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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. [1]

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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

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About.com, also known as The About Group (formerly About Inc.), is an Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites," of which there are nearly 1,000.

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Biologically, an adult is a human being or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is a branch of Fluid dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Alexandr Pavlovich Rasnitsyn (Russian: Александр Павлович Расницын) is a Russian entomologist, expert in palaeoentomology, and Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation (2001).

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An allomone is any chemical substance produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator but not the receiver.

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Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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The Oblong-Winged katydid (Amblycorypha oblongifolia) is a species of katydid, or bush-cricket, of the family Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers).

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The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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The amnion is a membrane that when first formed, closely covers the embryo.

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An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.

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Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.

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Antennae (singular: antenna) in biology have historically been paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Anthecology, or pollination biology, is the study of pollination as well as the relationships between flowers and their pollinators.

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The anus (which is from the Proto-Indo-European ano–, meaning "ring") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σ̑ημα sema sign, coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890. Foldout "The Colours of Animals Classified According to Their Uses", after page 339.), perhaps most commonly known in the context of warning coloration, describes a family of antipredator adaptations where a warning signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators.

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The name Apterygota is sometimes applied to a subclass of small, agile insects, distinguished from other insects by their lack of wings in the present and in their evolutionary history.

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Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Arachnocampa is a genus of five fungus gnat species which have a luminescent larval stage, akin to the larval stage of glowworm beetles.

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The Archaeognatha are an order of wingless insects, also known as jumping bristletails.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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The cuticle forms the major part of the integument of the Arthropoda.

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The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.

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The Atlas moth (Attacus atlas) is a large saturniid moth found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, and is common across the Malay archipelago.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS) is a project undertaken by Parks Australia Division of Australia's Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA).

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry typified by a situation where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator.

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Bed bugs, bed-bugs, or bedbugs are parasitic insects of the cimicid family that feed exclusively on blood.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Honey bees are sensitive to odors (including pheromones), tastes, and colors, including ultraviolet.

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A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees (i.e. practices beekeeping).

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Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera.

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Biological control is a bioeffector-method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms.

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In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.

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Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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The Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia), also known as the orange-spotted cockroach, Guyana spotted cockroach, or Argentinian wood cockroach, is a medium-sized species of cockroach which grows to around.

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Blattodea is an order of insects that currently combines the cockroaches and the termites.

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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Brevisana brevis is a cicada found in Africa and is the loudest insect on record.

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The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces).

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Butterflies are part of the class of insects in the order Lepidoptera, along with the moths.

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The caddisflies are an order, Trichoptera, of insects with approximately 12,000 described species.

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Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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The Calliphoridae (commonly known as blow flies, blow-flies, carrion flies, bluebottles, greenbottles, or cluster flies) are a family of insects in the order Diptera, with 1,100 known species.

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In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, at 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, at 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma.

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Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carrion (from the Latin "caro", meaning "meat") refers to the dead and decaying flesh of an animal.

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Catalepsy (from Greek κατάληψις "catch") is a nervous condition characterized by muscular rigidity and fixity of posture regardless of external stimuli, as well as decreased sensitivity to pain.

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Caterpillar is the common name for the larvae of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

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The Cenozoic Era (or; also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic or; meaning "new life", from Greek καινός kainos "new", and ζωή zoe "life") is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and covering the period from 65 million years ago to present day.

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Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda.

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The subphylum Chelicerata (or; New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.

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Chemical ecology is the study of chemicals involved in the interactions of living organisms.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n is a long-chain polymer of a ''N''-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.

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In humans and most mammals, the chorion is one of the membranes that exist during pregnancy between the developing fetus and mother.

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A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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The Cicadoidea, cicadas, are a superfamily of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha (formerly part of the obsolete "Homoptera"), along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers.

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The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics which shows relations among organisms.

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In biological classification, class (classis) is.

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Insects in the family Elateridae are commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related Cerophytidae and Eucnemidae).

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The Coccinellidae are a family of small beetles, ranging from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.0315 to 0.708 inches).

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Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, sometimes called Blattaria, of which about 30 species out of 4,600Beccaloni, G. W. 2014. Cockroach Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. World Wide Web electronic publication. total are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. Among the best-known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which is about long; the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, about long; the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also about in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis, about. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and, contrary to popular opinion, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

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In biology, coevolution is "the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object".

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Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Corixidae is a family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera that inhabit ponds and slow moving streams, where they swim near the bottom.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (βραχύς / brachys.

