247 relations: Acephate, Acetamiprid, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Adipose tissue, Aerosol, Agonist, Agriculture, Aldicarb, Aldrin, Allethrins, Allyl isothiocyanate, Anabasine, Anethole, Annonin, Aphid, Arsenate, Arsenic, Asimina, Azadirachta indica, Azadirachtin, Azinphos-methyl, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Beauveria bassiana, Bee, Beehive, Bendiocarb, Bensulide, Benzoylurea, Bifenthrin, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, Biopesticide, Biosynthesis, Borate, Borax, Boric acid, Caffeine, Calcium channel, Carapa, Carbamate, Carbaryl, Carbofuran, Caterpillar, Chemical warfare, Chitin, Chlorantraniliprole, Chlordane, Chlorethoxyfos, ..., Chlorpyrifos, Cholinesterase, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamon leaf oil, Cinnamyl acetate, Cistern, Citral, Clothianidin, Cockroach, Codling moth, Colony collapse disorder, Colorado potato beetle, Copper, Crop yield, Cyantraniliprole, Cydia pomonella granulosis virus, Cyfluthrin, Cyhalothrin, Cypermethrin, Cyromazine, DDT, Deguelin, Deltamethrin, Derris, Diatomaceous earth, Diazinon, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, Dichlorvos, Dicrotophos, Dieldrin, Diflubenzuron, Dimethoate, Disulfoton, Drosophila, Ecdysone, Egg, Endosulfan, Endrin, Entomopathogenic fungus, Environmentally friendly, Enzyme, Essential oil, Ethoprop, Etofenprox, Eugenol, Fenamiphos, Fenitrothion, Fenobucarb, Fenoxycarb, Fenthion, Fenvalerate, Flacourtiaceae, Flea, Flubendiamide, Flufenoxuron, Fluorine, Fly, Fogger, Food chain, Forestry, Gene, Gene silencing, Genetic engineering, Genetically engineered potato, Glucosinolate, Heptachlor, Herbivore, Hexachlorobenzene, Honey bee, Hormone, Horseradish, Hydroprene, Imidacloprid, Index of pesticide articles, Industry, Insect, Insect growth regulator, Integrated pest management, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Juvenile hormone, Kepone, Larva, Larvicide, Lead, Lecanicillium lecanii, Lepidoptera, Linalool, Lindane, List of endangered arthropods, Louse, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Maize, Malaria, Malathion, Maltodextrin, Medicine, Metarhizium anisopliae, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Methomyl, Methoprene, Methoxychlor, Methyl salicylate, Metrifonate, Mevinphos, Mirex, Mode of action, Monocrotophos, Mosquito, Myristicin, Myrosinase, Naled, Neem oil, Nematode, Neonicotinoid, Neuron, Nicotine, Nithiazine, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus, Ohwia caudata, Oleoresin, Omethoate, Oregano, Organic compound, Organism, Organochloride, Organophosphate, Oxydemeton-methyl, Parathion, Parathion methyl, Pathogen, Paul Hermann Müller, Peganum harmala, Pentachlorophenol, Peregrine falcon, Permethrin, Persistent organic pollutant, Pesticide application, Pesticide resistance, Pesticide toxicity to bees, Phenothrin, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosmet, Phoxim, Pinophyta, Pirimiphos-methyl, Planthopper, Pollination, Pollinator decline, Polyketide, Prallethrin, Profenofos, Protein, Pyrethrin, Pyrethroid, Pyrethrum, Quassia, Rachel Carson, Resmethrin, RNA, RNA interference, Rosin, Rotenone, Ryanodine, Ryanoid, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, Sarin, Silent Spring, Sodium channel, Soil, Soman, Spinosad, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Stylet (anatomy), Sulfur, Tabun (nerve agent), Tebufenozide, Tebupirimfos, Terbufos, Tetrachlorvinphos, Tetramethrin, Tetranortriterpenoid, Thiacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Thymol, Toxaphene, Tralomethrin, Transfluthrin, Transgene, Varroa destructor, Virus, VX (nerve agent), Western honey bee, Whitefly, World Health Organization. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
Acephate is an organophosphate foliar insecticide of moderate persistence with residual systemic activity of about 10–15 days at the recommended use rate.
