80 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Adaptive optics, Angular resolution, Antarctic, Arcturus, Astronomer, Astronomical interferometer, Astronomical object, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Bolometer, Cambridge University Press, Chile, Crookes radiometer, Dome C, Earth, Edison Pettit, Electromagnetic radiation, Ernest Fox Nichols, Far-infrared astronomy, George H. Rieke, H band (infrared), Herschel Space Observatory, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Infrared window, J band (infrared), James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, K band (infrared), Kelvin, Kuiper Airborne Observatory, L band (infrared), Lens (optics), Light, Liquid nitrogen, List of largest infrared telescopes, M band (infrared), Mauna Kea Observatories, Mercury cadmium telluride, Micrometre, Mirror, Moon, N band, Nanometre, Narrow-gap semiconductor, Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, Optical telescope, Photometry (astronomy), Physicist, ..., Pixel, Prism, Radio astronomy, Radio Galaxy Zoo, Seth Barnes Nicholson, Solid-state electronics, SpaceNews, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, Star cluster, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Submillimetre astronomy, Sun, Superconductivity, Supernova remnant, Telescope, Terahertz radiation, Thermal, Thermopile, Twinkling, Universe, Vega, Very Large Telescope, Visible-light astronomy, W. M. Keck Observatory, Wavelength, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, William Herschel, William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, 2MASS. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
A bolometer is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Crookes radiometer, also known as a light mill, consists of an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Edison Pettit (September 22, 1889 – May 6, 1962) was an American astronomer.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Ernest Fox Nichols (June 1, 1869 – April 29, 1924) was an American educator and physicist.
Far-infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that deals with objects visible in far-infrared radiation (extending from 30 µm towards submillimeter wavelengths around 450 µm).
George H. Rieke (born January 5, 1943), a noted American infrared astronomer, is former Deputy Director of the Steward Observatory and Regents Professor of Astronomy and Planetary Sciences at the University of Arizona in Tucson.
In infrared astronomy, the H band refers to an atmospheric transmission window centred on 1.65 micrometres with a Full width at half maximum of 0.35 micrometresIan McClean, Electronic Imaging in Astronomy, Second Edition, Springer, 2008.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
The infrared atmospheric window is the overall dynamic property of the earth's atmosphere, taken as a whole at each place and occasion of interest, that lets some infrared radiation from the cloud tops and land-sea surface pass directly to space without intermediate absorption and re-emission, and thus without heating the atmosphere.
In infrared astronomy, the J band refers to an atmospheric transmission window centred on 1.25 micrometres (in the near-infrared).
The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is a submillimetre-wavelength telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.
In infrared astronomy, the K band is an atmospheric transmission window centered on 2.2 μm (in the near-infrared 136 THz range).
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Gerard P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) was a national facility operated by NASA to support research in infrared astronomy.
In infrared astronomy, the L band is an atmospheric transmission window centred on 3.5 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
List of largest infrared telescopes, by diameter of entrance aperture, oriented towards large observatories dedicated to infrared astronomy.
In infrared astronomy, the M band is an atmospheric transmission window centred on 4.7 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).
The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are a number of independent astronomical research facilities and large telescope observatories that are located at the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, United States.
HgCdTe or mercury cadmium telluride (also cadmium mercury telluride, MCT, MerCad Telluride, MerCadTel, MerCaT or CMT) is an alloy of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
In infrared astronomy, the N band refers to an atmospheric transmission window centred on 10 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Narrow-gap semiconductors are semiconducting materials with a band gap that is comparatively small compared to that of silicon, i.e. smaller than 1.11 eV at room temperature.
The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is a scientific instrument for infrared astronomy, installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operating from 1997 to 1999, and from 2002 to 2008.
An optical telescope is a telescope that gathers and focuses light, mainly from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, to create a magnified image for direct view, or to make a photograph, or to collect data through electronic image sensors.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ) is an internet crowdsourced citizen science project that seeks to locate supermassive black holes in distant galaxies.
Seth Barnes Nicholson (November 12, 1891 – July 2, 1963) was an American astronomer.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
SpaceNews is a print and digital publication that covers business and political news in the space and satellite industry.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star clusters are groups of stars.
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an 80/20 joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) to construct and maintain an airborne observatory.
Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).
A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.
A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy.
Twinkling, or scintillation, is a generic term for variations in apparent brightness or position of a distant luminous object viewed through a medium.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Visible-light astronomy encompasses a wide variety of observations via telescopes that are sensitive in the range of visible light (optical telescopes).
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse HFRSE (17 June 1800 – 31 October 1867) was an Anglo-Irish astronomer who had several telescopes built.
The Two Micron All-Sky Survey, or 2MASS, was an astronomical survey of the whole sky in the infrared spectrum and one of the most ambitious such projects.