Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Ingria

Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west. [1]

123 relations: Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Aristocracy, Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, Baltic Sea, Baryshevo, Leningrad Oblast, Beloostrov, Border Security Zone of Russia, Buffer zone, Cherepovets, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Cultural heritage, Denmark, Deportations of the Ingrian Finns, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dominions of Sweden, Earl, East Karelia, East–West Schism, Enemy of the people, Estonia, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Estonians, Ethnic group, Finland, Finnic peoples, Finns, First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union, Folk etymology, Gatchinsky District, Genrikh Yagoda, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, GeoJournal, Great Northern War, Greek Orthodox Church, Gulf of Finland, Indigenous peoples, Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, Ingrian Finns, Ingrian language, Ingrian War, Iron Age, Ivangorod, Izhorians, Joseph Stalin, JSTOR, Karelia, Karelia (historical province of Finland), Karelian Isthmus, Kazakhstan, Kievan Rus', ..., Kingisepp, Kingiseppsky District, Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast, Kola Peninsula, Koporye, Kulak, Lake Ladoga, Latvians, Län, Lempäälä, Leningrad Oblast, Lishenets, Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast, Luga River, Lutheranism, Narva, Narva River, Neva River, NKVD, North Ingria, Novgorod Republic, Nyenschantz, October Revolution, Okhta River (Neva basin), Olof Skötkonung, Peter the Great, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Ragnvald Ulfsson, Rurik, Russia, Russian Empire Census, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russians, Russification, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Governorate, Savonia (historical province), Shlisselburg, Slavic Review, Slavs, Soikinsky Peninsula, Sovereign state, Soviet Census (1989), Soviet Union, Staraya Ladoga, Sweden, Swedish nobility, Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, Tatars, Teutonic Order, The Journal of Modern History, Tosnensky District, Treaty of Nystad, Treaty of Stolbovo, Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian), Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish), Treaty of Teusina, Tsardom of Russia, Ukrainians, University of Chicago Press, Ural (region), Vadim the Bold, Varangians, Veliky Novgorod, Viking Age, Volosovsky District, Votes, Vsevolozhsky District, Vyborg, Wayback Machine, World War II, Yaroslav the Wise. Expand index (73 more) »

Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; –) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel.

New!!: Ingria and Alexander Danilovich Menshikov · See more »


Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

New!!: Ingria and Aristocracy · See more »

Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies

The Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies (ASEEES) is a scholarly society dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about the former Soviet Union (including Eurasia) and Eastern and Central Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies · See more »

Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

New!!: Ingria and Baltic Sea · See more »

Baryshevo, Leningrad Oblast

Baryshevo (Барышево; Pölläkkälä) is a rural locality on Karelian Isthmus, in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast.

New!!: Ingria and Baryshevo, Leningrad Oblast · See more »


Beloostrov (Белоо́стров; Valkeasaari, both meaning lit. White Island), from 1922 to World War II—Krasnoostrov (Красноо́стров, lit. Red Island), is a municipal settlement in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located on the Sestra River, Karelian Isthmus.

New!!: Ingria and Beloostrov · See more »

Border Security Zone of Russia

A Border Security Zone in Russia is the designation of a strip of land (usually, though not always, along a Russian federation external border) where economic activity and access are restricted in line with the Frontier Regime Regulations set by the Federal Security Service.

New!!: Ingria and Border Security Zone of Russia · See more »

Buffer zone

A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.

New!!: Ingria and Buffer zone · See more »


Cherepovets (p) is a city in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located in the west of the oblast on the banks of the Sheksna River (a tributary of the Volga River) and on the shores of the Rybinsk Reservoir.

New!!: Ingria and Cherepovets · See more »

Collectivization in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.

New!!: Ingria and Collectivization in the Soviet Union · See more »

Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.

New!!: Ingria and Cultural heritage · See more »


Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

New!!: Ingria and Denmark · See more »

Deportations of the Ingrian Finns

Deportations of the Ingrian Finns were a series of mass deportations of the Ingrian Finnish population by Soviet authorities.

New!!: Ingria and Deportations of the Ingrian Finns · See more »

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

New!!: Ingria and Dissolution of the Soviet Union · See more »

Dominions of Sweden

The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar ("Swedish possessions") were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden.

New!!: Ingria and Dominions of Sweden · See more »


An earl is a member of the nobility.

