83 relations: Acetylcholine, Adenophostin, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Amyloid precursor protein, Arginine, Calcium, Calcium channel blocker, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cerebellum, Cytoplasm, Dehydration reaction, Diglyceride, Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, Empirical formula, Endoplasmic reticulum, G protein–coupled receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Glutamine, Growth factor, Heterotrimeric G protein, Hormone, Huntingtin, Huntington's disease, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, In vivo, Inositol, Inositol pentakisphosphate, Inositol phosphate, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Insulin, Intracellular, Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, Isozyme, ITPKC, ITPR1, Ligand, Lipid signaling, Lithium (medication), Lysine, Mabel Hokin, Metabolism, Mitochondrion, Molecular diffusion, ..., Molecular mass, Muscle, Mutagenesis, Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate, N-terminus, Nature (journal), Organelle, Pancreas, PH, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Phosphate, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, Phosphodiesterase, Phospholipase C, Phospholipid, Phosphoric acids and phosphates, Phytic acid, Protein kinase C, PSEN1, PSEN2, Purkinje cell, Radioactive decay, Receptor tyrosine kinase, Ryanodine receptor, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Sea urchin, Second messenger system, Signal transduction, Smooth muscle tissue, Solubility, The Journal of Neuroscience, Tyrosine. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Adenophostin A is a potent inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor agonist, but is much more potent than IP3.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is an integral membrane protein expressed in many tissues and concentrated in the synapses of neurons.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, also called early-onset Alzheimer's, or early-onset AD, is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed before the age of 65.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The huntingtin gene, also called the HTT or HD (Huntington disease) gene, is the IT15 ("interesting transcript 15") gene, which codes for a protein called the huntingtin protein.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Inositol pentakisphosphate (abbreviated IP5) is a molecule derived from inositol tetrakisphosphate by adding a phosphate group with the help of Inositol-polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK).
Inositol phosphates are a group of mono- to polyphosphorylated inositols.
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within.
Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.
ITPKC is a gene that has been associated with Kawasaki disease.
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITPR1 gene.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Mabel Ruth Hokin was a biochemist who spent most of her professional career conducting fundamental research in the University of Wisconsin Medical School.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molecular diffusion, often simply called diffusion, is the thermal motion of all (liquid or gas) particles at temperatures above absolute zero.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Mutagenesis is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in a mutation.
Myo-inositol trispyrophosphate (ITPP) is an inositol phosphate, a pyrophosphate, a drug candidate, and a putative performance-enhancing substance, which exerts its biological effects by increasing tissue oxygenation.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)P2, also known simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2, is a minor phospholipid component of cell membranes.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates.
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 22.214.171.124), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Presenilin-1 (PS-1) is a presenilin protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN1 gene.
Presenilin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSEN2 gene.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of intracellular calcium channels in various forms of excitable animal tissue like muscles and neurons.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
1,4,5-triphosphate, Inosite triphosphate, Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, Inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate, Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, Inositol triphosphate, Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, Ins(1,4,5)P3.