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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as "true crickets"), are insects related to grasshoppers.

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A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.

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In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by other organisms.

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Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, Paperback ISBN 0-7591-0133-7 as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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David A. Grimaldi (born September 22, 1957) is an entomologist and Curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

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DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a colorless, crystalline, tasteless and almost odorless organochloride known for its insecticidal properties.

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The name Death's-head Hawkmoth refers to any one of the three moth species of the genus Acherontia (Acherontia atropos, Acherontia styx and Acherontia lachesis).

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The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that expresses the ratio of two values of a physical quantity, often power or intensity.

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Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, such as oil.

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Insects have a wide variety of predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, carnivorous plants, and other arthropods.

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Delicatessen is a term meaning "delicacies" or "fine foods".

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about Mya (million years ago), to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about.

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Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.

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Dictyoptera (from Ancient Greek diktuon "net" + pteron "wing") is an insect superorder that includes two orders of polyneopterous insects - the termites and cockroaches (both order: Blattodea) along with the mantids (order: Mantodea).

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Diploptera is a genus of cockroach, used particularly in molecular research into allatostatins.

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The order Diplura is one of the four groups of hexapods, alongside insects, springtails and Protura.

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Discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC), also called discontinuous ventilation or discontinuous ventilatory cycles, follow one of several patterns of arthropod gas exchange that have been documented primarily in insects; they occur when the insect is at rest.

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A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.

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DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

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Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera and are found throughout the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand.

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Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates.

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An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

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Ectognatha is a clade of Hexapods whose sole class is Insecta.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches.

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The order Embioptera, commonly known as webspinners, are a small group of mostly tropical and subtropical insects, classified under the subclass Pterygota.

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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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Empis livida is a species of dance fly, in the fly family Empididae.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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The Endopterygota, also known as Holometabola, are insects of the subclass Pterygota which go through distinctive larval, pupal, and adult stages.

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The Entognatha are a class of wingless (ametabolous) arthropods, which, together with the insects, makes up the subphylum Hexapoda.

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Entomology (from Greek ἔντομος, moment, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented", hence "insect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.

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Entomophagous parasites (coined from Greek entomon "insect" and Gk. -phagos "eater of") are insects that are parasitic on other insects.

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Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human consumption of insects as food: human insectivory.

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The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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The Epicranium is the medical term for the collection of structures covering the cranium.

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The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of cells in the skin,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005) Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders.

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Epistasis is a phenomenon that consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes' (genetic background).

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Ethnoentomology is the study of the relationship between insects and people.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eumenes is the type genus of the subfamily Eumeninae ("potter wasps") of Vespidae.

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The European hornet (Vespa crabro) is the largest eusocial wasp in Europe and the largest vespine in North America.

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Eurypterids (sea scorpions) are an extinct group of arthropods that are related to arachnids and include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.

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Eusociality (Greek eu: "good/real" + "social"), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including brood care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labour into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them, and to discover how developmental processes evolved.

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Excretion is the process by which waste products of metabolism and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism.

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The Exopterygota, also known as Hemipterodea, are a superorder of insects of the subclass Pterygota in the infraclass Neoptera, in which the young resemble adults but have externally developing wings.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Eyes are the organs of vision.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

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In demography and biology, fecundity is the actual reproductive rate of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.

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Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy) is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

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Fitness (often denoted w in population genetics models) is a central idea in evolutionary and sexual selection theories.

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Fleas are insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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True flies are insects of the order Diptera (from the Greek di.

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A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness.

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The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.

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In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.

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Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.

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In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.

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Gangrene (or gangrenous necrosis) is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply.

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Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface.

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Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.

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In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms.

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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Gerridae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly known as water striders, water bugs, pond skaters, water skippers, or jesus bugs.

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Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals.

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Gilgamesh (Gilgameš, originally Bilgamesh) is the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an Akkadian poem that is considered the first great work of literature, and in earlier Sumerian poems.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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This glossary describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.

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Grasshoppers are insects of the order Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera.

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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with additional heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.

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Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.

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Gryllotalpa brachyptera is a mole cricket, native to Australia (New South Wales and Sydney).

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Halobates or sea skaters are a genus with over 40 species of water striders.

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Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.

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Harpactorinae is a large subfamily of the Reduviidae (assassin bugs).

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A head is the part of an organism, which usually comprises the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste.

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Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the range of levels.

