494 relations: Abdomen, Adult, Aerodynamics, Agriculture, Alexandr Rasnitsyn, Allomone, Amber, Amblycorypha oblongifolia, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Amino acid, Amnion, Amylase, Ancient Greek, Animal echolocation, Ant, Antenna (biology), Anthecology, Anus, Aphid, Aposematism, Apterygota, Arachnid, Arachnocampa, Archaeognatha, Aristotle, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropod cuticle, Arthropod leg, Attacus atlas, Australia, Australian Biological Resources Study, Bat, Batesian mimicry, Bed bug, Bee, Bee learning and communication, Beekeeper, Beetle, Biological pest control, Biological specificity, Bioluminescence, Biomineralization, Bipedalism, Bird, Blaptica dubia, Blattodea, Blood, Blood cell, Bombus terrestris, ..., Bombyx mori, Brevisana brevis, Buccal space, Bumblebee, Butterfly, Caddisfly, Calcium carbonate, Calliphoridae, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carl Linnaeus, Carrion, Catabolism, Catalepsy, Caterpillar, Cenozoic, Centipede, Cephalocarida, Chelicerata, Chemical ecology, Chewing, China, Chitin, Chorion, Chromosome, Cicada, Circulatory system, Circumscription (taxonomy), Clade, Cladogram, Class (biology), Click beetle, Coccinellidae, Cockroach, Coevolution, Common descent, Compound eye, Corixidae, Crab, Cretaceous, Cricket (insect), Crop (anatomy), Crustacean, Crypsis, Cultural materialism (anthropology), Cuticle, David Grimaldi (entomologist), DDT, Death's-head hawkmoth, Decibel, Deep frying, Defense in insects, Delicacy, Devonian, Diapause, Dicondylia, Dictyoptera, Diffusion, Digestion, Diploptera, Diplura, Discontinuous gas exchange, Diverticulum, DNA replication, Dotdash, Drosophila, Drosophila melanogaster, Earwig, Ecdysis, Ecosystem, Egg, Embioptera, Embryo, Empis livida, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endopterygota, Entognatha, Entomology, Entomophagy, Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Epicranium, Epidermis, Epistasis, Esophagus, Eukaryote, Eumenes (wasp), European hornet, Eurypterid, Eusociality, Evolution, Evolutionary developmental biology, Excretion, Exopterygota, Exoskeleton, Fat, Fecundity, Fertilisation, Firefly, Fitness (biology), Flea, Flowering plant, Fly, Flying and gliding animals, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food safety, Foregut, Gait, Ganglion, Gangrene, Gas exchange, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic linkage, Genetics, Genome, Genome project, Genus, Geological history of oxygen, German language, Gerridae, Gestation, Gilgamesh, Gill, Glossary of entomology terms, Grasshopper, Greece, Greek language, Greenhouse, Ground beetle, Gryllotalpa brachyptera, Halobates, Haplodiploidy, Harpactorinae, Head, Hearing range, Hedylidae, Heliconius, Helicoverpa zea, Hemimetabolism, Hemiptera, Hemolymph, Herbivore, Hermaphrodite, Heterochrony, Hexapoda, Hibernation, Hindgut, Holocene, Holometabolism, Honey, Honey bee, Housefly, Human, Hydraulics, Hymenoptera, Hypermetamorphosis, Imago, Indigenous Australians, Infrared, Insect biodiversity, Insect ecology, Insect flight, Insect migration, Insect mouthparts, Insect wing, Insecticide, Insectivore, Insects in culture, Integrated pest management, Invertebrate, Isopoda, Jet stream, Kairomone, Kalahari Desert, Lacquer, Large blue, Larva, Lasioglossum vierecki, Latin, Leaf, Leaf beetle, Lepidoptera, Lepidotrichidae, Lichen, Light, Limenitidinae, List of diseases caused by insects, List of prehistoric insects, Locust, Longhorn beetle, Louse, Lung, Lycaenidae, Macromolecule, Madagascar hissing cockroach, Maggot, Maggot therapy, Malaria, Male, Mallophaga, Malpighian tubule system, Mandible (insect mouthpart), Mantis, Marangoni effect, Marvin Harris, Mayfly, Müllerian mimicry, Mecoptera, Megaloptera, Meganeura, Meganisoptera, Mesopotamia, Mesothorax, Metamorphosis, Metathorax, Michael S. 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn (Russian: Александр Павлович Расницын) is a Russian entomologist, expert in palaeoentomology, and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (2001).
An allomone is any chemical substance produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator but not the receiver.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The Oblong-Winged katydid (Amblycorypha oblongifolia) is a species of katydid, or bush-cricket, of the family Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers).
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The amnion is a membrane that closely covers the embryo when first formed.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
Anthecology, or pollination biology, is the study of pollination as well as the relationships between flowers and their pollinators.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.
The name Apterygota is sometimes applied to a subclass of small, agile insects, distinguished from other insects by their lack of wings in the present and in their evolutionary history; notable examples are the silverfish, the firebrat, and the jumping bristletails.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Arachnocampa is a genus of five fungus gnat species which have a luminescent larval stage, akin to the larval stage of glowworm beetles.
The Archaeognatha are an order of apterygotes, known by various common names such as jumping bristletails.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The cuticle forms the major part of the integument of the Arthropoda.
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.
Attacus atlas (Atlas moth) is a large saturniid moth endemic to the forests of Asia.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) is a project undertaken by Parks Australia Division of Australia's Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA).
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.
Bed bugs are parasitic insects in the genus Cimex that feed exclusively on blood.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Honey bees are sensitive to odors (including pheromones), tastes, and colors, including ultraviolet.
A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Blaptica dubia, the Dubia roach, also known as the orange-spotted roach, Guyana spotted roach, or Argentinian wood roach, is a medium-sized species of cockroach which grows to around.
Blattodea is an order of insects that contains cockroaches and termites.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
Bombus terrestris, the buff-tailed bumblebee or large earth bumblebee, is one of the most numerous bumblebee species in Europe.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Brevisana brevis is a cicada found in Africa and is the loudest insect on record.
The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial tissue spaces or tissue spaces).
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
The Calliphoridae (commonly known as blow flies, blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies) are a family of insects in the order Diptera, with 1,100 known species.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalepsy (from Greek κατάληψις "seizing, grasping") is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.
The Cephalocarida are a class in the subphylum Crustacea comprising only 12 benthic species.
The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.
Chemical ecology examines the role of chemical interactions between living organisms and their environment, as the consequences of those interactions on the ethology and evolution of the organisms involved.
Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of a taxon, that is, a group of organisms.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Insects in the family Elateridae are commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related families Cerophytidae, Eucnemidae, and Plastoceridae).
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Crickets (also known as "true crickets"), of the family Gryllidae, are insects related to bush crickets, and, more distantly, to grasshoppers.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, Paperback as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
David A. Grimaldi (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
The name death's-head hawkmoth refers to any one of the three moth species of the genus Acherontia (Acherontia atropos, Acherontia styx and Acherontia lachesis).
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
Insects have a wide variety of predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, carnivorous plants, and other arthropods.
A delicacy is usually a rare or expensive food item that is considered highly desirable, sophisticated or peculiarly distinctive, within a given culture.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
The Dicondylia are a taxonomic group (taxon) that includes all insects except the jumping bristletails (Archaeognatha).
Dictyoptera (from Greek δίκτυον diktyon "net" and πτερόν pteron "wing") is an insect superorder that includes two extant orders of polyneopterous insects: the order Blattodea (termites and cockroaches together)) and the order Mantodea (mantises), along with one extinct order, the Alienoptera. While all modern Dictyoptera have short ovipositors, the oldest fossils of Dictyoptera have long ovipositors, much like members of the Orthoptera.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Diploptera, also known as the beetle cockroach, is a genus of blaberid cockroaches.
The order Diplura is one of the four groups of hexapods, alongside insects, Collembola (springtails) and Protura.
Discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC), also called discontinuous ventilation or discontinuous ventilatory cycles, follow one of several patterns of arthropod gas exchange that have been documented primarily in insects; they occur when the insect is at rest.
A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The order Embioptera, commonly known as webspinners, are a small group of mostly tropical and subtropical insects, classified under the subclass Pterygota.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Empis livida is a species of dance fly, in the fly family Empididae.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, is a superorder of insects within the infraclass Neoptera that go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages.
The Entognatha are a class of wingless (ametabolous) arthropods, which, together with the insects, makes up the subphylum Hexapoda.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The Epicranium is the medical term for the collection of structures covering the cranium.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eumenes is the type genus of the subfamily Eumeninae ("potter wasps") of Vespidae.
The European hornet (Vespa crabro) is the largest eusocial wasp native to Europe.
Eurypterids, often informally called sea scorpions, are an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids that include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
The Exopterygota, also known as Hemipterodea, are a superorder of insects of the subclass Pterygota in the infraclass Neoptera, in which the young resemble adults but have externally developing wings.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth's atmosphere had no free oxygen (O2).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Gerridae are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, pond skaters, water skippers, or jesus bugs.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
This glossary of entomology describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.
Gryllotalpa brachyptera is a mole cricket, native to Australia (New South Wales and Sydney).
Halobates or sea skaters are a genus with over 40 species of water striders.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
The Harpactorinae are a large subfamily of the Reduviidae (assassin bugs).
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the range of levels.
Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the order Lepidoptera, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea.
Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterflies commonly known as the longwings or heliconians.
Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.
Hemimetabolism or hemimetaboly, also called incomplete metamorphosis and paurometabolism,McGavin, George C. Essential Entomology: An Order-by-Order Introduction.
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, and shield bugs.
Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
In evolutionary developmental biology, heterochrony is a developmental change in the timing or rate of events, leading to changes in size and shape.
The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphosis, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago or adult.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
Hypermetamorphosis is a term used in entomology that refers to a class of variants of holometabolism, that is to say, complete insect metamorphosis, but where some larval instars are distinct from each other.
In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Insect biodiversity accounts for a large proportion of all biodiversity on the planet—over half of the estimated 1.5 million organism species described are classified as insects.
Insect ecology is the scientific study of how insects, individually or as a community, interact with the surrounding environment or ecosystem.
Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.
Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.
Insects have a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.
Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.
The roles of insects in culture span different aspects of human life, whether analysed academically or more generally.
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.
A kairomone (a coinage using the Greek καιρός opportune moment, paralleling pheromone "kairomone, n.". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/241005?redirectedFrom.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
The large blue (Phengaris arion) is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Lasioglossum vierecki, also known as Dialictus vierecki and Halictus vierecki,various contributors.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Lepidotrichidae is a family of basal insects belonging to the order Zygentoma.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Limenitidinae are a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives.
Invertebrates are very common vectors of disease.
Prehistoric insects are various groups of insects that lived before recorded history.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 6,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa), also known as the hissing cockroach or simply hisser, is one of the largest species of cockroach, reaching at maturity.
A maggot is the larva of a fly (order Diptera); it is applied in particular to the larvae of Brachycera flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies, rather than larvae of the Nematocera, such as mosquitoes and Crane flies.
Maggot therapy is a type of biotherapy involving the introduction of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or animal for the purpose of cleaning out the necrotic (dead) tissue within a wound (debridement) and disinfection.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
The Mallophaga are a suborder of lice, known as chewing lice, biting lice or bird lice, containing more than 3000 species.
The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.
Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).
Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families.
The Marangoni effect (also called the Gibbs–Marangoni effect) is the mass transfer along an interface between two fluids due to a gradient of the surface tension.
Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist.
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more unprofitable (often, distasteful) species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's honest warning signals, to their mutual benefit, since predators can learn to avoid all of them with fewer experiences.
Mecoptera (from the Greek: mecos.
Megaloptera is an order of insects.
Meganeura is a genus of extinct insects from the Carboniferous period (approximately 300 million years ago), which resembled and are related to the present-day dragonflies.
