192 relations: Actigraphy, Acute (medicine), Addiction, Adrenergic antagonist, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Agomelatine, Agonist, Al Herpin, Alcohol, Alprazolam, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, Amitriptyline, Amphetamine, Analgesic, Ancient Greece, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Arginine, Aripiprazole, Athens insomnia scale, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Autism spectrum, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Bipolar disorder, Brain damage, Caffeine, Cannabis (drug), Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiovascular disease, Catecholamine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chamomile, Choosing Wisely, Chronic condition, Chronic pain, Circadian rhythm, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Clonazepam, Cocaine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, ..., Cortisol, Cytokine, Dehydration, Delayed sleep phase disorder, Delta sleep-inducing peptide, Dementia, Depressant, Depression (mood), Diazepam, Diphenhydramine, Diplopia, Disease, Doxepin, Doxylamine, Drug tolerance, DSM-5, Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use, Electroencephalography, Eszopiclone, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Exercise, Fatal insomnia, Fatigue, Fear, GABAA receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Generalized anxiety disorder, Genome-wide association study, Glutamine, Hallucination, Health effects from noise, Heart failure, Heartburn, Herb, Heritability, Hops, Hormone, Human sexual activity, Hydrocodone, Hyperthyroidism, Hypnotic, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Injury, International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Irritability, Jet lag, Laboratoires Servier, Lavandula, Long-term effects of alcohol consumption, Longevity, Lorazepam, Major depressive disorder, Mass media, MDMA, Medical history, Medication, MEIS1, Melatonin, Menopause, Menstruation, Mental disorder, Metacognition, Methylphenidate, Middle-of-the-night insomnia, Mirtazapine, Modafinil, Morphine, Mortality rate, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Nasal septum deviation, National Center for Health Statistics, Neurofeedback, Neurology, Nicotine, Nominalization, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Nonbenzodiazepine, Novartis, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Opioid, Opioid use disorder, Over-the-counter drug, Oxycodone, Pain, Paradoxical intention, Passiflora, Periodic limb movement disorder, Perspiration, Pharynx, Physical dependence, Polysomnography, Polyuria, Positron emission tomography, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prion, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychological stress, Public health, Ramelteon, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rebound effect, Relaxation technique, Restless legs syndrome, Rheumatoid arthritis, S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine, Schizophrenia, Sedation, Sedative, Sex steroid, Shift work, Sleep, Sleep apnea, Sleep deprivation, Sleep diary, Sleep disorder, Sleep hygiene, Sleep medicine, Sleep onset, Sleep onset latency, Sleep state misperception, Sleep study, Slow-wave sleep, Statistical significance, Stimulant, Stimulus control, Stress (biology), Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Suffix, Suvorexant, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Traffic collision, Traumatic brain injury, Trazodone, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Valerian (herb), Withania somnifera, Zaleplon, Zolpidem, Zopiclone. Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
Actigraphy is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An adrenergic antagonist is a drug that inhibits the function of adrenergic receptors.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Al Herpin (1862–January 3, 1947) was an American known as the "Man Who Never Slept".
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is a professional community of physicians specializing in endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism committed to enhancing the ability of its members to provide the highest quality of patient care.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
In medicine, insomnia is widely measured using the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a technique for treating insomnia without (or alongside) medications.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), more often known as delayed sleep phase syndrome and also as delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, is a chronic dysregulation of a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock), compared to those of the general population and societal norms.
Delta sleep-inducing peptide, abbreviated DSIP, is a neuropeptide that when infused into the mesodiencephalic ventricle of recipient rabbits induces spindle and delta EEG activity and reduced motor activities.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).
Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
The effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include drug dependence as well as the possibility of adverse effects on cognitive function, physical health, and mental health.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Fatal insomnia is an extremely rare sleep disorder which is typically inherited and results in death within a few months to a few years after onset.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure, to consistent elevated sound levels.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) is "a primary diagnostic, epidemiological and coding resource for clinicians and researchers in the field of sleep and sleep medicine".
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Jet lag is a physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian rhythms caused by rapid long-distance trans-meridian (east–west or west–east) travel.
Servier Laboratories (French: Laboratoires Servier, often abbreviated to Servier) is a privately owned French pharmaceutical company that specialises in medication for cardiological and rheumatological conditions, as well as for diabetes and clinical depression.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
The long-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular diseaseAssociation of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Homeobox protein Meis1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEIS1 gene.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Middle-of-the-night insomnia (MOTN) is characterized by having difficulty returning to sleep after waking up during the night or very early in the morning.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) is a sleep disorder diagnostic tool.
Nasal septum deviation or deviated nasal septum (DNS) is a physical disorder of the nose, involving a displacement of the nasal septum.
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System which provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.
Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy or neurobiofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of brain activity—most commonly electroencephalography (EEG), to teach self-regulation of brain function.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
In linguistics, nominalization or nominalisation is the use of a word which is not a noun (e.g., a verb, an adjective or an adverb) as a noun, or as the head of a noun phrase, with or without morphological transformation.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
In psychotherapy, paradoxical intention is the deliberate practice of a neurotic habit or thought, undertaken to identify and remove it.
Passiflora, known also as the passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 550 species of flowering plants, the type genus of the family Passifloraceae.
Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), or periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), previously known as nocturnal myoclonus, is a sleep disorder where the patient moves limb involuntarily during sleep, and has symptoms or problems related to the movement.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem among others, is a sleep agent that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), instead of binding to GABAA receptors, such as with drugs like zolpidem.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.
A relaxation technique (also known as relaxation training) is any method, process, procedure, or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of pain, anxiety, stress or anger.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) is an amino acid derivative used in several metabolic pathways in most organisms.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
A sleep diary is a record of an individual's sleeping and waking times with related information, usually over a period of several weeks.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sleep hygiene is the recommended behavioral and environmental practice that is intended to promote better quality sleep.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
Sleep onset is the transition from wakefulness into sleep.
In sleep science, sleep onset latency (SOL) is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep, normally to the lightest of the non-REM sleep stages.
Sleep state misperception (SSM) is a term in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) most commonly used for people who mistakenly perceive their sleep as wakefulness,Minecan, Daniela, and Antonio Culebras.
Sleep studies are tests that record the body activity during sleep.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In behavioral psychology, stimulus control is a phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Suvorexant, sold under the trade name Belsomra, is a medication for the treatment of insomnia.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Withania somnifera, known commonly as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, or winter cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family.
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
--> Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
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