Acetamiprid is an organic compound with the chemical formula C10H11ClN4.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 22.214.171.124) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aldicarb is a carbamate insecticide which is the active substance in the pesticide Temik.
Aldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that was widely used until the 1990s, when it was banned in most countries.
The allethrins are a group of related synthetic compounds used in insecticides.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2CHCH2NCS.
Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum).
Anethole (anise camphor) is an organic compound that is widely used as a flavoring substance.
Annonins are a group of chemical compounds classified as acetogenins.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
The arsenate ion is.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asimina is a genus of small trees or shrubs described as a genus in 1763.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Azadirachtin, a chemical compound belonging to the limonoid group, is a secondary metabolite present in neem seeds.
Azinphos-methyl (Guthion) (also spelled azinophos-methyl) is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide manufactured by Bayer CropScience, Gowan Co., and Makhteshim Agan.
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
Bacillus thuringiensis serotype israelensis (Bti) is a group of bacteria used as biological control agents for larvae stages of certain dipterans.
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
A beehive is an enclosed structure man-made in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young.
Bendiocarb is an acutely toxic carbamate insecticide used in public health and agriculture and is effective against a wide range of nuisance and disease vector insects.
Bensulide is a selective organophosphate herbicide.
Benzoylureas are chemical derivatives of ''N''-benzoyl-''N′''-phenylurea (benzoylurea).
Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used primarily against the red imported fire ant by influencing its nervous system. It has a high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Although it is listed as a restricted use chemical in the United States, it is allowed to be sold for daily use, provided the product sold has a low concentration of bifenthrin. The chemical was discovered and developed by FMC Corporation. Products containing bifenthrin include Transport, Talstar, Maxxthor, Capture, Brigade, Bifenthrine, Ortho Home Defense Max, Bifen XTS, Bifen IT, Bifen L/P, Torant, Zipak, Scotts LawnPro Step 3, Wisdom TC Flowable, FMC 54800, Allectus, Ortho Max Pro and OMS3024 and mega wash from green planet., Toxipedia.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of tolerant organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain.
Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Carapa is a genus of flowering plants in the mahogany family, Meliaceae.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide.
Carbofuran is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chlorantraniliprole (Rynaxpyr) is an insecticide of the ryanoid class.
Chlordane is a chemical compound and also part of a similarly named pesticide mixture resulting from synthesis (main components- heptachlor, chlordane, and nonachlor).
Chlorethoxyfos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1,2,2,2-tetrachloroethyl)phosphorothioate) is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Cinnamaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH.
Cinnamon leaf oil is obtained by steam distillation of cinnamon leaves and the oil yield ranges between 0.5% and 1.8%.
Cinnamyl acetate (3-phenylprop-2-enyl acetate) is a chemical compound of the cinnamyl ester family, in which the variable R group is substituted by a methyl group.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either a pair, or a mixture of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O.
Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a member of the Lepidopteran family Tortricidae.
Colony collapse disorder (CCD) is the phenomenon that occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind a queen, plenty of food and a few nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees.
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
Cyantraniliprole is an insecticide of the ryanoid class.
Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV) is a granulovirus belonging to the family Baculoviridae.
Cyfluthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide and common household pesticide.
Cyhalothrin is an organic compound that is used as a pesticide.
Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as in consumer products for domestic purposes.
Cyromazine is a triazine insect growth regulator used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Deguelin is a derivative of rotenone.
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid ester insecticide.
Derris is genus of leguminous plants found in Southeast Asia and the southwest Pacific islands, including New Guinea.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
Diazinon (IUPAC name: O,O-Diethyl O- phosphorothioate, INN - Dimpylate), a colorless to dark brown liquid, is a thiophosphoric acid ester developed in 1952 by Ciba-Geigy, a Swiss chemical company (later Novartis and then Syngenta).
Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin.
Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (commonly abbreviated as an DDVP) is an organophosphate, widely used as an insecticide to control household pests, in public health, and protecting stored product from insects.
Dicrotophos is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide.
Dieldrin is an organochloride originally produced in 1948 by J. Hyman & Co, Denver, as an insecticide.
Diflubenzuron is an insecticide of the benzoylurea class.
Dimethoate is a widely used organophosphate insecticide and acaricide.
Disulfoton is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the prothoracic glands.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally.
Endrin is an organochloride with the chemical formula C12H8Cl6O that was first produced in 1950 by Shell and Velsicol Chemical Corporation.
An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Ethoprop is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide.
Etofenprox is a pyrethroid derivative which is used as an insecticide.
Eugenol is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol.
Fenamiphos is an organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide.
Fenitrothion (IUPAC name: O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) is a phosphorothioate (organophosphate) insecticide; cheap and widely used worldwide.
Fenobucarb is a carbamate insecticide.
Fenoxycarb is a carbamate insect growth regulator.
Fenthion is an organothiophosphate insecticide, avicide, and acaricide.
Fenvalerate is an insecticide.
Flacourtiaceae is a defunct family of flowering plants whose former members have been scattered to various families, mostly to Achariaceae and Salicaceae.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Flubendiamide is a pesticide in of the ryanoid class which acts at receptors in insect muscles.
Flufenoxuron is an insecticide that belongs to the benzoylurea group, which also includes diflubenzuron, triflumuron, and lufenuron.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
A fogger is any device that creates a fog, typically containing an insecticide for killing insects and other arthropods.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
A genetically engineered potato is a potato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering.
The glucosinolates are natural components of many pungent plants such as mustard, cabbage, and horseradish.
Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hexachlorobenzene, or perchlorobenzene, is an organochloride with the molecular formula C6Cl6.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, and cabbage).
Hydroprene is an insect growth regulator used as an insecticide.
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.
This is an index of articles relating to pesticides.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An insect growth regulator (IGR) is a substance (chemical) that inhibits the life cycle of an insect.
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology.
Kepone, also known as chlordecone, is an organochlorine compound and a colourless solid.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
A larvicide (alternatively larvacide) is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lecanicillium lecanii is now an approved name of an entomopathogenic fungus species, that was previously widely known as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas), but is now understood to be an anamorphic form in the Cordyceps group of genera in the Clavicipitaceae. Isolates formerly classified as V. lecanii could be L. attenuatum, L. lecanii, L. longisporum, L. muscarium or L. nodulosum. For example, several recent papers, such as Kouvelis et al. who carried out mitochondrial DNA studies, refer to the name L. muscarium. L. lecanii itself appears primarily to be a pathogen of soft scale insects (Coccidae). The Index Fungorum, referring to L. lecanii, lists the following synonymy.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.
As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 616 endangered arthropod species.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lysinibacillus sphaericus (reclassified - previously known as Bacillus sphaericus) is a Gram-positive, mesophilic, rod-shaped bacterium commonly found on soil.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Metarhizium anisopliae, formerly known as Entomophthora anisopliae (basionym), is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and causes disease in various insects by acting as a parasitoid.
Methamidophos, trade name "Monitor," is an organophosphate insecticide.
Methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide; its use is banned in the European Union and USA.
Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide introduced in 1966.
Methoprene is a juvenile hormone (JH) analog which acts as a growth regulator when used as an insecticide.
Methoxychlor was a synthetic organochlorine used as an insecticide.
Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen or wintergreen oil) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(OH)(CO2CH3).
Metrifonate (INN) or trichlorfon (USAN) is an irreversible organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
Mevinphos is an organophosphate insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to control insects in a wide range of crops.
Mirex is an organochloride that was commercialized as an insecticide and later banned because of its impact on the environment.
A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance.
Monocrotophos is an organophosphate insecticide.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Myristicin is a phenylpropene, a natural organic compound present in small amounts in the essential oil of nutmeg and to a lesser extent in other spices such as parsley and dill.
Myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, sinigrinase, and sinigrase) is a family of enzymes involved in plant defense against herbivores.
Naled (Dibrom) is an organophosphate insecticide.
Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem (Azadirachta indica), an evergreen tree which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nithiazine is a nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), part of the family of baculoviruses, is a virus affecting insects, predominantly moths and butterflies.
Ohwia caudata, formerly placed in the genus Desmodium (as D. caudatum), is a deciduous nitrogen fixing plant in the Fabaceae family.