New!!: Ingria and Earl · See more »

East Karelia

East Karelia (Itä-Karjala, Karelian: Idä-Karjala), also rendered as Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty of Stolbova in 1617 has remained Eastern Orthodox under Russian supremacy.

New!!: Ingria and East Karelia · See more »

East–West Schism

The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.

New!!: Ingria and East–West Schism · See more »

Enemy of the people

The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.

New!!: Ingria and Enemy of the people · See more »


Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Estonia · See more »

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.

New!!: Ingria and Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic · See more »


Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.

New!!: Ingria and Estonians · See more »

Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

New!!: Ingria and Ethnic group · See more »


Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

New!!: Ingria and Finland · See more »

Finnic peoples

The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.

New!!: Ingria and Finnic peoples · See more »


Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

New!!: Ingria and Finns · See more »

First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union

The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in December 1926.

New!!: Ingria and First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union · See more »

Folk etymology

Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.

New!!: Ingria and Folk etymology · See more »

Gatchinsky District

Gatchinsky District (Га́тчинский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #113-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Gatchinsky District · See more »

Genrikh Yagoda

Genrikh Grigoryevich Yagoda (7 November 1891 – 15 March 1938), born Yenokh Gershevich Iyeguda was a secret police official who served as director of the NKVD, the Soviet Union's security and intelligence agency, from 1934 to 1936.

New!!: Ingria and Genrikh Yagoda · See more »

Geographical distribution of Russian speakers

This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.

New!!: Ingria and Geographical distribution of Russian speakers · See more »


GeoJournal is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1977.

New!!: Ingria and GeoJournal · See more »

Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Great Northern War · See more »

Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

New!!: Ingria and Greek Orthodox Church · See more »

Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

New!!: Ingria and Gulf of Finland · See more »

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

New!!: Ingria and Indigenous peoples · See more »

Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden

Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden, also known as Irene, Anna and St.

New!!: Ingria and Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden · See more »

Ingrian Finns

The Ingrians (inkeriläiset, inkerinsuomalaiset; Ингерманландцы, Ingermanlandtsy), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire.

New!!: Ingria and Ingrian Finns · See more »

Ingrian language

Ingrian (also called Izhorian) is a nearly extinct Finnic language spoken by the (mainly Orthodox) Izhorians of Ingria.

New!!: Ingria and Ingrian language · See more »

Ingrian War

The Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia, which lasted between 1610 and 1617 and can be seen as part of Russia's Time of Troubles, is mainly remembered for the attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne.

New!!: Ingria and Ingrian War · See more »

Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

New!!: Ingria and Iron Age · See more »


Ivangorod (p; Jaanilinn; Jaanilidna) is a town in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Narva River by the Estonia–Russia border, west of St. Petersburg.

New!!: Ingria and Ivangorod · See more »


The Izhorians (Ижо́ра; ижо́рцы; sg. inkerikot, isurit, ižoralaine, inkeroine, ižora, ingermans, ingers, ingrian, pl. ižoralaizet), along with the Votes, are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous people native to Ingria.

New!!: Ingria and Izhorians · See more »

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

New!!: Ingria and Joseph Stalin · See more »


JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

New!!: Ingria and JSTOR · See more »


Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

New!!: Ingria and Karelia · See more »

Karelia (historical province of Finland)

Karelia (Finnish: Karjala, Swedish: Karelen) is a historical province of Finland which Finland partly ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40.

New!!: Ingria and Karelia (historical province of Finland) · See more »

Karelian Isthmus

The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas; Karelska näset) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).

New!!: Ingria and Karelian Isthmus · See more »


Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

New!!: Ingria and Kazakhstan · See more »

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

New!!: Ingria and Kievan Rus' · See more »


Kingisepp (Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Jaamahttp://www.hs.fi/english/article/Last+of+the+Ingrian+grannies+hold+on/1329104265831), formerly Yamburg (Я́мбург), Yam (Ям), and Yama (Я́ма), is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River southwest of St. Petersburg, east of Narva, and south of the Gulf of Finland.

New!!: Ingria and Kingisepp · See more »

Kingiseppsky District

Kingiseppsky District (Кингисе́ппский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #81-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Kingiseppsky District · See more »

Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Kirovsky District (Ки́ровский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #100-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast · See more »

Kola Peninsula

The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Kola Peninsula · See more »


Koporye (Копорье; Finnish: Kaprio; Koporje) is a historic village (selo) in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located about to the west of St. Petersburg and south of the Koporye Bay of the Baltic Sea.