Meganisoptera is an extinct order of very large to gigantic insects, occasionally called griffinflies.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs.
Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Monura is an extinct order of wingless insects in the subclass Apterygota.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
The Mycetophilidae are a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats.
Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.
Myrmecophily (literally "ant-love") is the term applied to positive interspecies associations between ants and a variety of other organisms such as plants, other arthropods, and fungi.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Neoptera is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens.
Neoteny, (also called juvenilization)Montagu, A. (1989).
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.
NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 159 high-resolution S-band Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the United States Department of Commerce, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within the Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Air Force within the Department of Defense.
Nezara viridula, commonly known as the southern green stink bug (USA), Southern green shield bug (UK) or green vegetable bug (Australia and New Zealand), is a plant-feeding stink bug.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
The insect order Notoptera, a group first proposed in 1915, has been largely unused since its original conception, but in the most recent classification of the lineage of insects that includes the Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea, the name was resurrected and redefined so as to give a single order that includes both the living and fossil representatives of the lineage.
The notum (plural nota) is the dorsal portion of an insect's thoracic segment, or the dorsal surface of the body of nudibranch gastropods.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Numeracy is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis (hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage.
Odonata is an order of carnivorous insects, encompassing the dragonflies (Anisoptera) and the damselflies (Zygoptera).
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: مصر القديمه, Masr el-Qadīma), also known as "Historic Cairo," or "Islamic Cairo," is a part of Cairo, Egypt which pre-dates the Fatimid city of Cairo, founded in 969 CE.
An ootheca (pl. oothecae) is a type of egg mass made by any member of a variety of species including mollusks (such as Turbinella laevigata), mantises, and cockroaches.
Opodiphthera eucalypti, the emperor gum moth, is a species of moth in the family Saturniidae native to Australia.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The scarce vapourer (Orgyia recens) is a species of moth of the Lymantriidae family found in Europe.
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, including closely related insects such as the katydids and wetas.
An ovariole is one of the tubes of which the ovaries of most insects are composed.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Pacific Community (SPC) is the principal scientific and technical organisation in the Pacific region.
In humans, pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue.
The name Palaeoptera has been traditionally applied to those ancestral groups of winged insects (most of them extinct) that lacked the ability to fold the wings back over the abdomen as characterizes the Neoptera.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Pancrustacea is a clade, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods.
Paraneoptera is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host and at the host's expense, and which sooner or later kills it.
Parental care is a behavioural and evolutionary strategy adopted by some animals, making a parental investment into the evolutionary fitness of their offspring.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Pauropods are small, pale, millipede-like arthropods.
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
The Pentatomoidea are a superfamily of insects in the Heteroptera suborder of the Hemiptera order.
Magicicada is the genus of the 13-year and 17-year periodical cicadas of eastern North America.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
The Phasmatodea (also known as Phasmida or Phasmatoptera) are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects in Europe and Australasia; stick-bugs, walking sticks or bug sticks in the United States and Canada; or as phasmids, ghost insects or leaf insects (generally the family Phylliidae).
The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Philemon Holland (1552 – 9 February 1637) was an English schoolmaster, physician and translator.
Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.
The rover fireflies (Photinus) are a genus of fireflies (family Lampyridae).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
A piscivore is a carnivorous animal that eats primarily fish.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies.
The pleuron (pl. pleura, from Greek side, rib) is a lateral sclerite of thoracic segment of an insect between the tergum and the sternum.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
Polistes versicolor is a subtropical social wasp within Polistes, the most common genus of paper wasp.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.
The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the 20th century, and continuing into the present.
Polyembryony is the phenomenon of two or more embryos developing from a single fertilized egg.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs.
The Protura, or proturans, and sometimes nicknamed coneheads, are very small (Some evidence indicates the Protura are basal to all other hexapods, although not all researchers consider them Hexapoda, rendering the monophyly of Hexapoda unsettled. Uniquely among hexapods, proturans show anamorphic development, whereby body segments are added during moults. There are close to 800 species, described in seven families. Nearly 300 species are contained in a single genus, Eosentomon.