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Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the lepidopteran order, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea.

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Heliconius comprises a colorful and widespread genus of brush-footed butterfly commonly known as the longwings or heliconians. This genus is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World, from South America as far north as the southern United States. The larvae of these butterflies eat Passion flower vines (Passifloraceae). Adults exhibit bright wing color patterns to signal their distastefulness to potential predators. Brought to the forefront of scientific attention by Victorian naturalists, these butterflies exhibit a striking diversity and mimicry, both amongst themselves and with species in other groups of butterflies and moths. The study of Heliconius and other groups of mimetic butterflies allowed the English naturalist Henry Walter Bates, following his return from Brazil in 1859, to lend support to Charles Darwin, who had found similar diversity amongst the Galapagos Finches.

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Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Hemimetabolism or hemimetaboly, also called incomplete metamorphosis and paurometabolism,McGavin, George C. Essential Entomology: An Order-by-Order Introduction.

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The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers and shield bugs.

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A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of invertebrates.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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The subphylum Hexapoda (from the Greek for six legs) constitutes the largest number of species of arthropods and includes the insects as well as three much smaller groups of wingless arthropods: Collembola, Protura, and Diplura (all of these were once considered insects).

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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.

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Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages – as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult.

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Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

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A honey bee (or honeybee), in contrast with the stingless honey bee, is any bee that is a member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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The housefly (also house fly, house-fly or common housefly), Musca domestica, is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha.

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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Hydraulics is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids or fluids.

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The Hymenoptera are the third largest orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants.

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Hypermetamorphosis is a term used in entomology that refers to a class of variants of holometabolism, that is to say, complete insect metamorphosis, but where some larval instars are distinct from each other.

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In biology, the imago is the last stage an insect attains during its metamorphosis, its process of growth and development; it also is called the imaginal stage, the stage in which the insect attains maturity.

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Indigenous Australians are members of groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation.

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Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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Insects (from Latin insectum, a calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections") are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body (head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.

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Insect biodiversity accounts for a large proportion of all biodiversity on the planet, with over 1,000,000 insect species described.

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The insect ecology is the scientific study of how insects, individually or as a community, interact with the surrounding environment or ecosystem.

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Insects are the only group of invertebrates that have evolved wings and flight.

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Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects, particularly those by species of dragonflies, beetles, butterflies and moths.

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Insects exhibit a range of mouthparts, adapted to particular modes of feeding.

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Insect wings are adult outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly.

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An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects.

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robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.

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Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as Integrated Pest Control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebrae (vertebral column), derived from the notochord.

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Isopoda is an order (group) of crustaceans that includes woodlice, sea slaters and their relatives.

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Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow air currents found in the atmosphere of some planets, including Earth.

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A kairomone (a coinage using the Greek καιρός opportune moment, paralleling pheromone "kairomone, n.". OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/241005?redirectedFrom.

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The Kalahari Desert (in Afrikaans: Kalahari-woestyn) is a large semi-arid sandy savannah in:southern Africa extending, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia (previously South West Africa), and South Africa.

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Lacquer is a clear or coloured wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.

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The large blue (Phengaris arion, also known as Maculinea arion and Glaucopsyche arion) is species of butterfly in the Lycaenidae family.

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A larva (plural larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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The family Chrysomelidae, commonly known as leaf beetles, includes over 35,000 species in more than 2,500 genera, making it one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.

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The Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies (both called lepidopterans).

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Lepidotrichidae is a family of basal insects belonging to the order Thysanura.

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationship.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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The Limenitidinae ares a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives.

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Invertebrates are very common vectors of disease.

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Prehistoric insects are various groups of insects that lived before recorded history.

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Locusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae.

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The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.

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Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera; three of which are classified as human disease agents.

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The lung is the essential respiratory organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails.

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Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 5,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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The Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa), also known as the hissing cockroach or simply hisser, is one of the largest species of cockroach, reaching at maturity.

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A maggot is the larva of a fly (order Diptera); it is applied in particular to the larvae of Brachyceran flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies, rather than larvae of the Nematocera, such as mosquitoes and Crane flies.

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Maggot therapy (also known as maggot debridement therapy (MDT), larval therapy, larva therapy, larvae therapy, biodebridement or biosurgery) is a type of biotherapy involving the introduction of live, disinfected maggots (fly larvae) into the non-healing skin and soft tissue wound(s) of a human or animal for the purpose of cleaning out the necrotic (dead) tissue within a wound (debridement) and disinfection.

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Malacostraca is the largest of the six classes of crustaceans, containing about 40,000 living species, divided among 16 orders.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganism) belonging to the genus Plasmodium.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Mallophaga is a suborder of lice, known as chewing lice, biting lice or bird lice, containing more than 3000 species.

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The Malpighian tubule system is a type of excretory and osmoregulatory system found in some insects, myriapods, arachnids, and tardigrades.

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Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth, and the most anterior of the three pairs of oral appendages (the labrum is more anterior, but is a single fused structure).

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Mantodea is an order of insects that contains over 2,400 species and about 430 genera of mantises in 15 families, by far the largest family being Mantidae ("mantids").

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The Marangoni effect (also called the Gibbs–Marangoni effect) is the mass transfer along an interface between two fluids due to surface tension gradient.

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Marvin Harris (August 18, 1927 – October 25, 2001) was an American anthropologist.

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Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

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Mayflies or shadflies are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.

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Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon in which two or more poisonous species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals.

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Mecoptera (from the Greek: meco-.

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Megaloptera is an order of insects.

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Meganeura is a genus of extinct insects from the Carboniferous period (approximately 300 million years ago), which resembled and are related to the present-day dragonflies.

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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs.

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Michael S. Engel, FLS (born September 24, 1971) is an American paleontologist and entomologist, notable for contributions to insect evolutionary biology and classification.

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Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Milkweed butterflies are a subfamily, Danainae, in the family Nymphalidae, or brush-footed butterflies.

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Millipedes are arthropods in the class Diplopoda characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments.

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In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one species to another that protects one or both.

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A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (Danaus plexippus) is a milkweed butterfly (subfamily Danainae) in the family Nymphalidae.

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In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar; British English: monosaccharaides) are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Monura is an extinct order of wingless insects in the subclass Apterygota.

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Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies which compose the family Culicidae.

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Moths are a group of insects related to butterflies belonging to the order Lepidoptera.

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In biology, moulting or molting (see spelling differences), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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In biological anatomy, commonly referred to as the mouth, under formal names such as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Mycetophilidae is a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats.

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Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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Myrmecophily (literally "ant-love") is the term applied to positive interspecies associations between ants and a variety of other organisms such as plants, other arthropods, and fungi.

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The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof.

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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Neontology is the part of biology which – in contrast to paleontology – deals with now living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neoptera is a classification group that includes most part of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens.

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Neoteny, also called juvenilization,Montagu, A. (1989).

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The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body.

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The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.

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NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 160 high-resolution S-band Doppler weather radars operated by the National Weather Service (NWS), an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the United States Department of Commerce, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within the Department of Transportation, and the U.S. Air Force within the Department of Defense.

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Nezara viridula, commonly known as the southern green stink bug (USA) or green vegetable bug (Australia and New Zealand), is a plant-feeding stink bug.

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Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception) is the encoding and processing of harmful stimuli in the nervous system, and, therefore, the ability of a body to sense potential harm.

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A nociceptor is a sensory neuron (nerve cell) that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain.

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The insect order Notoptera, a group first proposed in 1915, has been largely unused since its original conception, but in the most recent classification of the lineage of insects that includes the Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea, the name was resurrected and redefined so as to give a single order that includes both the living and fossil representatives of the lineage.

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Notum, (plural nota), is a word used to denote an anatomical area in two different groups of invertebrate animals.

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Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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Numeracy is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis (hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage.

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Odonata is an order of carnivorous insects, encompassing dragonflies (Anisoptera/Epiprocta) and damselflies (Zygoptera).

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Old Cairo (Egyptian Arabic: Masr el Qadīma) is a part of Cairo, Egypt, that which pre-date the Fatimid city of al-Qahira, founded in 969 CE.

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An ootheca (pl. oothecae) is a type of egg mass made by any member of a variety of species (usually insects or mollusks).

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The Emperor gum moth (Opodiphthera eucalypti) is a species of moth in the family Saturniidae, that is native to Australia.

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An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.

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In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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The Scarce Vapourer (Orgyia recens) is a species of moth of the Lymantriidae family.

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The Orthoptera order of insects includes the grasshoppers, crickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets, katydids, weta, lubber, Acrida, and locusts.

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An ovariole is one of the tubes of which the ovaries of most insects are composed.