New!!: Ingria and Koporye · See more »


The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.

New!!: Ingria and Kulak · See more »

Lake Ladoga

Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.

New!!: Ingria and Lake Ladoga · See more »


Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.

New!!: Ingria and Latvians · See more »


Län (Swedish) and lääni (Finnish) refer to the administrative divisions used in Sweden and previously in Finland.

New!!: Ingria and Län · See more »


Lempäälä (Lembois) is a municipality in the Pirkanmaa region of Finland with inhabitants.

New!!: Ingria and Lempäälä · See more »

Leningrad Oblast

Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

New!!: Ingria and Leningrad Oblast · See more »


A lishenets (p), лишение deprivation + -ец -ee; "disenfranchised"; plural lishentsy, лишенцы) was a person stripped of the right of voting in the Soviet Union of 1918–1936. Disfranchisement was a means of repression of the categories of population that were classified as "enemies of the working people". The 1918 Soviet Constitution enumerated the categories of disenfranchised people.

New!!: Ingria and Lishenets · See more »

Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast

Lomonosovsky District (Ломоно́совский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #117-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast · See more »

Luga River

The Luga River is a river in Novgorodsky and Batetsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Luzhsky, Volosovsky, Slantsevsky, and Kingiseppsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast of Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Luga River · See more »


Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

New!!: Ingria and Lutheranism · See more »


Narva (Нарва) is the third largest city in Estonia.

New!!: Ingria and Narva · See more »

Narva River

The Narva (Narva jõgi, Нарва) (or Narova) is a river flowing into the Baltic Sea, the largest river in Estonia by discharge.

New!!: Ingria and Narva River · See more »

Neva River

The Neva (Нева́) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland.

New!!: Ingria and Neva River · See more »


The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.

New!!: Ingria and NKVD · See more »

North Ingria

The Republic of North Ingria (Pohjois-Inkerin tasavalta) or Republic of Kirjasalo (Kirjasalon tasavalta) was a short-lived state of Ingrian Finns in the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus, which seceded from Bolshevist Russia after the October Revolution.

New!!: Ingria and North Ingria · See more »

Novgorod Republic

The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Novgorod Republic · See more »


Nyenschantz (Ниенша́нц, Nienshants; Nyenskans; Nevanlinna) was a Swedish fortress at the confluence of the Neva River and Okhta River, the site of present-day Saint Petersburg, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Nyenschantz · See more »

October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

New!!: Ingria and October Revolution · See more »

Okhta River (Neva basin)

Okhta River is a river in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast and the eastern part of the city of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Okhta River (Neva basin) · See more »

Olof Skötkonung

Olof Skötkonung (c. 980–1022) was King of Sweden, son of Eric the Victorious and, according to Icelandic sources, Sigrid the Haughty.

New!!: Ingria and Olof Skötkonung · See more »

Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

New!!: Ingria and Peter the Great · See more »

Population transfer in the Soviet Union

Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.

New!!: Ingria and Population transfer in the Soviet Union · See more »

Ragnvald Ulfsson

Ragnvald Ulfsson the Old (beginning 11th century) was a jarl of Västergötland or Östergötland and was married to a sister of King Olav Tryggvason.

New!!: Ingria and Ragnvald Ulfsson · See more »


Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.

New!!: Ingria and Rurik · See more »


Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

New!!: Ingria and Russia · See more »

Russian Empire Census

The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).

New!!: Ingria and Russian Empire Census · See more »

Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

New!!: Ingria and Russian Orthodox Church · See more »

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

New!!: Ingria and Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic · See more »


Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

New!!: Ingria and Russians · See more »


Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.

New!!: Ingria and Russification · See more »

Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

New!!: Ingria and Saint Petersburg · See more »

Saint Petersburg Governorate

Saint Petersburg Governorate (Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1927.

New!!: Ingria and Saint Petersburg Governorate · See more »

Savonia (historical province)

Savonia (Savo, Savolax) is a historical province in the east of Finland.

New!!: Ingria and Savonia (historical province) · See more »


Shlisselburg (p; Schlüsselburg; Nöteborg) is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg.

New!!: Ingria and Shlisselburg · See more »

Slavic Review

The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Slavic Review · See more »


Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

New!!: Ingria and Slavs · See more »

Soikinsky Peninsula

The Soikinsky Peninsula in Kingiseppsky District, Leningrad Oblast, Russia projects out into the Gulf of Finland, separating the Luga Bay from the Koporye Bay.