The proventriculus is part of the digestive system of birds.
Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice.
Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice, barklice or barkflies.
The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects.
A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in coastal aquifers which contain saline groundwater, with populations identified in almost every ocean basin so far explored, including in Australia, the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
An insect's respiratory system is the biological system with which it introduces respiratory gases to its interior and performs gas exchange.
The orthopteran family Rhaphidophoridae includes the cave weta, cave crickets, camelback crickets, camel crickets, spider crickets (sometimes shortened to "criders", or "land shrimp" or "sprickets") and sand treaders, of the suborder Ensifera.
Rhinotia hemistictus is a species of beetle in the genus Rhinotia of the family Belidae, commonly referred to as the long-nosed weevil, or long nosed weevil.
The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).
Rhyniognatha hirsti is often considered the world’s oldest known insect.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
The rove beetles are a family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra (wing covers) that typically leave more than half of their abdomens exposed.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
The Schizophora are a section of true flies containing 78 families, which are collectively referred to as muscoids, although technically the term "muscoid" should be limited to flies in the superfamily Muscoidea; this is an example of informal, historical usage persisting in the vernacular.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.
Segmentation in biology is the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.
A semiochemical, from the Greek σημεῖον (semeion) meaning "signal", is a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message for purpose of communication.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
A silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is a small, wingless insect in the order Zygentoma (formerly Thysanura).
Simosyrphus grandicornis is an Australasian species of hoverfly, and is one of the two most common hoverflies in Australia, alongside Melangyna viridiceps.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Snakeflies are a group of insects comprising the order Raphidioptera, which is divided into two families: Raphidiidae and Inocelliidae consisting of roughly 260 species.
The southern hawker or blue hawker (Aeshna cyanea) is a species of hawker dragonfly.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, e.g. bees, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.
A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell.
The Sphingidae are a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths, and hornworms; it includes about 1,450 species.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Stenus is a genus of semiaquatic rove beetles in the subfamily Steninae.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The Strepsiptera (translation: "twisted wing"', giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.
Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts.
The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of arthropods and in particular insects is part of the arthropod central nervous system (CNS).
Sucking lice (Anoplura, formerly known as Siphunculata) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice.
A superorganism or supraorganism (the latter is less frequently used but more etymologically correct) is a group of synergetically interacting organisms of the same species.
The supraesophageal ganglion ("arthropod brain" or "a. microbrain") is the first part of the arthropod and especially insect central nervous system.
In anatomy, a suture is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism, with or without significant overlap of the elements.
Symphylans, also known as garden centipedes or pseudocentipedes, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the class Symphyla in the subphylum Myriapoda.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
In biology a tagma (Greek: τάγμα, plural tagmata – τάγματα) is a specialized grouping of multiple segments or metameres into a coherently functional morphological unit.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
Thysania agrippina is a species of moth in the Erebidae family.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.
Tripedalism (from the Latin tri.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
The tymbal (or timbal) is the corrugated exoskeletal structure used to produce sounds in insects.
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.
Arrernte or Aranda or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.
In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) is the upper surface of the head.
Vespula germanica (European wasp, German wasp, or German yellowjacket) is a species of wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, native to Europe, Northern Africa, and temperate Asia.
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico.
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
A water beetle is a generalized name for any beetle that is adapted to living in water at any point in its life cycle.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.
A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
Xiphosurans, sometimes called horseshoe crabs, are arthropods related to arachnids that first appeared in the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) until today.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
The insect order Zoraptera, commonly known as angel insects, contains a single family, the Zorotypidae, which in turn contains one extant genus Zorotypus with 44 species and 11 species known from fossils.
Zygentoma are an order in the class insecta.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
Bug (insect), Ectognatha, Entomofauna, Insect Song, Insect hormones, Insect kingdom, Insect life cycle, Insect orders, Insect reproduction, Insect viruses, Insecta, Insecto, Insects, Kunchong, Orders of Insects, Orders of insects, Respiratory systems of insects.