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The ovary (From ovarium, literally "egg" or "nut") is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pain in animals is a contentious issue.

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Pain in invertebrates is a contentious issue.

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The name Palaeoptera has been traditionally applied to those ancestral groups of winged insects (most of them extinct) that lacked the ability to fold the wings back over the abdomen as characterizes the Neoptera.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (or; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning from roughly (ICS, 2004).

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Pancrustacea is a clade, comprising all crustaceans and hexapods.

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Paraneoptera is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.

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In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.

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In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.

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A parasitoid is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life history attached to or within a single host organism in a relationship that is in essence parasitic; unlike a true parasite, however, it ultimately sterilises or kills, and sometimes consumes, the host.

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Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.

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Pauropods are small, pale, centipede-like arthropods.

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The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.

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The Pentatomoidea comprise a superfamily of insects in the Heteroptera suborder of the Hemiptera order and, as such, share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts.

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In developmental biology, peramorphosis is a phylogenetic change in which individuals of a species mature past adulthood and take on hitherto unseen traits.

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Magicicada is the genus of the 13-year and 17-year periodical cicadas of eastern North America.

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Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which extends from to million years ago.

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The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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A pest is "a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns (as agriculture or livestock production)"; alternative meanings include organisms that cause nuisance and epidemic disease associated with high mortality (specifically: plague).

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across the species.

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The Phasmatodea (sometimes called Phasmida or Phasmatoptera) are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (in Europe and Australasia), stick-bugs or walking sticks (in the United States and Canada), phasmids, ghost insects and leaf insects (generally the family Phylliidae).

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The beetle family Phengodidae is known also as glowworm beetles, whose larvae are known as glowworms.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Philemon Holland (1552 – 9 February 1637) was an English schoolmaster, physician, and translator.

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Philopatry is the “tendency of an organism to stay in, or return to, its home area”.

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The rover fireflies (Photinus) are a genus of fireflies (family Lampyridae).

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Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla)The term was coined by Haeckel from Greek φῦλον phylon, "race, stock," related to φυλή phyle, "tribe, clan." is a taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class.

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A piscivore is a carnivorous animal which eats primarily fish.

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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.

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The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies.

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The pleuron (pl. pleura, from Greek side, rib) is a lateral sclerite of thoracic segment of an insect between the tergum and the sternum.

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Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

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Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell.

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PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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Polarization (also polarisation) is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation.

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Polistes versicolor is a subtropical social wasp within Polistes, the most common genus of the paper wasp.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollination is a process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the plant, thereby enabling fertilization and reproduction.

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Pollination management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crop's pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions.

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Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.

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The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the twentieth century, and continuing into the present day.

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Polyembryony is the phenomenon of two or more embryos developing from a single fertilized egg (in humans, identical twins).

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Polymorphism in biology is said to occur when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species—in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph.

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A polyphyletic (Greek for "of many races") group is characterized by one or more homoplasies: phenotypes which have converged or reverted so as to appear to be the same but which have not been inherited from common ancestors.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.

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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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The process of science is the scientific method.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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The prothorax is the foremost of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the first pair of legs.

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The Protura, or proturans, and sometimes nicknamed coneheads, are very small (Some evidence indicates the Protura are basal to all other hexapods, although not all researchers consider them Hexapoda, rendering the monophyly of Hexapoda unsettled. Uniquely among hexapods, proturans show anamorphic development, whereby body segments are added during moults. Szeptycki (2007) lists a total of 731 described species worldwide, in seven families, nearly 300 of which are contained in a single genus, Eosentomon.

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The proventriculus is part of the digestive system of birds, invertebrates and insects.

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Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice.

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Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice, barklice or barkflies.

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The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects.

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A pupa (Latin pupa for doll, pl: pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation.

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Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.

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Remipedia is a class of blind crustaceans found in coastal aquifers which contain saline groundwater, with populations identified in almost every ocean basin so far explored, including in Australia, the Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

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In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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An insect's respiratory system is the biological system with which it introduces respiratory gases to its interior and performs gas exchange.

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The orthopteran family Rhaphidophoridae includes the cave weta, cave crickets, camelback crickets, camel crickets, spider crickets (sometimes shortened to "criders", or "land shrimp" or sprickets") and sand treaders, of the suborder Ensifera.

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Rhinotia hemistictus is a species of beetle in the genus Rhinotia of the family Belidae, commonly called the long nosed weevil.

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The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).