New!!: Ingria and Soikinsky Peninsula · See more »

Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

New!!: Ingria and Sovereign state · See more »

Soviet Census (1989)

The 1989 Soviet census (Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989, "1989 All-Union Census"), conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR.

New!!: Ingria and Soviet Census (1989) · See more »

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

New!!: Ingria and Soviet Union · See more »

Staraya Ladoga

Staraya Ladoga (p); Vanha Laatokka; Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality (a selo) in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Staraya Ladoga · See more »


Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Sweden · See more »

Swedish nobility

The Swedish nobility (Adeln) has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse (a derivation from Old Swedish meaning free neck).

New!!: Ingria and Swedish nobility · See more »

Swedish–Novgorodian Wars

Swedish–Novgorodian Wars were a series of conflicts in the 12th and 13th centuries between the Republic of Novgorod and medieval Sweden over control of the Gulf of Finland, an area vital to the Hanseatic League and part of the Varangian-Byzantine trade route.

New!!: Ingria and Swedish–Novgorodian Wars · See more »


The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.

New!!: Ingria and Tatars · See more »

Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

New!!: Ingria and Teutonic Order · See more »

The Journal of Modern History

The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.

New!!: Ingria and The Journal of Modern History · See more »

Tosnensky District

Tosnensky District (То́сненский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #116-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Tosnensky District · See more »

Treaty of Nystad

The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.

New!!: Ingria and Treaty of Nystad · See more »

Treaty of Stolbovo

The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War, fought between Sweden and Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Treaty of Stolbovo · See more »

Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)

Tartu Peace Treaty (Tartu rahu, literally "Tartu peace") or Treaty of Tartu is a peace treaty between Estonia and Soviet Russia signed on February 2, 1920 ending the Estonian War of Independence.

New!!: Ingria and Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian) · See more »

Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish)

The Treaty of Tartu (italic, Tarton rauha) between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed on 14 October 1920 after negotiations that lasted four months.

New!!: Ingria and Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish) · See more »

Treaty of Teusina

The Treaty of Teusina, Tyavzin or Tyavzino (Täyssinän rauha), also known as the Eternal Peace with Sweden in Russia, was concluded by Russian diplomats under boyar Afanasiy Pushkin (the poet's ancestor) and ambassadors of the Swedish king at the village of Tyavzino (Täyssinä, Teusina) in Ingria on May 18, 1595 to end the Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) between the powers.

New!!: Ingria and Treaty of Teusina · See more »

Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

New!!: Ingria and Tsardom of Russia · See more »


Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

New!!: Ingria and Ukrainians · See more »

University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

New!!: Ingria and University of Chicago Press · See more »

Ural (region)

The Urals (Ура́л) are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains.

New!!: Ingria and Ural (region) · See more »

Vadim the Bold

Vadim the Bold was a legendary chieftain of the Ilmen Slavs who led their struggle against Rurik and the Varangians in the 9th century.

New!!: Ingria and Vadim the Bold · See more »


The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.

New!!: Ingria and Varangians · See more »

Veliky Novgorod

Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.

New!!: Ingria and Veliky Novgorod · See more »

Viking Age

The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.

New!!: Ingria and Viking Age · See more »

Volosovsky District

Volosovsky District (Во́лосовский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #64-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Volosovsky District · See more »


Votes, sometimes also Vods (vađđalaizõd) are a Finnic ethic group native to Votia in Ingria, the part of modern-day northwestern Russia that is roughly southwest of Saint Petersburg and east of the Estonian border-town of Narva.

New!!: Ingria and Votes · See more »

Vsevolozhsky District

Vsevolozhsky District (Все́воложский райо́н) is an administrativeOblast Law #32-oz and municipalLaw #17-oz district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Vsevolozhsky District · See more »


Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

New!!: Ingria and Vyborg · See more »

Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.

New!!: Ingria and Wayback Machine · See more »

World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

New!!: Ingria and World War II · See more »

Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.

New!!: Ingria and Yaroslav the Wise · See more »

Redirects here:

Duke of Ingria, Ingeri, Ingermanland, Ingern, Ingria in World War II, Ingriya, Inkeri, Inkerinmaa, Izhoria, Leander Reijo, Military history of Ingria during World War II, Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingria

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »