracle Corporation

Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.

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Outline of information technology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to information technology: Information technology (IT) – microelectronics based combination of computing and telecommunications technology to treat information, including in the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pantheon Books

Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.

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Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

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Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Relational algebra

Relational algebra, first created by Edgar F. Codd while at IBM, is a family of algebras with a well-founded semantics used for modelling the data stored in relational databases, and defining queries on it.

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Relational database

A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.

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Relational database management system

A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) based on the relational model invented by Edgar F. Codd at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory.

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Relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Security hacker

A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.

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Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

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SOAP

SOAP (originally Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.

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Spamming

Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site.

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Spyware

Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.

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SQL

SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).

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Standard Generalized Markup Language

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stored-program computer

A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.

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Sumer

SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Tally stick

A tally stick (or simply tally) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telecommunications equipment

Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is hardware used for the purposes of telecommunications.

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Television

Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood is a book by science history writer James Gleick published in March 2011 which covers the genesis of our current information age.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Valve

A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

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Williams tube

The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams (26 June 1911 – 11 August 1977), and Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001), is an early form of computer memory.

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XML

In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

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Z3 (computer)

The Z3 was a German electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_technology

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