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Rhyniognatha hirsti is the world’s oldest known insect.

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A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

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The rove beetles are a family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed.

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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands, glands with ducts, that produce saliva.

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The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.

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Scavenger is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Schizophora is a section of true flies containing 78 families, which are collectively referred to as muscoids, althoughtechnicallythe term "muscoid" should be limited to flies in the superfamily Muscoidea; this is an example of informal, historical usage persisting in the vernacular.

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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.

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Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.

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Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida.

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Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.

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The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) (sometimes called the Pacific Community) is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories in the Pacific Ocean and their metropolitan powers.

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Segmentation in biology refers to the division of some animal and plant body plans into a series of repetitive segments.

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A semiochemical (from Greek semeon meaning "signal") is a generic term used for a chemical substance or mixture that carries a message for purpose of communication.

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of two layers of epithelial cells (as membranes), which secrete serous fluid.

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A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species.

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Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.

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The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period.

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Lepisma saccharina, commonly known as a silverfish or fishmoth, is a small, wingless insect in the order Thysanura.

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A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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A sister group or sister taxon is a systematic term from cladistics denoting the closest relatives of a given unit in a phylogenetic tree.

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Snakeflies are a group of insects comprising the order Raphidioptera, consisting of about 210 extant species.

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The southern hawker or blue hawker (Aeshna cyanea) is a long species of hawker dragonfly.The species is one of the most common and most widespread dragonflies in Europe.

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In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.

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A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell, originating in a seminiferous tubule and dividing into two primary spermatocytes (a kind of germ cell) in the production of spermatozoa.

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The Sphingidae are a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths, and hornworms; it includes about 1,450 species.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.

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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).

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Stenus is a genus of semiaquatic rove beetles in the subfamily Steninae.

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The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestive system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in many animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs.

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The Strepsiptera (translation: twisted wing, giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species.

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Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts.

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The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of insects is part of the central nervous system (CNS).

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Sucking lice (Anoplura, formerly known as Siphunculata) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice.

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A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms.

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In anatomy, a suture is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism, with or without significant overlap of the elements.

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Symphylans, also known as garden centipedes or pseudocentipedes, are soil-dwelling arthropods of the class Symphyla in the subphylum Myriapoda.

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Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment.

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This article is about the biology term.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.

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Terrain, or land relief, is the vertical and horizontal dimension of land surface.

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The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" of virility, plural testes) is the male gonad in animals.

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The thorax or chest (θώραξ (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"), thorax is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.

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The thorax is the midsection (tagma) of the insect body.

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Thrips (Order Thysanoptera) are minute, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)).

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Thysania agrippina is a species of moth in the Erebidae family.

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Thysanura is the now deprecated name of an order of the class insecta.

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Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.

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Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.

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The trachea, colloquially called windpipe, is a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the condition of possessing three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different cone types.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Tripedalism (from the Latin tri.

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Tufts University is a private research university located in Medford/Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.

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Ultrasounds are sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (U of I, University of Illinois, UIUC, or simply Illinois) is a public research-intensive university in the U.S. state of Illinois.

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The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.

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Arrernte or Aranda, or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.

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Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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The ventral nerve cord makes up the nervous system of some phyla of the invertebrates, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) refers to the upper surface of the head.

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Vespula germanica (European wasp, German wasp, or German yellowjacket) is a species of wasp found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, native to Europe, Northern Africa, and temperate Asia.

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Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.

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The viceroy (Limenitis archippus) is a North American butterfly that ranges through most of the contiguous United States as well as parts of Canada and Mexico.

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Vivipary has two different meanings.

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In fluid dynamics, a vortex is a region in a fluid medium in which the flow is mostly rotating around an axis line, the vortical flow that occurs either on a straight-axis or a curved-axis.

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A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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A water beetle is a generalized name for any beetle that is adapted to living in water at any point in its life cycle.

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Waxes are a class of chemical compounds that are malleable near ambient temperatures.

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Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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A weevil is a type of beetle from the Curculionoidea superfamily.

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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).

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A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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The Xiphosura are an order of marine chelicerates that includes a large number of extinct lineages and only four extant species in the family Limulidae, which include the horseshoe crabs.

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Yellow fever, known historically as yellow jack, yellow plague, or bronze john, is an acute viral disease.

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The insect order Zoraptera contains a single family, the Zorotypidae, which in turn contains one extant genus with 39 species, Zorotypus as well as 9 extinct species.

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The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect

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