Oleoresins are semi-solid extracts composed of a resin in solution in an essential and/or fatty oil, obtained by evaporation of the solvent(s) used for their production.
Omethoate (C5H12NO4PS) is a systemic organophosphorous insecticide and acaricide available as a soluble concentrate.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Oxydemeton-methyl is an organothiophosphate insecticide.
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion and locally known as "Folidol", is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide.
Parathion methyl, or methyl parathion, is an organophosphate pesticide and insecticide, possessing a organothiophosphate group.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Paul Hermann Müller also known as Pauly Mueller (12 January 1899 – 13 October 1965) was a Swiss chemist who received the 1948 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of insecticidal qualities and use of DDT in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.
Peganum harmala, commonly called esfand, wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, harmel, or aspand (among other similar pronunciations and spellings), is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
Permethrin, sold under the brand name Nix among others, is a medication and insecticide.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Pesticide application refers to the practical way in which pesticides, (including herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, or nematode control agents) are delivered to their biological targets (e.g. pest organism, crop or other plant).
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
Pesticides vary in their effects on bees.
Phenothrin, also called sumithrin and d-phenothrin, is a synthetic pyrethroid that kills adult fleas and ticks.
Phorate is an organophosphate used as an insecticide and acaricide.
Phosalone is an organophosphate chemical commonly used as an insecticide and acaricide.
Phosmet is a phthalimide-derived, non-systemic, organophosphate insecticide used on plants and animals.
Phoxim is an organophosphate insecticide that is produced by the Bayer corporation.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pirimiphos-methyl, marketed as Actellic, and Sybol is a phosphorothioate used as an insecticide.
A planthopper is any insect in the infraorder Fulgoromorpha, exceeding 12,500 described species worldwide.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
The term pollinator decline refers to the reduction in abundance of insect and other animal pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide beginning at the end of the 20th century, and continuing into the present.
Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.
Prallethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide.
Profenofos is an organophosphate insecticide.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The pyrethrins are a class of organic compounds normally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium that have potent insecticidal activity by targeting the nervous systems of insects.
A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).
Pyrethrum was a genus of several Old World plants now classified as Chrysanthemum or Tanacetum (e.g., C. coccineum) which are cultivated as ornamentals for their showy flower heads.
Quassia is a flora genus in the family Simaroubaceae.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Resmethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide with many uses, including control of the adult mosquito population.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components.
Rotenone is an odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.
Ryanodine is a poisonous diterpenoid found in the South American plant Ryania speciosa (Salicaceae).
Ryanoids are a class of insecticides which share the same mechanism of action as the alkaloid ryanodine.
Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a species of bacteria first isolated from a sugar mill rum still.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soman (or GD, EA 1210, Zoman, PFMP, systematic name: O-Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate), is an extremely toxic chemical substance.
Spinosad is an insecticide based on chemical compounds found in the bacterial species Saccharopolyspora spinosa.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
A stylet is a hard, sharp, anatomical structure found in some invertebrates.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Tabun or GA is an extremely toxic chemical substance.
Tebufenozide is an insecticide that acts as a molting hormone.
Tebupirimfos, also known as phostebupirim, is an organothiophosphate insecticide.
Terbufos is a chemical compound used in insecticides and nematicides.
Tetrachlorvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill fleas and ticks.
Tetramethrin is a potent synthetic insecticide in the pyrethroid family.
The tetranortriterpenoid class of chemical compounds most noted for the chemical azadirachtin, extracted from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) that displays insecticidal properties.
Thiacloprid is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid class.
Thiamethoxam is a systemic insecticide in the class of neonicotinoids.
Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from ''Thymus vulgaris'' (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties.
Toxaphene was an insecticide used primarily for cotton in the southern United States during the late 1960s and 1970s.
Tralomethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide.
Transfluthrin is a fast-acting pyrethroid insecticide with low persistency.
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
Varroa destructor (Varroa mite) is an external parasitic mite that attacks the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate.
The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most common of the 7–12 species of honey bee worldwide.
Whiteflies are small Hemipterans that typically feed on the undersides of plant leaves.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.