233 relations: Acid, Acid–base reaction, Actinide, Adenosine triphosphate, Agriculture, Alkoxide, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium sulfate, Ammonia, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium sulfate, Antoine Lavoisier, Beryllium, Bioinorganic chemistry, Biomolecule, Bohr model, Born–Haber cycle, Boron, Breast implant, Cadmium, Cadmium selenide, Caesium chloride, Carbocation, Carbon, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon nanotube, Carbonate, Carboxypeptidase, Carl Bosch, Catalysis, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical structure, Chemical synthesis, Chloride, Chlorine, Cisplatin, Cluster chemistry, Coating, Cobalt, Computational chemistry, Condensed matter physics, Conformational change, Conformational isomerism, Coordination complex, Copper(II) acetate, Critical point (thermodynamics), Cryogenics, ..., Crystal field theory, Crystal structure, Crystallization, Crystallography, Cyanide, Cyanocobalamin, Cyclic voltammetry, Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer, Decaborane, Degenerate energy levels, Density functional theory, Diamagnetism, Diatomic molecule, Diborane, DNA, Dual-polarization interferometry, Electric battery, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrochemistry, Electron, Electron affinity, Electron counting, Electron nuclear double resonance, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Electron transfer, Empirical evidence, Enantiomer, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Ferricyanide, Ferrocene, Fluorine, Fritz Haber, Fuel, Fullerene, Gadolinium, Gas, Glovebox, Group (periodic table), Group theory, Grubbs' catalyst, Gypsum, Haber process, Halide, Hemoglobin, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride, Hexol, Homogeneous catalysis, HSAB theory, Humic acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypervalent molecule, Infrared spectroscopy, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic compound, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Ionization energy, Iron pentacarbonyl, Iron–sulfur protein, Isotope, Joseph Priestley, Lanthanide, Lanthanum, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Ligand field theory, Lipophilicity, Liquid nitrogen, Lithium, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lone pair, Magnesium, Magnesium chloride, Magnetic resonance imaging, Materials science, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Medication, Medicine, Meissner effect, Melting point, Mercury (element), Mesoscopic physics, Metabolism, Metal carbonyl, Methane, Methyl group, Methylmercury, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Mineralogy, Molecular orbital theory, Molecular sieve, Molecular symmetry, Molecule, Molybdenum hexacarbonyl, Molybdenum(II) chloride, N-Butyllithium, Nanotechnology, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Octet rule, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Paramagnetism, Peptide, Permanganate, Phase (matter), Phosphate, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Pigment, Platinum, Point groups in three dimensions, Polydimethylsiloxane, Polyphosphate, Potassium manganate, Pyrite, Quantum mechanics, Reagent, Redox, Reduction potential, Robert H. Grubbs, Salt metathesis reaction, Scandium, Schlenk line, Semiconductor, Silicon dioxide, Silicone, Silly Putty, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chlorate, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium oxide, Sodium silicate, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Solution, Spectroscopy, Stoichiometry, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superconductivity, Surface science, Surfactant, Symmetry group, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), Tetrasulfur tetranitride, Theoretical chemistry, Three-center two-electron bond, Titanium dioxide, Titanium tetrachloride, Titanium(III) chloride, Transmetalation, Triiron dodecacarbonyl, Tungsten hexafluoride, Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Valence bond theory, Valence electron, Vanadium(V) oxide, VSEPR theory, Water, X-ray crystallography, Yttrium, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Zeolite, Zinc. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
The Born–Haber cycle is an approach to analyze reaction energies.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a woman’s breast.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdSe.
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide.
Carl Bosch (27 August 1874 – 26 April 1940) was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where AcO− is acetate.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of electron orbital states, usually d or f orbitals, due to a static electric field produced by a surrounding charge distribution (anion neighbors).
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a type of potentiodynamic electrochemical measurement.
Cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer is an organometallic compound with the formula (η5-C5H5)2Fe2(CO)4, also abbreviated Cp2Fe2(CO)4.
Decaborane, also called decaborane(14), is the borane with the chemical formula B10H14.
In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.
Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electron counting is a formalism used for classifying compounds and for explaining or predicting electronic structure and bonding.
Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) is a magnetic resonance technique for elucidating the molecular and electronic structure of paramagnetic species.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Ferricyanide is the anion 3−. It is also called hexacyanoferrate(III) and in rare, but systematic nomenclature, hexacyanidoferrate(III).
Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A glovebox (or glove box) is a sealed container that is designed to allow one to manipulate objects where a separate atmosphere is desired.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
Grubbs' catalysts are a series of transition metal carbene complexes used as catalysts for olefin metathesis.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis refers to the form of catalysis where the phase of the catalyst differs from that of the reactants.
Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Cl3.
Hexol is the name for various salts of a coordination complex that has historical significance.
In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hypervalent molecule (the phenomenon is sometimes colloquially known as expanded octet) is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements apparently bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula5.
Iron–sulfur proteins are proteins characterized by the presence of iron–sulfur clusters containing sulfide-linked di-, tri-, and tetrairon centers in variable oxidation states.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Ligand field theory (LFT) describes the bonding, orbital arrangement, and other characteristics of coordination complexes.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The Meissner effect (or Meissner–Ochsenfeld effect) is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Mesoscopic physics is a subdiscipline of condensed matter physics that deals with materials of an intermediate length.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
A molecular sieve is a material with pores (very small holes) of uniform size.
Molecular symmetry in chemistry describes the symmetry present in molecules and the classification of molecules according to their symmetry.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Molybdenum hexacarbonyl (also called molybdenum carbonyl) is the chemical compound with the formula Mo(CO)6.
Molybdenum dichloride describes chemical compounds with the empirical formula MoCl2.
n-Butyllithium (abbreviated n-BuLi) is an organolithium reagent.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
In geometry, a point group in three dimensions is an isometry group in three dimensions that leaves the origin fixed, or correspondingly, an isometry group of a sphere.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
Potassium manganate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2MnO4.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
Robert Howard Grubbs (born February 27, 1942) is an American chemist and the Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Southern California.
A salt metathesis reaction (from the Greek μετάθεσις, "transposition"), sometimes called a double replacement reaction or double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species, which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
The Schlenk line (also vacuum gas manifold) is a commonly used chemistry apparatus developed by Wilhelm Schlenk.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Silly Putty is a toy based on silicone polymers that have unusual physical properties.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (sometimes called quatrotriphenylphosphine) is the chemical compound Pd4, often abbreviated Pd(PPh3)4, or rarely PdP4.
Tetrasulfur tetranitride is an inorganic compound with the formula S4N4.
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.
A three-center two-electron bond is an electron-deficient chemical bond where three atoms share two electrons.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4.
Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3.
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.
Triiron dodecarbonyl is the organoiron compound with the formula Fe3(CO)12.
Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6.
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) refers to the measurement of kinetic energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted by molecules which have absorbed ultraviolet photons, in order to determine molecular orbital energies in the valence region.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.